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PāRAMITā ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Pali
Pali
) or PāRAMī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali
Pali
literature makes far greater reference to pāramī.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism

* 2.1 Canonical sources * 2.2 Historicity * 2.3 Traditional practice

* 3 Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4 Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5 See also

* 6 References

* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Works cited

* 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Donald S. Lopez, Jr. describes the etymology of the term:

The term pāramitā, commonly translated as "perfection," has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest", "most distant", and hence "chief", "primary", "most excellent". Hence, the substantive can be rendered "excellence" or "perfection". This reading is supported by the Madhyāntavibhāga (V.4), where the twelve excellences (parama) are associated with the ten perfections (pāramitā).

A more creative yet widely reported etymology divides pāramitā into pāra and mita, with pāra meaning "beyond", "the further bank, shore or boundary," and mita, meaning "that which has arrived," or ita meaning "that which goes." Pāramitā, then means "that which has gone beyond," "that which goes beyond," or "transcendent." This reading is reflected in the Tibetan translation pha rol tu phyin pa ("gone to the other side"). A bodhisattva benefitting sentient beings. Palm-leaf manuscript
Palm-leaf manuscript
. Nalanda
Nalanda
, Bihar
Bihar
, India

THERAVāDA BUDDHISM

Theravada
Theravada
teachings on the pāramīs can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries .

CANONICAL SOURCES

In the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
, the Buddhavaṃsa lists the ten perfections (dasa pāramiyo) as:

* Dāna
Dāna
pāramī : generosity, giving of oneself * Sīla pāramī : virtue, morality, proper conduct * Nekkhamma pāramī : renunciation * Paññā pāramī : transcendental wisdom, insight * Viriya pāramī : energy, diligence, vigour, effort * Khanti pāramī : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance * Sacca pāramī : truthfulness, honesty * Adhiṭṭhāna pāramī : determination, resolution * Mettā
Mettā
pāramī : loving-kindness * Upekkhā pāramī : equanimity, serenity

Two of the above virtues, mettā and upekkhā, also are brahmavihāras .

HISTORICITY

The Theravādin teachings on the pāramīs can be found in canonical books ( Jataka tales
Jataka tales
, Apadāna
Apadāna
, Buddhavaṃsa , Cariyāpiṭaka ) and post-canonical commentaries written to supplement the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
at a later time, and thus might not be an original part of the Theravādin teachings. The oldest parts of the Sutta Piṭaka (for example, Majjhima Nikāya , Digha Nikāya , Saṃyutta Nikāya and the Aṅguttara Nikāya ) do not have any mention of the pāramīs as a category (though they are all mentioned individually).

Some scholars even refer to the teachings of the pāramīs as a semi-Mahāyāna teaching added to the scriptures at a later time in order to appeal to the interests and needs of the lay community and to popularize their religion. However, these views rely on the early scholarly presumption of Mahāyāna originating with religious devotion and appeal to laity. More recently, scholars have started to open up early Mahāyāna literature, which is very ascetic and expounds the ideal of the monk's life in the forest. Therefore, the practice of the pāramitās in Buddhism
Buddhism
is close to the ideals of the ascetic tradition of the śramaṇa .

TRADITIONAL PRACTICE

Bodhi
Bodhi
(2005) maintains that, in the earliest Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
(which he identifies as the first four nikāyas ), those seeking the extinction of suffering (nibbana) pursued the noble eightfold path . As time went on, a backstory was provided for the multi-life development of the Buddha ; as a result, the ten perfections were identified as part of the path for the bodhisattva (Pāli: bodhisatta). Over subsequent centuries, the pāramīs were seen as being significant for aspirants to both Buddhahood
Buddhahood
and arahantship . Thus, Bodhi
Bodhi
(2005) summarizes: It should be noted that in established Theravāda tradition the pāramīs are not regarded as a discipline peculiar to candidates for Buddhahood
Buddhahood
alone but as practices which must be fulfilled by all aspirants to enlightenment and deliverance, whether as Buddhas , paccekabuddhas , or disciples . What distinguishes the supreme bodhisattva from aspirants in the other two vehicles is the degree to which the pāramīs must be cultivated and the length of time they must be pursued. But the qualities themselves are universal requisites for deliverance, which all must fulfill to at least a minimal degree to merit the fruits of the liberating path.

MAHāYāNA BUDDHISM

In Mahāyāna Buddhism, the Prajñapāramitā sūtras , the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
and a large number of other texts list the six perfections:

* Dāna
Dāna
pāramitā: generosity, giving of oneself (in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, 布施波羅蜜; in Tibetan, སབྱིན་པ sbyin-pa) * Śīla
Śīla
pāramitā : virtue, morality, discipline, proper conduct (持戒波羅蜜; ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས tshul-khrims) * Kṣānti pāramitā : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance (忍辱波羅蜜; བཟོད་པ bzod-pa) * Vīrya
Vīrya
pāramitā : energy, diligence, vigor, effort (精進波羅蜜; བརྩོན་འགྲུས brtson-’grus) * Dhyāna pāramitā : one-pointed concentration, contemplation (禪定波羅蜜, བསམ་གཏན bsam-gtan) * Prajñā pāramitā : wisdom, insight (般若波羅蜜; ཤེས་རབ shes-rab)

Note that this list is also mentioned by the Theravāda commentator Dhammapala
Dhammapala
, who says it is equivalent to the above list of ten.

In the Ten Stages Sutra
Ten Stages Sutra
, four more pāramitās are listed: 7. Upāya pāramitā: skillful means (方便波羅蜜) 8. Praṇidhāna pāramitā: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination (願波羅蜜) 9. Bala pāramitā: spiritual power (力波羅蜜) 10. Jñāna pāramitā: knowledge (智波羅蜜)

TIBETAN BUDDHISM

According to the perspective of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
, Mahāyāna practitioners have the choice of two practice paths: the path of perfection (Sanskrit: pāramitāyāna) or the path of tantra (Sanskrit: tantrayāna), which is the Vajrayāna .

Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche renders "pāramitā" into English as "transcendent action" and then frames and qualifies it:

When we say that paramita means "transcendent action," we mean it in the sense that actions or attitude are performed in a non-egocentric manner. "Transcendental" does not refer to some external reality, but rather to the way in which we conduct our lives and perceive the world – either in an egocentric or a non-egocentric way. The six paramitas are concerned with the effort to step out of the egocentric mentality.

The pure illusory body is said to be endowed with the six perfections (Sanskrit: ṣatpāramitā).

SEE ALSO

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
– "Five Perfections" in Jainism

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ Lopez 1988 , p. 21. * ^ " originally did not form part of scriptures": Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 224 * ^ Regarding the Cariyāpiṭaka, Horner (2000), Cariyāpiṭaka section, p. vi, writes that it is "onsidered to be post-Asokan ...." * ^ " early literature did not refer to the pāramitās." Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 228 * ^ "The incorporation of pāramis by the Theravādins in the Jātakas reveals that they were not immune from Mahāyānic influence. This happened, of course, at a much later date" Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 219 * ^ "It is evident that the Hinayānists, either to popularize their religion or to interest the laity more in it, incorporated in their doctrines the conception of Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
and the practice of pāramitās. This was effected by the production of new literature: the Jātakas and Avadānas." Nalinaksha Dutt (1978) Buddhist Sects in India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition: 251. The term "Semi-Mahāyāna" occurs here as a subtitle. * ^ "As scholars have moved away from this limited corpus, and have begun to explore a wider range of Mahāyāna sutras, they have stumbled on, and have started to open up, a literature that is often stridently ascetic and heavily engaged in reinventing the forest ideal, an individualistic, antisocial, ascetic ideal that is encapsulated in the apparently resurrected image of "wandering alone like a rhinoceros." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Buddhism
(2004): p. 494 * ^ Bodhi
Bodhi
(2005). (Converted the document's original use of the Velthuis convention to Pāli diacritics.) * ^ The passage is translated in Bodhi
Bodhi
(1978), p. 314. * ^ Ray, Reginald A. (ed.) (2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambala. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.140. * ^ Keown, Damien (ed.) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Great Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.270. ISBN 0-19-860560-9 * ^ Graham Coleman, Thupten Jinpa (ed.), The Tibetan Book of the Dead: First Complete Translation (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition), Penguin Classics ISBN 978-1-101-46228-7

WORKS CITED

* Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1957–59). Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Poona: Prasad Prakashan. * Bodhi, Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
(1978). The All-Embracing Net of Views. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society . * Bodhi, Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
(ed.) (1978, 2005). A Treatise on the Paramis: From the Commentary to the Cariyapitaka
Cariyapitaka
by Acariya Dhammapala
Dhammapala
(The Wheel, No. 409/411). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society . * Horner, I.B. (trans.) (1975; reprinted 2000). The Minor Anthologies of the Pali
Pali
Canon (Part III): 'Chronicle of Buddhas' (Buddhavamsa) and 'Basket of Conduct' (Cariyapitaka). Oxford: Pali Text Society . ISBN 0-86013-072-X . * Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (1988). The Heart Sutra
Sutra
Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-589-7 . * Rhys Davids , T.W. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Lotus Sūtra

Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra

COMPONENTS

* THREEFOLD LOTUS SUTRA : Innumerable Meanings Sūtra * Sutra
Sutra
of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Dharma
Dharma
* Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Meditation Sūtra

CONCEPTS

* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Emptiness * Eternal Buddha
Eternal Buddha
* Six Pāramitās * Skillful Means * Ten Suchnesses

KEY FIGURES Bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
( Guanyin
Guanyin
) Firm Practice Maitreya
Maitreya
Manjusri
Manjusri
Medicine King Never Disrespectful Pure Practice Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Superior Practice Unlimited Practice Buddhas Abundant Treasures Buddha Akshobhya
Akshobhya
Majestic Voice King Śākyamuni Buddha Vairocana
Vairocana
(in Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Meditation Sutra) Devas Brahmā Hārītī (her ten daughters and her give a Dharani
Dharani
) Nagakanya (female naga and daughter of Nagaraja
Nagaraja
who turns into a Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
and then Buddha instantly) Śakra Śrāvakas Ānanda Aniruddha Kauṇḍinya Mahā-Kāśyapa Mahā-Kātyāyana Maha- Maudgalyayana Mahāprajāpatī Gautamī Nanda Pūrṇa Rāhula
Rāhula
Śāriputra Subhūti Upāli Yasodharā
Yasodharā

* NICHIREN BUDDHISM * TIANTAI BUDDHISM (J. TENDAI , K. CHEONTAE )

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

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FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels
Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
* Nirvana
Nirvana
* Middle Way
Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata
Tathāgata
* Birthday * Four sights
Four sights
* Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances
Five hindrances
* Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream
Mind Stream
* Parinirvana
Parinirvana
* Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
* Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) * Tathātā
Tathātā
* Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Impermanence
Impermanence
* Dukkha
Dukkha
* Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine
Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms
Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana
Bhavana
* Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā
Mettā
* Karuṇā
Karuṇā
* Mudita
Mudita
* Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths
Five Strengths
* Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna
Kammaṭṭhāna
* Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* Samatha
Samatha
* Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan
Kōan
* Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön
Tertön
* Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana
Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā * Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya
Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya
Dhamma vicaya
* Pīti
Pīti
* Passaddhi
Passaddhi

* Śīla
Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla
Śīla
* Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya
Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions
Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha
Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment
Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
* Sakadagami
Sakadagami
* Anāgāmi
Anāgāmi
* Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
* Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika
Anagarika
* Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master
Zen master
* Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe
Geshe
* Tulku
Tulku
* Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji
Assaji
* Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha
Anuruddha
* Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti
Subhuti
* Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema
Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa
Yasa
* Buddhaghoṣa
Buddhaghoṣa
* Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala
Angulimala
* Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
* Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga
Asanga
* Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
* Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa
Shamarpa
* Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
* Madhyamakālaṃkāra
Madhyamakālaṃkāra
* Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras * Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
* Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Yogachara
Yogachara

* Navayana
Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools
Early Buddhist schools
* Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
* Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
* Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
* 969 Movement
969 Movement
* Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology
Buddhology
* Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses
Eight Consciousnesses
* Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions
The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
* Korean Buddhist temples
Korean Buddhist temples
* Thai temple art and architecture
Thai temple art and architecture
* Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja
Magha Puja
* Asalha Puja
Asalha Puja
* Vassa
Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar
Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
* Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā
Abhijñā
* Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada
Dhammapada
* Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana
Hinayana
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Koliya
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Maitreya
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Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

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Sanskrit

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COMPARISON

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* Influences * Comparison

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