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The Info List - Oriental Small-clawed Otter


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Amblonyx
Amblonyx
cinereus Aonyx
Aonyx
cinereus Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea

The Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
( Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea syn. Amblonyx
Amblonyx
cinereus), also known as the oriental small-clawed otter or simply small-clawed otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to South and Southeast Asia. It is a member of the otter subfamily (Lutrinae) of the weasel family (Mustelidae), and is the smallest otter species in the world.[3] Its paws are a distinctive feature; its claws do not extend beyond the fleshy end pads of its partially webbed fingers and toes. This gives it a high degree of manual dexterity so that it can use its paws to feed on molluscs, crabs and other small aquatic animals. The Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
inhabits mangrove swamps and freshwater wetlands in South and Southeast Asia. It lives in extended family groups with only the alpha pair breeding; offspring from previous years help to raise the young. Due to ongoing habitat loss, pollution, and hunting in some areas, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List.[1]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Characteristics 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecology and behaviour

4.1 Feeding ecology 4.2 Reproduction 4.3 Communication

5 Conservation 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] This species was originally described as the only member of the genus Amblonyx,[2] but was transferred to the genus Aonyx
Aonyx
after mitochondrial DNA analysis.[4] However, further studies have shown that this species is more closely related to the genus Lutrogale
Lutrogale
than to Aonyx, which means the genus Amblonyx
Amblonyx
should be retained.[5] A synonym for the Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
is Aonyx
Aonyx
cinereus.[6] Characteristics[edit]

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Asian small-clawed otters are the smallest extant otter species. The overall length can range from 70 to 100 cm (28 to 39 in), of which about 30 cm (12 in) is the tail. Weight can range from 1 to 5.4 kg (2.2 to 11.9 lb). Its body is slender, streamlined and serpentine, and is flexible enough to allow grooming of almost all the body. Dark, grayish-brown fur covers most of the dorsal surface with a lighter cream coloration on the ventral surface, especially on the face and neck. The fur has relatively short hairs less than 2.5 cm in length, and it is fine, dense and velvety. Otters have two types of fur: long, stout guard hairs and a short, fine undercoat. Asian small-clawed otters have flattened heads and short, thick necks; eyes are located toward the front of the head. The ears are small and rounded and have a valve-like structure that enables them to be closed when swimming underwater. Nose pads are dusky or pinkish in color. The muzzle has vibrissae on either side. These are sensitive to touch and to underwater vibrations, and are important in detecting the movements of prey. Similar to other otters, Asian small-clawed otters have relatively short legs, which are used to swim, walk, groom and manipulate prey. Feet are very narrow and only webbed to the last joint, a feature which distinguishes the Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
from all other species of otter. These partially webbed paws give them an excellent sense of touch and coordination, providing them with more dexterity than other otters with full webbing. Unlike other otters, they catch their prey with their paws instead of with their mouth. Their small, blunt, peg-like claws are extremely reduced and rarely extend past the tips of the digits. The Asian small-clawed otter's tail is long, about one-third of its total body length. The tail is thick at the base, muscular, flexible, and tapers to a point. Subcutaneous and scent glands are located at the base of the tail. The tail is used for propulsion when swimming at high speed, to steer when swimming slowly and for balance when standing upright on hind legs. Distribution and habitat[edit] The Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
ranges in coastal regions from southern India to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
including the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Palawan. It inhabits freshwater wetland systems such as swamps, meandering rivers, mangroves and tidal pools as well as irrigated rice fields. It prefers pond areas and rice fields over rivers with bare banks, but dislikes bare and open areas that do not offer any shelter. It wanders between patches of reeds and river debris where many crab species are likely to be found. In the riverine systems it chooses areas with low vegetation, and dugs nesting burrows into muddy banks. It spends most of its time on land unlike most other otters.[1] Ecology and behaviour[edit]

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Two Asian small-clawed otters sleeping at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C.

Asian small-clawed otters are diurnal animals (active during the day), found in remote areas, free of human disturbance. However, some have adapted to life near villages. They continually groom their fur to maintain its insulating qualities. Asian small-clawed otters are excellent swimmers; they swim by moving their hind legs and tail. They ‘dog-paddle’ with all four feet while swimming or floating. When swimming at a high speed, they undulate their entire bodies, including their tails, up and down while their hind feet steer. They can dive under water for about six to eight minutes. Usually after swimming or feeding, this species will rub themselves against logs and vegetation around their territory so that they can leave their scent. This is called 'scent marking'. They also produce small amounts of feces, known as spraint. The spraints are important for communication among the otters; those with different smells and appearance indicate the presence of strangers. Generally, the otters sleep and rest on land either above ground or in their dens. They often sleep in areas with moderate disturbance. Asian small-clawed otters are mostly social animals. They live in extended family groups of about 12 individuals. They are often seen playing (which can be seen at zoos) and sliding on muddy banks and in the water in regions where they frequently visit or live. They defend their territories by working, scratching and occasionally fighting. Feeding ecology[edit]

Play media

An Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
at the Wellington Zoo
Wellington Zoo
in New Zealand playing with a pebble.

Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
swimming with Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
at Zoo Basel

Asian small-clawed otters feed mainly on invertebrates such as crustaceans and molluscs, but are also known to feed on vertebrates, in particular amphibians. The hindmost upper teeth (pm4 and m3) are broad and robust and are specialized for crushing the exoskeletons of crabs and other hard shelled prey. They also feed on insects and small fish such as gouramis and catfish. They supplement their diet with rodents and snakes. Apart from crabs, the major prey items are mudskippers (Gobioidei). There is much seasonable variability in the diet. They hunt food by using their vibrissae to detect movements of prey in the water. They use their forepaws to locate and capture items rather than their mouths. Their incomplete webbing gives them a great deal of manual dexterity. They dig in sand and mud for shellfish such as clams, mussels and crab. To get at the meat they crush the shell manually or let heat from the sun force the shells to open. Asian small-clawed otters consume small crabs which are considered to be agricultural pests, however, they may uproot plants in the paddy fields. They act as pest population controllers for the farmers by influencing the population of shellfish and crustaceans in their environments. Reproduction[edit] Asian small-clawed otters form monogamous pairs for life. The estrous cycle in the female is 28 days with a three-day period of estrus. The mated pairs can have two litters of one to six young per year and the gestation period is about 60 days. The newborn pups are relatively undeveloped; when they are born, they weigh around 50 g, are toothless, practically immobile and their eyes are still closed. They remain in their birthing dens and spend their first few weeks nursing and sleeping. The pups nurse every three to four hours for 10 to 15 minutes at a time. They open their eyes after 40 days and are fully weaned at 14 weeks. In the next 40 days, the young start to eat solid food and can swim three months later. Young otters will stay with their mother until the next litter is born. The male otter assists the female building the nest before birth and in food procurement after parturition. The life span of this species is around 11 to 16 years. In Singapore, female Asian small-clawed otters were found to have created a hybrid species through interbreeding with males of the larger smooth-coated otter, resulting in the first documented case of hybridization between otters in the wild. The resulting offspring and their descendants bred back into the smooth-coated otter population of Singapore, but maintained the genes found in their small-clawed otter ancestors. Today, a population of at least 60 of these hybrid otters exist in Singapore, but the question remains as to how widespread the hybridization is between these two species.[7] Communication[edit]

Play media

Small-clawed otter in Disney's Animal
Animal
Kingdom

This species uses vocalizations, scent markings and sign heaps to communicate. It has at least 12 different types of vocalization but scent is the most important sense for communication, especially for marking territorial boundaries. The tails have scent glands which they use to deposit their musky scent on the spraint. The spraint is deposited either in tree trunks or on boulders, trails and pool edges. They also have signed heaps, which are visual indicators of an otter's presence. A sign heap is a small mound of sand, gravel, grass or mud scraped up by the otter. Besides these methods, they also communicate with chemical and tactile cues, such as social grooming, hormonal changes and posturing. Conservation[edit]

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They are seriously threatened by rapid habitat destruction, hunting and pollution. Their population trend is decreasing despite being a protected species. As part of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums' Species Survival Plan, SeaWorld
SeaWorld
breeds this species to preserve it in zoos and aquariums. One of the largest Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
exhibits is at Zoo Basel. There, the outdoor otter exhibit is about 2,000 square metres (22,000 sq ft) and has two rivers, four ponds, and over a dozen tunnels. Only one family of otters is living in this enclosure and it is shared by Indian rhinoceroses and muntjacs. The otters get along very well with the other animals and are often seen swimming with the rhinos.[8] References[edit]

^ a b c Wright, L., de Silva, P., Chan, B., Reza Lubis, I. (2015). " Aonyx
Aonyx
cinereus". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T44166A21939068. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T44166A21939068.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Foster-Turley, P.; Engfar, S. (1988). "The Species Survival Plan
Species Survival Plan
for the Asian small-clawed otter
Asian small-clawed otter
Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea". International Zoo Yearbook. 27: 79–84. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1988.tb03199.x.  ^ Koepfli, K.-P. & Wayne, R.K. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of otters (Carnivora: Mustelidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences. J. Zool. 246: 401–416. ^ Koepfli, K.P., Kanchanasaka, B., Sasaki, H., Jacques, H., Louie, K.D.Y., Hoai, T., Dang, N.X., Geffen, E., Gutleb, A., Han, S., Heggberget, T.M., LaFontaine, L., Lee, H., Melisch, R., Ruiz-Olmo, J., Santos-Reis, M., Sidorovich, V.E., Stubbe, M., Wayne, R.K. 2008. Establishing the foundation for an applied molecular taxonomy of otters in Southeast Asia. Conservation Genetics 9: 1589–1604. ^ IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Specialist Group: Aonyx
Aonyx
cinereus (Illiger, 1815), the Asian Small-Clawed Otter. ^ Hong, S. (2018). Surprising branch in Singapore's otter family tree. The Straits Times, Singapore. ^ (in German) Zoo-Nachwuchs sorgt für Trubel. Zoo Basel, written 2012-05-15, retrieved 2013-03-15

Further reading[edit]

Payne, J., Francis, C.M., and Phillipps, K. (1994). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. Kota Kinabalu: The Sabah Society.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea.

IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Specialist Group: Asian Small-clawed Otter Otternet: Species Profile. Oriental Small Claw
Claw
Otter Animal
Animal
Diversity Web: Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea, Oriental small-clawed otter The Big Zoo: Asian Small-Clawed Otter, Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea National Zoological Park: Asian Small-Clawed Otter SeaWorld: Otters

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter
Otter
civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q244277 ADW: Aonyx_cinerea ARKive: aonyx-cinerea EoL: 328024 Fossilworks: 159276 GBIF: 2433897 iNaturalist: 74065 ITIS: 726286 IUCN: 44166 MSW: 14001085 NCBI: 452597 Species+:

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