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The ORIENT is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world
Eastern world
, in relation to Europe
Europe
. In English , it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia , which was, depending on source, formally thought of as the Far East and the Near East
Near East
.

The term ORIENTAL, as a descriptor of people or objects from the Orient, is considered outdated and sometimes culturally insensitive in some regions and dialects, but in others remains inoffensive and regularly used in modern parlance. An image of the "Eastern world " defined as Asia
Asia
, consisting of three overlapping cultural blocks: East
East
Asia
Asia
(green), South Asia
Asia
(orange), and Southeast Asia
Asia
(blue). The "Orient" usually refers to East
East
and sometimes Southeast Asia, but not South Asia. In archaic use, the term "Orient" may also be used to describe the entire "Eastern World" and Middle East
Middle East
(not coloured).

CONTENTS

* 1 Derivation * 2 History of the term

* 3 Current usage

* 3.1 British English
British English
* 3.2 American English
American English
* 3.3 Australian English
Australian English
* 3.4 German

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

DERIVATION

The term "Orient" derives from the Latin word oriens meaning "east" (lit. "rising" < orior " rise"). The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms " Levant
Levant
" (< French levant "rising"), "Vostok" Russian : Восток (< Russian voskhod Russian : восход "sunrise"), " Anatolia
Anatolia
" (< Greek anatole), "mizrahi " in Hebrew
Hebrew
("zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" Arabic : شرق‎‎ (< Arabic yashriq يشرق "rise", shurūq Arabic : شروق‎‎ "rising"), "shygys" Kazakh : шығыс (< Kazakh shygu Kazakh : шығу "come out"), Turkish : doğu (< Turkish doğmak to be born; to rise), Chinese : 東 (pinyin : dōng, a pictograph of the sun rising behind a tree ) and " The Land of the Rising Sun " to refer to Japan
Japan
. Also, many ancient temples, including pagan temples and the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. This tradition was carried on in Christian churches . To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something was facing the correct direction, it was said to be in the proper orientation.

Another explanation of the term stems from Rome
Rome
during the Roman Empire , specifically the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, or the "Roman Orient", during the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Although the original East-West (or Orient-Occident) line was the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
's East
East
Coast, around 600 AD this would shift to the City of Rome
Rome
. Any area below the City of Rome
Rome
was considered the Orient, as well as the ethnicities inhabiting the land, such as Dalmatian Italians , (modern Neapolitans along with Sicilians , Tunisians , Moroccans , Greeks
Greeks
, etc.), as well as everything East
East
of Southern Italy, hence the Italian name "Italia nord-orientale" (in English Northeast Italy ) for Le Tre Venezie (the 3 Venice's) located above the Roman latitude line separating it from modern Abruzzo
Abruzzo
; the beginning of the Orient
Orient
in the East, while Lazio is its beginning in the West of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
.

The opposite term "Occident " derives from the Latin word occidens, meaning west (lit. setting < occido fall/set). This term meant the west (where the sun sets) but has fallen into disuse in English, in favor of Western world
Western world
.

HISTORY OF THE TERM

Further information: Orientalism
Orientalism
Harem Pool by the Orientalist painter Jean-Léon Gérôme
Jean-Léon Gérôme
c. 1876; naked females in harem or bathing settings are a staple of much Orientalist painting

In the later Roman Empire, the Praefectura Praetorio Orientis, the Praetorian prefecture of the East , included most of the Eastern Roman Empire from the eastern Balkans eastwards; its easternmost part was the Diocese of the East, the Dioecesis Orientis, corresponding roughly to the region of Syria . Over time, the common understanding of "the Orient" has continually shifted eastwards, as European people traveled farther into Asia. It finally reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call "the Far East
Far East
". These shifts in time and identification sometimes confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Yet there remain contexts where "the Orient" and "Oriental" have kept their older meanings (e.g., "Oriental spices" typically are from the regions extending from the Middle East
Middle East
to sub-continental India
India
to Indo-China). Travelers may again take the Orient Express train from Paris
Paris
to its terminus in the European part of Istanbul
Istanbul
, a route established in the early 20th century.

In European historiography , the meaning of "the Orient" changed in scope several times. Originally, the term referred to Egypt
Egypt
, the Levant
Levant
, and adjoining areas. as far west as Morocco
Morocco
. During the 1800s, India, and to a lesser extent China, began to displace the Levant
Levant
as the primary subject of Orientalist research. By the mid-20th century, Western scholars generally considered "the Orient" as just East
East
Asia
Asia
, Southeast Asia
Asia
, and eastern Central Asia
Asia
. As recently as the early 20th century, the term "Orient" often continued to be used in ways that included North Africa
North Africa
and even parts of southeastern Europe
Europe
. Today, the term primarily evokes images of China
China
, Korea
Korea
, Japan
Japan
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and peninsular Southeast Asia. Throughout the history of the changing sense of the term, "the Orient" was never equivalent to Asia
Asia
as a whole. "The Orient" being largely a cultural term, large parts of Asia— Siberia
Siberia
most notably—were excluded from the scholarly notion of "the Orient".

Equally valid terms for the Orient
Orient
still exist in the English language in such collocations as Oriental studies
Oriental studies
(now Asian Studies in some countries).

The adjectival term Oriental has been used by the West to mean cultures, peoples, countries, Asian rugs, and goods from the Orient. "Oriental" means generally "eastern ". It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Orient
Orient
or "East" (for Asia
Asia
), and especially of its Eastern culture . It indicated the eastern direction in historical astronomy, often abbreviated "Ori". In contemporary American English, Oriental usually refers to things from the parts of East
East
Asia
Asia
traditionally occupied by East
East
Asians and most Central Asians and Southeast Asians racially categorized as " Mongoloid ". This excludes Jews , Indians , Arabs
Arabs
, and most other South or West Asian peoples. Because of historical discrimination against Chinese and Japanese, in some parts of the United States, some people consider the term derogatory. For example, Washington state prohibits the word "Oriental" in legislation and government documents, preferring the word "Asian" instead.

In more local uses, "oriental" is also used for eastern parts of portions of the Mediterranean Sea, for example Morocco\'s Oriental Region . Oriental is also used as an adjective akin to "eastern", especially in the Spanish-speaking world. For example, the Philippine islands of Mindoro and Negros are each divided into two provinces whose titles include the words "oriental" and "occidental" respectively. The official name of Uruguay
Uruguay
is the República Oriental del Uruguay
Uruguay
or Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Uruguay
because it is east of the Uruguay
Uruguay
River .

Since the 19th century, "orientalist" has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies
Oriental studies
; however, the use in English of "Orientalism" to describe academic "Oriental studies" is rare: the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron
Lord Byron
in 1812. Orientalism
Orientalism
is more widely used to refer to the works of the many 19th-century artists who specialized in "Oriental" subjects, often drawing on their travels to North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia
Asia
. Artists as well as scholars were already described as "Orientalists" in the 19th century. In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism
Orientalism
; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds , shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

CURRENT USAGE

BRITISH ENGLISH

In British English
British English
, the term Oriental refers to people from East
East
and Southeast Asia
Asia
(such as those from China
China
, Japan
Japan
, Korea
Korea
, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Mongolia
Mongolia
and Laos
Laos
) and is not generally regarded as offensive. "Asian" in the United Kingdom generally refers to people from South Asia
Asia
(in particular Pakistan
Pakistan
, India
India
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Maldives
Maldives
) since British Asians make up approximately 6.9% of the population. "Orientals" refers exclusively to people of East
East
and Southeast Asian origin, who comprise 0.7% of the UK population as a whole, and 5.3% of the non-European population. Of these, the majority are of Chinese descent. Orient
Orient
is also a word for the lustre of a fine pearl . Hong Kong, a former British colony, has been called " Pearl
Pearl
of the Orient".

AMERICAN ENGLISH

Distinct within American culture, some American English
American English
speakers consider the term "Oriental" to be an antiquated, pejorative, and disparaging term. John Kuo Wei Tchen, director of the Asian/Pacific/American Studies Program and Institute at New York University , said the basic critique of the term developed in the U.S. in the 1970s. Tchen has said: "With the U.S.A. anti-war movement in the '60s and early '70s, many Asian Americans identified the term 'Oriental' with a Western process of racializing Asians as forever opposite 'others'." In a 2009 American press release related to legislation aimed at removing the term "oriental" from official documents of the State of New York , Governor David Paterson said: "The word 'oriental' does not describe ethnic origin, background or even race; in fact, it has deep and demeaning historical roots".

In 2016, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
signed legislation striking the word from federal law.

AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH

In Australian English
Australian English
, the term "Asian" generally refers to people of East
East
Asian or Southeast Asian descent, such as those of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, or Filipino descent. Persons of Pakistani, Sri Lankan, and most other South Asian descent are referred to by their respective demonym , but without explicit knowledge, those people are indeterminately inferred as "Indian".

GERMAN

In German , Orient
Orient
is usually used synonymously with the area between the Near East
Near East
and India
India
, including Israel
Israel
, the Arab world
Arab world
, and Greater Persia
Greater Persia
.

The term Asiaten (English: Asians) means the people of East
East
Asia
Asia
and Southeast Asia
Asia
. Another word for Orient
Orient
in German is Morgenland (now mainly poetic), which literally translates as "morning land". The antonym "Abendland" (rarely: "Okzident") is also mainly poetic, and refers to (Western) Europe.

SEE ALSO

* Asian * Metonymy * Levant
Levant
* Land of the Morning Calm * Land of the Rising Sun * Orient Express * Orientalism
Orientalism
* Orientalizing Period of Archaic Greek art * Political correctness * School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London * Western world
Western world
(the Occident; the opposite of Orient)

NOTES

* ^ Harbaugh, Rick (1998). "東". Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary. Han Lu Book & Pub. Co. p. 227. ISBN 0-9660750-0-5 . Retrieved 26 October 2010. * ^ A B C D Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The myth of continents: a critique of metageography. University ù Africa. Retrieved 8 November 2011. * ^ Hooke, Robert . 1666. Drawing of Saturn in Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society publication) Volume 1 * ^ Senate bill (pdf file) * ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. * ^ Nosal, K R. American Criticism, New York Standard, New York. 2002 * ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2015. * ^ 2011 Census: KS201UK Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom, Accessed 19 April 2014 * ^ orient: definition of orient in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved on 12 April 2014. * ^ "Oriental: Rugs or People?". nyu.edu. * ^ official 2009 press release Archived 12 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Weaver, Dustin (2016-05-20). "Obama signs measure striking \'oriental\' and \'negro\' from federal law". TheHill. Retrieved 2016-05-20.

FURTHER READING

* Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western (INUPRESS), Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up ORIENT , ORIENT , ORIENTAL ,

.