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The Organization
Organization
of American States (Spanish: Organización de los Estados Americanos, Portuguese: Organização dos Estados Americanos, French: Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States
United States
capital Washington, D.C.,[1] the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas. As of 26 May 2015, the Secretary General of OAS is Luis Almagro.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Goals and purpose 3 Organizational structure 4 General Assembly 5 Membership and adhesions

5.1 Notes 5.2 Canada
Canada
and the OAS 5.3 Sanctions against the Dominican Republic 5.4 Status of Cuba 5.5 Suspension of Honduras
Honduras
(2009–2011) 5.6 Status of Venezuela 5.7 Permanent Observers

6 Official languages 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

The Pan American Union shortly after its construction in 1910

The notion of an international union in the New World
New World
was first put forward by Simón Bolívar[3] who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama (still being part of Colombia), proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia
Colombia
(comprising the modern-day countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
Panama
and Venezuela), Peru, Bolivia, The United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico
Mexico
but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately ratified only by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than New World
New World
outlooks in the newly independent American republics. Bolívar's dream of American unity was meant to unify Hispanic American nations against external powers. The pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–1890, at the First International Conference of American States. Gathered together in Washington, D.C., 18 nations resolved to found the International Union of American Republics, served by a permanent secretariat called the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (renamed the International Commercial Bureau at the Second International Conference in 1901–1902). These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which the OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins. At the Fourth International Conference of American States (Buenos Aires, 1910), the name of the organization was changed to the Union of American Republics and the Bureau became the Pan American Union. The Pan American Union Building
Pan American Union Building
was constructed in 1910, on Constitution Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D.C.

Pan American Union headquarters building in Washington, D.C., 1943.

In the mid-1930s, U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
organized an inter-American conference in Buenos Aires. One of the items at the conference was a " League of Nations
League of Nations
of the Americas", an idea proposed by Colombia, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic.[4] At the subsequent Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 21 nations pledged to remain neutral in the event of a conflict between any two members.[5] The experience of World War II
World War II
convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the territorial integrity of the American nations in the event of external aggression. To meet the challenges of global conflict in the postwar world and to contain conflicts within the hemisphere, they adopted a system of collective security, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro. The Ninth International Conference of American States was held in Bogotá
Bogotá
between March and May 1948 and led by United States
United States
Secretary of State George Marshall, a meeting which led to a pledge by members to fight communism in the western hemisphere. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization
Organization
of American States on 30 April 1948 (in effect since December 1951). The meeting also adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the world's first general human rights instrument. The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS would have been smooth if it had not been for the assassination of Colombian leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Uruguayan minister of foreign affairs Luis Almagro. Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following:

1959: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
created. 1959: Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
created. 1960: First application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance against the regimen of Rafael Trujillo
Rafael Trujillo
in Dominican Republic 1961: Charter of Punta del Este
Punta del Este
signed, launching the Alliance for Progress. 1962: OAS suspends Cuba. 1969: American Convention on Human Rights
American Convention on Human Rights
signed (in force since 1978). 1970: OAS General Assembly established as the Organization's supreme decision-making body. 1979: Inter-American Court of Human Rights created. 1991: Adoption of Resolution 1080, which requires the Secretary General to convene the Permanent Council within ten days of a coup d'état in any member country. 1994: First Summit of the Americas
Americas
(Miami), which resolved to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas
Americas
by 2005. 2001: Inter-American Democratic Charter adopted. 2009: OAS revokes 1962 suspension of Cuba. 2009: OAS suspends Honduras
Honduras
due to the coup which ousted president Manuel Zelaya. 2011: OAS lifts the suspension of Honduras
Honduras
with the return of Manuel Zelaya from exile. 2017: Venezuela
Venezuela
announces it will begin the process to leave the OAS in response to what it alleged was OAS interference in Venezuela's political crisis.

Goals and purpose[edit] In the words of Article 1 of the Charter, the goal of the member nations in creating the OAS was "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence." Article 2 then defines eight essential purposes:

To strengthen the peace and security of the continent. To promote and consolidate representative democracy, with due respect for the principle of nonintervention. To prevent possible causes of difficulties and to ensure the pacific settlement of disputes that may arise among the member states. To provide for common action on the part of those states in the event of aggression. To seek the solution of political, judicial, and economic problems that may arise among them. To promote, by cooperative action, their economic, social, and cultural development. To eradicate extreme poverty, which constitutes an obstacle to the full democratic development of the peoples of the hemisphere. To achieve an effective limitation of conventional weapons that will make it possible to devote the largest amount of resources to the economic and social development of the member states.

Over the course of the 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, the return to democracy in Latin America, and the thrust toward globalization, the OAS made major efforts to reinvent itself to fit the new context. Its stated priorities now include the following:

Strengthening democracy: Between 1962 and 2002, the Organization
Organization
sent multinational observation missions to oversee free and fair elections in the member states on more than 100 occasions. The OAS also works to strengthen national and local government and electoral agencies, to promote democratic practices and values, and to help countries detect and defuse official corruption. Working for peace: Special
Special
OAS missions have supported peace processes in Nicaragua, Suriname, Haiti, and Guatemala. The Organization
Organization
has played a leading part in the removal of landmines deployed in member states and it has led negotiations to resolve the continents' remaining border disputes (Guatemala/Belize; Peru/Ecuador). Work is also underway on the construction of a common inter-American counter-terrorism front. Defending human rights: The agencies of the inter-American human rights system provide a venue for the denunciation and resolution of human rights violations in individual cases. They also monitor and report on the general human rights situation in the member states. Fostering free trade: The OAS is one of the three agencies currently engaged in drafting a treaty aiming to establish an inter-continental free trade area from Alaska
Alaska
to Tierra del Fuego. Fighting the drugs trade: The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission was established in 1986 to coordinate efforts and crossborder cooperation in this area. Promoting sustainable development: The goal of the OAS's Inter-American Council for Integral Development is to promote economic development and combating poverty. OAS technical cooperation programs address such areas as river basin management, the conservation of biodiversity, preservation of cultural diversity, planning for global climate change, sustainable tourism, and natural disaster mitigation.

Organizational structure[edit] The Organization
Organization
of American States is composed of an Organization
Organization
of American States General Secretariat, the Permanent Council, the Inter-American Council for Integral Development, and a number of committees. The General Secretariat of the Organization
Organization
of American States consists of six secretariats.

Secretariat for Political Affairs Executive Secretariat for Integral Development Secretariat for Multidimensional Security Secretariat for Administration and Finance Secretariat for Legal Affairs Secretariat for External Relations

The various committees of the Organization
Organization
of American States include:

The Committee on Juridical and Political Affairs The Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Affairs The Committee on Hemispheric Security The Committee on Inter-American Summits Management and Civil Society Participation in OAS Activities

General Assembly[edit]

A session of the OAS's thirty-fifth General Assembly in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, June 2005.

Main article: General Assembly of the Organization
Organization
of American States The General Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of OAS. It convenes once every year in a regular session. In special circumstances, and with the approval of two-thirds of the member states, the Permanent Council can convene special sessions. The Organization's member states take turns hosting the General Assembly on a rotating basis. The states are represented at its sessions by their chosen delegates: generally, their ministers of foreign affairs, or their appointed deputies. Each state has one vote, and most matters—except for those for which the Charter or the General Assembly's own rules of procedure specifically require a two-thirds majority—are settled by a simple majority vote. The General Assembly's powers include setting the OAS's general course and policies by means of resolutions and declarations; approving its budget and determining the contributions payable by the member states; approving the reports and previous year's actions of the OAS's specialized agencies; and electing members to serve on those agencies. Membership and adhesions[edit] See also: Member states of the Organization
Organization
of American States

Exclusive Economic Zones
Exclusive Economic Zones
of the member states of the OAS. Considering them, the total area of the OAS reaches the 76 857 956 km². Thus, the largest regional organization in the world.

All 35 independent nations of the Americas
Americas
are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5 May 1948, there were 21 members:

 Argentina  Bolivia  Brazil  Chile  Colombia  Costa Rica  Cuba[Note 1]  Dominican Republic  Ecuador  El Salvador  Guatemala  Haiti  Honduras[Note 2]  Mexico  Nicaragua  Panama  Paraguay  Peru  United States  Uruguay  Venezuela

The later expansion of the OAS included Canada
Canada
and the newly independent nations of the Caribbean. Members with later admission dates (sorted chronologically):

  Barbados
Barbados
(member since 1967)   Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(1967)   Jamaica
Jamaica
(1969)   Grenada
Grenada
(1975)   Suriname
Suriname
(1977)   Dominica
Dominica
(1979)   Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(1979)   Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(1981)   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(1981)   Bahamas
Bahamas
(1982)   Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
(1984)   Canada
Canada
(1990)   Belize
Belize
(1991)   Guyana
Guyana
(1991)

Notes[edit]

^ Suspended between 1962–2009.[6] Has chosen not to resume their participation.[7] See Status of Cuba
Cuba
below. ^ Suspended between 2009–2011.[8] See Suspension of Honduras
Honduras
below.

Canada
Canada
and the OAS[edit] Although Canada
Canada
obtained independence in its foreign policy from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1931, it chose not to join the OAS when it was first formed, despite its close relations with the United States. Canada became a Permanent Observer in the OAS on 2 February 1972. Canada signed the Charter of the Organization of American States on 13 November 1989 and this decision was ratified on 8 January 1990. In 2004–2005, Canada
Canada
was the second largest contributor to the OAS, with an annual assessed contribution representing 12.36 percent of the OAS Regular Budget (US$9.2 million) and an additional C$9 million in voluntary contributions to specific projects.[9][10] Shortly after joining as a full member, Canada
Canada
was instrumental in the creation of the Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, which provides support for the strengthening and consolidation of democratic processes and institutions in OAS member states.[11] Sanctions against the Dominican Republic[edit] During the 6th Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Organization
Organization
of American States (OAS) in Costa Rica, from 16 to 20 August 1960, a conviction against the State of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
was agreed to unanimously. The penalty was motivated because the foreign ministers checked the veracity of the claim that the Rafael Trujillo
Rafael Trujillo
regime had sponsored an attack against Rómulo Betancourt, at that time, constitutional president of Venezuela. The meeting was attended by foreign ministers from 21 American nations, including Cuba, which at that time had not yet been expelled from the inter-American system. All countries, including the United States
United States
and Haiti
Haiti
broke off diplomatic relations with the Dominican Republic. Additionally an economic blockade that affected the exports of sugar was applied, which at that time was the pillar of the Dominican economy. It was the first application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, which had been adopted at the OAS on July 29, 1960. Status of Cuba[edit] Further information: Cuban relations with the Organization
Organization
of American States The current government of Cuba
Cuba
was excluded from participation in the Organization
Organization
under a decision adopted by the Eighth Meeting of Consultation in Punta del Este, Uruguay, on 31 January 1962. The vote was passed by 14 in favor, with one against (Cuba) and six abstentions (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico). The operative part of the resolution reads as follows:

That adherence by any member of the Organization
Organization
of American States to Marxism-Leninism is incompatible with the inter-American system and the alignment of such a government with the communist bloc breaks the unity and solidarity of the continents. That the present Government of Cuba, which has officially identified itself as a Marxist-Leninist government, was incompatible with the principles and objectives of the inter-American system. That this incompatibility excluded the present Government of Cuba
Cuba
from participation in the inter-American system.[12]

This meant that the Cuban nation was still technically a member state, but that the current government was denied the right of representation and attendance at meetings and of participation in activities. The OAS's position was that although Cuba's participation was suspended, its obligations under the Charter, the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, etc. still hold: for instance, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
continued to publish reports on Cuba's human rights situation and to hear individual cases involving Cuban nationals. However, this stance was occasionally questioned by other individual member states. Cuba's position was stated in an official note sent to the Organization
Organization
"merely as a courtesy" by Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Raúl Roa
Raúl Roa
on 4 November 1964: " Cuba
Cuba
was arbitrarily excluded... The Organization
Organization
of American States has no juridical, factual, or moral jurisdiction, nor competence, over a state which it has illegally deprived of its rights."[13] The reincorporation of Cuba
Cuba
as an active member regularly arose as a topic within the inter-American system – for instance, it was intimated by the outgoing ambassador of Mexico
Mexico
in 1998[14] – but most observers did not see it as a serious possibility while the present government remained in power. Since 1960, the Cuban administration had repeatedly characterized the OAS as the "Ministry of Colonies" of the United States
United States
of America.[15][16] On 6 May 2005, President Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
reiterated that the island nation would not "be part of a disgraceful institution that has only humiliated the honor of Latin American nations."[17] After Fidel Castro's recent retirement and the ascent of his brother Raúl to power, this official position was reasserted. Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
promised to veto any final declaration of the 2009 Summit of the Americas
Americas
due to Cuba's exclusion.[18] On 17 April 2009, after a "trading of warm words" between the administrations of U.S. President Barack Obama and Cuban leader Raúl Castro, OAS Secretary General José Miguel Insulza
José Miguel Insulza
said he would ask the 2009 General Assembly to annul the 1962 resolution excluding Cuba.[19] On 3 June 2009, foreign ministers assembled in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, for the OAS's 39th General Assembly, passed a vote to lift Cuba's suspension from the OAS. The United States
United States
had been pressuring the OAS for weeks to condition Cuba's readmission to the group on democratic principles and commitment to human rights. Ecuador's Foreign Minister Fander Falconí
Fander Falconí
said there will be no such conditions. "This is a new proposal, it has no conditions—of any kind," Falconí said. "That suspension was made in the Cold War, in the language of the Cold War. What we have done here is fix a historic error."[20] The suspension was lifted at the end of the General Assembly, but, to be readmitted to the Organization, Cuba
Cuba
will need to comply with all the treaties signed by the Member States, including the Inter-American Democratic Charter of 2001.[21] A statement issued by the Cuban government on 8 June 2009 stated that while Cuba
Cuba
welcomed the Assembly's gesture, in light of the Organization's historical record " Cuba
Cuba
will not return to the OAS."[22] Suspension of Honduras
Honduras
(2009–2011)[edit]

Those attending the Extraordinary Assembly of the OAS voted to suspend Honduras.

Following the expulsion of its President Manuel Zelaya, Honduras' membership of the Organization
Organization
was suspended unanimously at midnight on 5 July 2009.[23] The de facto government had already announced it was leaving the OAS hours earlier; this was not, however, taken into account by the OAS, which did not recognize that government as legitimate.[24] An extraordinary meeting had been conducted by the OAS in Washington, D.C., with Zelaya in attendance.[23][25][26] The suspension of Honduras
Honduras
was approved unanimously with 33 votes ( Honduras
Honduras
did not vote).[23][26] This was the first suspension carried out by the OAS since that of Cuba
Cuba
in 1962.[23][26] After Zelaya's return to Honduras
Honduras
in 2011, the country was re-admitted to the Organization
Organization
on 1 June 2011 with 32 votes in favor and 1 (Ecuador) against. Venezuela
Venezuela
expressed some reservations.[27] Status of Venezuela[edit] On 26 April 2017, Venezuela
Venezuela
announced its intention to withdraw from the OAS.[28] Venezuelan Foreign Minister Delcy Rodríguez
Delcy Rodríguez
said that President Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro
planned to publicly renounce Venezuela's membership on 27 April 2017. It would take two years for the country to formally leave. During this period, the country does not plan on participating in the OAS.[29] Permanent Observers[edit] As of 31 January 2014, there are 69 permanent observer countries including the four countries with territories in the Americas—Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom; as well as the European Union.[30][31][32] Official languages[edit]

Statue of Isabella I the Catholic in front of the seat of the Organization
Organization
of American States in Washington D.C.

The Organization's official languages are Spanish, English, Portuguese, and French. The Charter, the basic instrument governing OAS, makes no reference to the use of official languages. These references are to be found in the Rules of Procedure governing the various OAS bodies. Article 51 of the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly,[33] the supreme body of the OAS, which meets once a year, states that English, French, Portuguese and Spanish are the four official languages. Article 28 stipulates that a Style Committee shall be set up with representatives of the four official languages to review the General Assembly resolutions and declarations. Article 53 states that proposals shall be presented in the four official languages. The Rules of Procedure and Statutes of other bodies, such as the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI), the Permanent Executive Committee of the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CEPCIDI), the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM), the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
(IACHR) and the Inter-American Juridical Committee (CJI), technical bodies of the OAS, also mention the four official languages in which their meetings are to be conducted. Policy is therefore dictated through these instruments that require use of the four official languages at meetings.[34] Although a number of other languages have official status in one or more member states of OAS (Dutch in Suriname; Haitian Creole alongside French in Haiti; Quechua and Aymara in Peru, Ecuador
Ecuador
and Bolivia; Guaraní in Paraguay), they are not official languages of the Organization. See also[edit]

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational organisations in the Americas.v • d • e

Regional integration Organization
Organization
of Ibero-American States Union of South American Nations Community of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States Rio Group Rio Pact Statues of the Liberators Flag of the Organization
Organization
of American States Young Americas
Americas
Business Trust

References[edit]

^ Coordinates of OAS headquarters: 38°53′34″N 77°02′25″W / 38.8929138°N 77.0403734°W / 38.8929138; -77.0403734 (OAS headquarters, Washington, D.C.)Coordinates: 38°53′34″N 77°02′25″W / 38.8929138°N 77.0403734°W / 38.8929138; -77.0403734 (OAS headquarters, Washington, D.C.) ^ WYSS, JIM. "As a Uruguayan is poised to head the OAS, questions swirl about Venezuela". Miami
Miami
Herald. Miami
Miami
Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ "Panama: A Country Study". Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987.  ^ Special
Special
to the New York Times. " League of Nations
League of Nations
in Americas
Americas
urged by 3 Latin states", The New York Times. April 13, 1936. p. 1. ^ " Americas
Americas
adopt neutrality pact", The New York Times. December 20, 1936. ^ "Member States". OAS. Retrieved 2012-11-01.  ^ " Cuba
Cuba
Will Not Return to the OAS". Havana Times. 2014-01-24.  ^ "OAS readmits Honduras
Honduras
to its ranks". CNN. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-01.  ^ Canada
Canada
and the Organization
Organization
of American States Archived 2009-01-23 at the Wayback Machine., Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Canada
(DFAIT), 2005. ^ Canada
Canada
and the Organization
Organization
of American States by Dr. Ludwil J. Kos-Rabcewicz-Zubkowski, Air University Review, September–October 1967. ^ Canada
Canada
and the OAS: A Vigorous Partnership, Canada
Canada
World View, Issue 8, Summer 2000. ^ "Six Report on the Situation of Political Prisoners in Cuba". Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Organization
Organization
of American States. 1979-12-14.  ^ "The Situation of Human Rights in Cuba: Seventh Report". Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Organization
Organization
of American States. 1983-10-04.  ^ " Mexico
Mexico
Calls for Cuba's Reinstatement into the OAS" (Press release). Organization
Organization
of American States. 1998-02-04.  Organization
Organization
of American States. ^ "The Testing of the OAS". Time. 1960-08-22.  ^ Solis, Marta (1972-04-26). "Castro admits problems in education". Siempre. Latin American Network Information Center, University of Texas at Austin. pp. 40–41.  ^ "Fidel Castro: OAS Is an Instrument of the US". Prensa Latina. Havana, Cuba. 2006-05-07. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11.  ^ "Chavez threatens veto over Cuba". BBC News Online. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-17.  ^ "U.S., Cuba
Cuba
trade warm words ahead of summit". msnbc.com. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-17.  ^ "OAS votes to lift suspension of Cuba". The Miami
Miami
Herald. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-06-03. [dead link] ^ http://www.oas.org/consejo/GENERAL%20ASSEMBLY/Documents/AG04688E08.doc ^ "Declaration of the Revolutionary Government". Granma. 2009-06-08. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2009-06-15.  ^ a b c d " Americas
Americas
group suspends Honduras". BBC. 2009-07-05. Retrieved 2009-07-05.  ^ " Honduras
Honduras
leaders pull out of OAS". RTÉ. 2009-07-04. Retrieved 2009-07-05.  ^ "OAS expels Honduras' membership over coup". China Daily. 2009-07-05. Retrieved 2009-07-05.  ^ a b c Hipwell, Deirdre (2009-07-05). "Organisation of American States suspends Honduras
Honduras
over coup". London: The Times. Retrieved 2009-07-05.  ^ Press Releases :: E-698/11. OAS. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ " Venezuela
Venezuela
to withdraw from OAS as deadly protests continue". BBC News. 2017-04-27. Retrieved 2017-04-27.  ^ " Venezuela
Venezuela
says it will quit Organization
Organization
of American States". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-27.  ^ Macedonia Becomes 66th OAS Permanent Observer http://www.oas.org/en/media_center/press_release.asp?sCodigo=E-675/11 ^ SER :: DIA :: Permanent Observers. OAS. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Montenegro Gains Observer Status to Organisation of American States". February 4, 2014.  ^ General Assembly of the OAS, Amendments to the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly, 5 June 2000 ^ Marguerite Groves (Coordinator, Division of Language Services, OAS), Information on the use of language at the OAS: multilingualism Archived February 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Inter-American Languages Management Seminar, Conseil supérieur de la langue française (Quebec), Quebec
Quebec
City, 20 to 22 August 2002

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Organization
Organization
of American States.

OAS official site Door Opens to OAS for Cuba
Cuba
by Thelma Mejia, Havana Times, 4 June 2009. OAS Special
Special
Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression OAS Executive Secretariat for Integral Development (SEDI) OAS Foreign Trade Information System – SICE Outdoor sculpture at the OAS headquarters building. Educational Portal of the Americas OAS Lifts Ban On Cuba
Cuba
After 47 Years by Portia Siegelbaum, CBS News, 3 June 2009. Cuba's Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
Calls OAS a "U.S. Trojan Horse" by Xinhua, 4 June 2009. The Organization
Organization
of American States in Haiti: Election Monitoring or Political Intervention?, from the Center for Economic and Policy Research, October 2011.

v t e

Organization
Organization
of American States (OAS)

Members

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay

Renounced

Venezuela

Organization

Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Pan American Union Building

Politics

Charter Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man American Convention on Human Rights Pan-American Conference Summits of the Americas

Americas Pan American Sports Organization

v t e

Pan-Americanism

History

Spanish American wars of independence Latin American wars of independence Latin American integration North American integration Patria Grande Simón Bolívar José de San Martín Lucas Alamán Inter-American Commission of Women

Organizations

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization
Organization
(ACTO) Andean Community
Andean Community
of Nations (CAN) Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States (ACS) Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas
Americas
(ALBA) Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) Central American Integration System
Central American Integration System
(SICA) Community of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States (CELAC) Contadora group Contadora support group Latin American Economic System
Latin American Economic System
(SELA) Latin American Integration Association
Latin American Integration Association
(ALADI) Lima Group
Lima Group
(LG) Mercosur Organization
Organization
of American States (OAS) Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States (OECS) Organization
Organization
of Ibero-American States (OEI) Pacific Alliance Petrocaribe Rio Group Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur) United Nations
United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean (ECLAC, CEPAL)

Projects

Andean passport CARICOM passport CARICOM Single Market and Economy CARIPASS Central America-4 Border Control Agreement Central America-4 passport Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
Currency Union Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA) Interoceanic Highway SUCRE

Institutions

Andean Parliament Bank of the South Caribbean
Caribbean
Court of Justice Caribbean
Caribbean
Development Bank Central American Parliament Development Bank of Latin America Inter-American Development Bank Latin American Parliament Mercosur
Mercosur
Parliament South American Parliament

Free trade areas

Caribbean
Caribbean
Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) CARIFORUM Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement
Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement
(CAFTA-DR) Economic Partnership Agreements Free Trade Area of the Americas G3 Free Trade Agreement North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)

v t e

Regional organizations

Bodies

African Union Arab League Asia Cooperation Dialogue APEC OCS ASEAN BBIN BIMSTEC Caribbean
Caribbean
Community Central American Integration System Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Nations Community of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States Council of Europe East African Community ECOWAS Economic Cooperation Organization Eurasian Economic Union EU GUAM Gulf Cooperation Council IORA Latin American Parliament Melanesian Spearhead Group Mercosur NATO Nordic Council OAS PIF Polynesian Leaders Group RCEP SCO SAARC TAKM Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat Turkic Council Union of South American Nations V4 West Nordic Council

Topics

Regional integration Regional organizations by population Regionalism (international relations)

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization
Organization
of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organization
(NATO) Organization
Organization
of American States (OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organization
(NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa (BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization
Organization
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

U

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