Old Welsh (Welsh: Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh
language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it
developed into Middle Welsh. The preceding period, from the time
Welsh became distinct from
1.1 Surrexit Memorandum
1.1.1 Text 1.1.2 Translation 1.1.3 Features
2 See also 3 References 4 External links
The oldest surviving text entirely in
Old Welsh is understood to be
that on a gravestone now in
surexit tutbulc filius liuit hagener tutri dierchi tir telih haioid ilau elcu filius gelhig haluidt iuguret amgucant pel amtanndi ho diued diprotant gener tutri o guir imguodant ir degion guragon tagc rodesit elcu guetig equs tres uache, tres uache nouidligi namin ir ni be cas igridu dimedichat guetig hit did braut grefiat guetig nis minn tutbulc hai cenetl in ois oisau
Tudfwlch son of Llywyd and son-in-law of Tudri arose to claim the land of Telych, which was in the hand of Elgu son of Gelli and the tribe of Idwared. They disputed long about it; in the end they disjudge Tudri's son-in-law by law. The goodmen said to each other 'Let us make peace'. Elgu gave afterwards a horse, three cows, three cows newly calved, in order that there might not be hatred between them from the ruling afterwards till the Day of Judgement. Tudfwlch and his kin will not want it for ever and ever.
The text shows many of the early spelling conventions of Welsh, when
Old Welsh Modern Welsh English
tir tir land
lau llaw hand
diued diwedd end
ir yr, y the
nouid newydd new
guetig wedi after
cas cas hatred
hit hyd until
did dydd day
braut brawd brother
in ois oisou yn oes oesoedd for ever and ever
Page 141 (on which the text is written) also appears to hold more text written in Old Welsh below Latin, and a mysterious section where texts appears to have been erased. No translations or transcripts have yet been offered for the text.
It is also unknown why the particular page was used for the glosses as little or no text appears to have been added to any other of the Lichfield Gospels. It is possible that the page was chosen to conceal the later added information. See also
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Old Welsh".
Price, Glanville (1985). The Languages of Britain. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-7131-6452-2. Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
For a list of words relating to Old Welsh, see the Old Welsh language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Old and Middle Welsh by David Willis, University of Cambridge
v t e
History of Welsh Old Welsh Middle Welsh Modern Welsh Patagonian Welsh
Grammar Phonology Morphology Syntax Numerals Orthography
v t e
Celtiberian Cisalpine Gaulish Galatian Gallaecian Gaulish Lepontic Noric
Common Brittonic Old Welsh Middle Welsh Welsh Cumbric Cornish Breton Ivernic
Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Classical Gaelic Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic
Beurla Reagaird Shelta
Gaeltacht Gàidhealtachd Y Fro Gymraeg Lower Brittany Cape Breton Island Y Wladfa
Irish medium education Gaelic medium education Manx medium education Welsh medium education Breton medium education Cornish medium nursery
Italics indicate extinct or ancest