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OLD TORONTO is the retronym of the original city of Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario , Canada
Canada
, from 1834 to 1998. It was first incorporated as a city in 1834, after being known as the Town of York , and became part of York County . In 1954, it became the administrative headquarters for Metropolitan Toronto
Toronto
. It expanded in size by annexation of surrounding municipalities, reaching its final boundaries in 1967. Finally, in 1998, it was amalgamated with the other "Metro" cities (York , North York
North York
, Etobicoke
Etobicoke
, Scarborough ); and the Borough
Borough
of East York , into the present-day "megacity" of Toronto. This was not a traditional annexation of the surrounding municipalities (where a city absorbs the said municipalities but officially remains the same city), but rather a new municipal entity.

Historically, "Old Toronto" referred to Toronto's boundaries before the Great Toronto
Toronto
Fire of 1904 , when much of city's development was to the east of Yonge Street . Post-amalgamation, the former city is variously referred to as the "former city of Toronto" or "Old Toronto". It is sometimes referred to as "downtown" since Downtown Toronto
Toronto
is located in the central part of the district, or as "The Core". Old Toronto
Toronto
has a high population density and would be the densest in Canada
Canada
(third most in North America) among cities with a population over 250,000 if it were still a separate city.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Incorporation, 1834 * 1.2 Ward system * 1.3 City council * 1.4 City halls

* 1.5 City politics

* 1.5.1 The Orange Order

* 2 Fires and fire stations * 3 Health, hospitals, and sanitation

* 4 Culture and recreation

* 4.1 Mechanics Institute and Toronto
Toronto
Public Library * 4.2 Canadian Industrial Exhibition/ Canadian National Exhibition

* 5 Provincial capital * 6 Annexations and amalgamations, 1883–1998 * 7 Demographics * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF TORONTO

HISTORY

Town of York (1793–1834)

City of Toronto (1834–1954)

Metropolitan Toronto
Toronto
(1954–1998)

Toronto
Toronto
(Amalgamated) (1998–present)

EVENTS

Toronto
Toronto
Purchase 1787

Battle of York 1813

Battle of Montgomery\'s Tavern 1837

First Great Fire of Toronto
Toronto
1849

Second Great Fire of Toronto
Toronto
1904

Hurricane Hazel
Hurricane Hazel
(effects ) 1954

First Amalgamation 1967

Second Amalgamation 1998

OTHER

* Etymology of \'Toronto\' * History of Neighbourhoods * Historic places * Lost buildings * Oldest buildings and structures * Timeline of Toronto
Toronto
history

Toronto
Toronto
portal

* v * t * e

INCORPORATION, 1834

Plan of the City of Toronto
Toronto
and Liberties, 1834

The former town of York was incorporated on March 6, 1834, reverting to the name Toronto
Toronto
to distinguish it from New York City, as well as about a dozen other localities named "York" in the province (including the county in which Toronto
Toronto
was situated), and to dissociate itself from the negative connotation of "dirty Little York", a common nickname for the town by its residents. The population was recorded in June 1834 at 9,252.

In 1834, Toronto
Toronto
was incorporated with the boundaries of Bathurst Street to the west, 400 yards north of Lot (today's Queen) Street to the north, and Parliament Street to the east. Outside this formal boundary were the "liberties", land pre-destined to be used for new wards. These boundaries were today's Dufferin Street to the west, Bloor Street to the north, and the Don River to the east, with a section along the lakeshore east of the Don and south of today's Queen Street to the approximate location of today's Maclean Street. The liberties formally became part of the city in 1859 and the wards were remapped.

WARD SYSTEM

City of Toronto
Toronto
width:127px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">Market width:127px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">Second City Hall, 1868

Plan, third city hall, 1899

CITY POLITICS

“ It is a matter of deep regret that political differences should have run high in this place, and led to most discreditable and disgraceful results. It is not long since guns were discharged from a window in this town at the successful candidates in an election, and the coachman of one of them was actually shot in the body, though not dangerously wounded. But one man was killed on the same occasion; and from the very window whence he received his death, the very flag which shielded his murderer (not only in the commission of his crime, but from its consequences), was displayed again on the occasion of the public ceremony performed by the Governor General, to which I have just adverted. Of all the colours in the rainbow, there is but one which could be so employed: I need not say that flag was orange. ”

Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, commenting on 1841 Toronto
Toronto
Orange violence in American Notes for General Circulation, 1842

1834 Act incorporating the City of Toronto
Toronto
Main article: Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion

William Lyon Mackenzie , a Reformer, was Toronto's first mayor, a position he only held for one year, losing to Tory Robert Baldwin Sullivan in 1835. Sullivan was replaced by Dr. Thomas David Morrison in 1836. Another Tory, George Gurnett, was elected in 1837. That year, Toronto
Toronto
was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion . Mackenzie would lead attacks on Toronto
Toronto
in November 1837. The attacks were ineffectual, but loyal militia in Toronto
Toronto
went out to the rebel camp at Montgomery's Tavern and dispersed the rebels. Mackenzie and other Reformers escaped to the United States, while some rebel leaders, such as Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were hanged. Toronto would elect a succession of Tory or Conservative mayors, and it was not until the 1850s that a Reform member would be mayor again.

The Orange Order

Main article: Orange Order in Canada
Canada
Orangemen's Parade in the late 1860s on King Street East

In their efforts to control the city and its citizens, the Tories were willing to turn to extra-governmental tools of social control, such as the Orange Order. As historian Gregory Kealey concluded, "Following the delegitimation of Reform after the Rebellions were suppressed, the Corporation (of Toronto) developed into an impenetrable bastion of Orange-Tory strength." By 1844, six of Toronto's ten aldermen were Orangemen, and over the rest of the 19th century, twenty of twenty-three mayors would be as well. A parliamentary committee reporting on the 1841 Orange Riot in Toronto concluded that the powers granted the Corporation made it ripe for Orange abuse. Orange influence dominated the emerging police force, giving it a "monopoly of legal violence, and the power to choose when to enforce the law." Orange Order violence at elections and other political meetings was a staple of the period. Between 1839 and 1866, the Orange Order was involved in 29 riots in Toronto, of which 16 had direct political inspiration.

At its height in 1942, 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order. Every mayor of Toronto
Toronto
in the first half of the 20th century was an Orangeman. This continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders .

FIRES AND FIRE STATIONS

Main articles: Great Fire of Toronto
Toronto
(1849) and Great Fire of Toronto (1904)

Ruins of the great Toronto
Toronto
fire of 1904

Ruins of University College, University of Toronto, 1890

HEALTH, HOSPITALS, AND SANITATION

Main article: Toronto
Toronto
General Hospital

The Toronto
Toronto
General Hospital started as a small shed in the old town and was used as a military hospital during the War of 1812
War of 1812
, after which it was founded as a permanent institution, York General Hospital, in 1829, at John and King Streets. In 1853–56, a new home for the hospital was built on the north side of Gerrard Street, east of Parliament, using a design by architect William Hay , and relocated to University Avenue at College Street in 1913.

The House of Providence on Power Street (between King and Queen Streets) was opened by the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1857 to aid the plight of the desperately poor. It was demolished in 1962 to make way for the Richmond Street exit from the Don Valley Parkway. By that time it was a nursing home, and its residents moved to a new facility at St. Clair and Warden Avenues, known today as Providence Healthcare.

The House of Refuge was built in 1860 as a home for "vagrants, the dissolute, and for idiots." The building became a smallpox hospital during an epidemic during the 1870s. It was demolished in 1894, and a new structure called the Riverdale Isolation Hospital was built on the site in 1904, which evolved into the Rivderdale Hospital and later Bridgepoint Health.

TORONTO HOSPITALS

House of Refuge, 1860s

House of Providence, 1857

Provincial Lunatic Asylum, 1849

Toronto
Toronto
General Hospital, 1868

Victoria Hospital for Sick Children, College St

CULTURE AND RECREATION

MECHANICS INSTITUTE AND TORONTO PUBLIC LIBRARY

The Mechanics Institute was founded in 1830 by reform Alderman James Lesslie to provide technical and adult education. In 1853 the Institute erected a new permanent home at the corner of Church and Adelaide Streets, but it struggled to attract new paying members. In 1883 the Institute was thus transformed into a municipally supported public reference library. The idea was promoted by alderman John Hallam, but it met considerable resistance in city council. No other city in Canada
Canada
at this time had a completely free public library. Hallam brought the initiative to a public referendum, and the citizens of Toronto
Toronto
voted in its favour on January 1, 1883. The 5,000-book collection of the Mechanics' Institute became the first books of the Toronto
Toronto
Public Library .

Mechanics Institute/Reference Library, 1884

Central Reference Library, College St, 1911

CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION/CANADIAN NATIONAL EXHIBITION

The first Crystal Palace in Toronto, officially named the Palace of Industry, was modelled after the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, England, and it was Toronto's first permanent exhibition hall. Completed in 1858, it was located south of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum, northwest of King and Shaw Streets. It was dismantled in 1878, and the ironwork was used to construct a new Crystal Palace on what would later become Exhibition Place . The second Crystal Palace hosted Toronto's first Industrial Exhibition (the predecessor to the Canadian National Exhibition (CNE)) in 1879. By the time it was destroyed in 1906 by fire, it was officially known as the CNE Transportation Building. It was replaced by the Horticulture Building in 1907.

First Crystal Palace, 1871

Second Crystal Palace, 1890s

City 50th anniversary program, 1884

First electric railway in Canada, 1884

Toronto
Toronto
Industrial Exhibition poster, 1888

PROVINCIAL CAPITAL

The first Upper Canada
Canada
parliament buildings were built in 1796 at Front and Parliament Streets. These were destroyed in the War of 1812. A second building was built nearby on Berkeley Street in 1820, only to be lost to fire in 1824. The third Upper Canada
Canada
parliament buildings were built between 1829 and 1832 near Front, John, Simcoe, and Wellington Streets. Architects of the buildings were J.G. Chewett, Cumberland width:127px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">First Parliament buildings

Second Parliament buildings

Third Parliament buildings

Ontario
Ontario
Legislature nearing the end of construction, 1891

Government House by Staples, 1854

Chorley Park, residence of the Lt-Governor

ANNEXATIONS AND AMALGAMATIONS, 1883–1998

The quintessential symbol of Old Toronto: The "acorn"-style street sign. These are slowly being replaced with a new version used across the amalgamated city

The boundaries of Toronto
Toronto
remained unchanged into the 1880s. Toronto expanded into the west by annexing the Town of Brockton in 1884, the Town of Parkdale in 1889, and properties west to Swansea (such as High Park) by 1893. In the 1880s, Toronto
Toronto
expanded to the north, annexing Yorkville in 1883, the Annex in 1887, and Seaton Village in 1888. In the 1900s, Toronto
Toronto
expanded again to the north, annexing Rosedale in 1905, Deer Park in 1908, the City of West Toronto
Toronto
, Bracondale , and Wychwood in 1909, Earlscourt in 1910, and Moore Park and North Toronto in 1912. To the east, Toronto
Toronto
annexed Riverdale in 1884, a strip east of Greenwood in 1890, East Toronto
Toronto
in 1908, an extension east to Victoria Park Avenue in 1909, and the Midway in 1909. By 1908, the named wards were abolished, replaced by a simple numbering scheme of Ward 1 to Ward 6.

By the 1920s, Toronto
Toronto
stopped annexing suburbs. In 1954, the Metropolitan Toronto
Toronto
federation was formed, which included Toronto
Toronto
and numerous suburbs in a two-tier municipal government and consolidating districts. In a 1967 reform of Metro Toronto, the suburbs of Swansea and Forest Hill were absorbed into Toronto
Toronto
as part of provincial legislation. This completed the City of Toronto's growth in area until the 1998 amalgamation, which differed from the previous annexations, in the fact that the city was formally dissolved, and an officially "new" city was created with the amalgamation with (as opposed to annexation of) the suburban municipalities.

ARMSTRONG, BEERE width:127px;line-height:1.3em;padding:2px 6px 1px 6px;margin:0px;border:none;border-width:0px">King St. West

North, York St.

King St. East

South, to harbour

The panorama

Rossin House Hotel

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATIONS

YEAR POP. ±%

1871 56,092 —

1881 86,415 +54.1%

1891 181,022 +109.5%

1901 208,040 +14.9%