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The Old Testament
Old Testament
(abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible
Bible
(or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites[1][need quotation to verify] believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.[2] The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament. The books that comprise the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon, as well as their order and names, differ between Christian denominations. The Catholic canon comprises 46 books, and the canons of the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
and Oriental Orthodox Churches comprise up to 51 books[3] and the most common Protestant
Protestant
canon comprises 39 books. The 39 books in common to all the Christian canons correspond to the 24 books of the Tanakh, with some differences of order, and there are some differences in text. The additional number reflects the splitting of several texts (Kings, Samuel and Chronicles, Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
and the minor prophets) into separate books in Christian bibles. The books which are part of a Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
but which are not part of the Hebrew canon are sometimes described as deuterocanonical. In general, Protestant
Protestant
Bibles do not include the deuterocanonical books in their canon, but some versions of Anglican
Anglican
and Lutheran
Lutheran
bibles place such books in a separate section called Apocrypha. These extra books are ultimately derived from the earlier Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
collection of the Hebrew scriptures and are also Jewish in origin. Some are also contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Old Testament
Old Testament
consists of many distinct books by various authors produced over a period of centuries.[4] Christians traditionally divide the Old Testament
Old Testament
into four sections: (1) the first five books or Pentateuch (Torah); (2) the history books telling the history of the Israelites, from their conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon; (3) the poetic and "Wisdom books" dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world; and (4) the books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God.

Contents

1 Content

1.1 Table

2 Composition 3 Themes 4 Formation

4.1 Greek 4.2 Latin 4.3 Protestant 4.4 Other versions

5 Christian theology 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Content[edit] Main articles: Biblical canon
Biblical canon
and Development of the Old Testament canon The Old Testament
Old Testament
contains 39 (Protestant), 46 (Catholic), or more (Orthodox and other) books, divided, very broadly, into the Pentateuch (Torah), the historical books, the "wisdom" books and the prophets.[5] Table[edit] The table uses the spellings and names present in modern editions of the Christian Bible, such as the Catholic New American Bible
Bible
Revised Edition and the Protestant
Protestant
Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
and English Standard Version. The spelling and names in both the 1609–10 Douay Old Testament
Old Testament
(and in the 1582 Rheims New Testament) and the 1749 revision by Bishop Challoner
Bishop Challoner
(the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English) and in the Septuagint
Septuagint
differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions which are derived from the Hebrew Masoretic text.[a] For the Orthodox canon, Septuagint
Septuagint
titles are provided in parentheses when these differ from those editions. For the Catholic canon, the Douaic titles are provided in parentheses when these differ from those editions. Likewise, the King James Version
King James Version
references some of these books by the traditional spelling when referring to them in the New Testament, such as "Esaias" (for Isaiah). In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations (e.g. the New American Bible, Jerusalem Bible, and ecumenical translations used by Catholics, such as the Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
Catholic Edition) use the same "standardized" (King James Version) spellings and names as Protestant
Protestant
Bibles (e.g. 1 Chronicles as opposed to the Douaic 1 Paralipomenon, 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings instead of 1–4 Kings) in those books which are universally considered canonical, the protocanonicals. The Talmud
Talmud
(the Jewish commentary on the scriptures) in Bava Batra 14b gives a different order for the books in Nevi'im
Nevi'im
and Ketuvim. This order is also cited in Mishneh Torah
Torah
Hilchot Sefer Torah
Torah
7:15. The order of the books of the Torah
Torah
is universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity. The disputed books, included in one canon but not in others, are often called the Biblical apocrypha, a term that is sometimes used specifically to describe the books in the Catholic and Orthodox canons that are absent from the Jewish Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
and most modern Protestant
Protestant
Bibles. Catholics, following the Canon of Trent (1546), describe these books as deuterocanonical, while Greek Orthodox Christians, following the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), use the traditional name of anagignoskomena, meaning "that which is to be read." They are present in a few historic Protestant
Protestant
versions; the German Luther Bible
Bible
included such books, as did the English 1611 King James Version.[b] Empty table cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon.

Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) (24 books)[c] Books in bold are part of the Ketuvim Protestant Old Testament (39 books) Catholic Old Testament (46 books) Eastern Orthodox Old Testament (50 books) Original language

Torah

Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses

Bereishit Genesis Genesis Genesis Hebrew

Shemot Exodus Exodus Exodus Hebrew

Vayikra Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Hebrew

Bamidbar Numbers Numbers Numbers Hebrew

Devarim Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Hebrew

Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(Prophets)

Historical books

Yehoshua Joshua Joshua (Josue) Joshua (Iesous) Hebrew

Shofetim Judges Judges Judges Hebrew

Rut (Ruth)[d] Ruth Ruth Ruth Hebrew

Shemuel 1 Samuel 1 Samuel (1 Kings)[e] 1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)[f] Hebrew

2 Samuel 2 Samuel (2 Kings)[e] 2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)[f] Hebrew

Melakhim 1 Kings 1 Kings (3 Kings)[e] 1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)[f] Hebrew

2 Kings 2 Kings (4 Kings)[e] 2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)[f] Hebrew

Divrei Hayamim (Chronicles)[d] 1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles (1 Paralipomenon) 1 Chronicles (1 Paralipomenon) Hebrew

2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles (2 Paraleipomenon) 2 Chronicles (2 Paraleipomenon) Hebrew

1 Esdras[g][h] Hebrew

Ezra–Nehemiah[d] Ezra Ezra (1 Esdras) Ezra (2 Esdras)[f][i][j] Hebrew and Aramaic

Nehemiah Nehemiah (2 Esdras) Nehemiah (2 Esdras)[f][i] Hebrew

Tobit (Tobias) Tobit[g] Aramaic (and Hebrew?)

Judith Judith[g] Hebrew

Esther[d] Esther Esther[k] Esther[k] Hebrew

1 Maccabees
1 Maccabees
(1 Machabees)[l] 1 Maccabees[g] Hebrew

2 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
(2 Machabees)[l] 2 Maccabees[g] Greek

3 Maccabees[g] Greek

3 Esdras[g] Greek?

4 Maccabees[m] Greek

Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(Writings) Wisdom books

Iyov (Job)[d] Job Job Job Hebrew

Tehillim (Psalms)[d] Psalms Psalms Psalms[n] Hebrew

Prayer of Manasseh[o] Greek

Mishlei (Proverbs)[d] Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Hebrew

Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes)[d] Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Hebrew

Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs)[d] Song of Solomon Song of Songs
Song of Songs
(Canticle of Canticles) Song of Songs
Song of Songs
(Aisma Aismaton) Hebrew

Wisdom Wisdom[g] Greek

Sirach
Sirach
(Ecclesiasticus) Sirach[g] Hebrew

Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(Latter Prophets) Major prophets

Yeshayahu Isaiah Isaiah (Isaias) Isaiah Hebrew

Yirmeyahu Jeremiah Jeremiah (Jeremias) Jeremiah Hebrew

Eikhah (Lamentations)[d] Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations Hebrew

Baruch[p] Baruch[p][g] Hebrew[7]

Letter of Jeremiah[q][g] Greek (majority view)[r]

Yekhezqel Ezekiel Ezekiel (Ezechiel) Ezekiel Hebrew

Daniel[d] Daniel Daniel[s] Daniel[s] Hebrew and Aramaic

Twelve Minor Prophets

The Twelve or Trei Asar Hosea Hosea (Osee) Hosea Hebrew

Joel Joel Joel Hebrew

Amos Amos Amos Hebrew

Obadiah Obadiah (Abdias) Obadiah Hebrew

Jonah Jonah (Jonas) Jonah Hebrew

Micah Micah (Michaeas) Micah Hebrew

Nahum Nahum Nahum Hebrew

Habakkuk Habakkuk (Habacuc) Habakkuk Hebrew

Zephaniah Zephaniah
Zephaniah
(Sophonias) Zephaniah Hebrew

Haggai Haggai (Aggaeus) Haggai Hebrew

Zechariah Zechariah (Zacharias) Zechariah Hebrew

Malachi Malachi (Malachias) Malachi Hebrew

Several of the books in the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
canon are also found in the appendix to the Latin Vulgate, formerly the official bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

Books in the Appendix to the Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible

Name in Vulgate Name in Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
use

3 Esdras 1 Esdras

4 Esdras

Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh

Psalm of David when he slew Goliath (Psalm 151) Psalm 151

Composition[edit] The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
– reached their present form in the Persian period (538–332 BC), and their authors were the elite of exilic returnees who controlled the Temple at that time.[8] The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, forming a history of Israel from the Conquest of Canaan
Conquest of Canaan
to the Siege of Jerusalem c. 587 BC. There is a broad consensus among scholars that these originated as a single work (the so-called "Deuteronomistic history") during the Babylonian exile of the 6th century BC.[9] The two Books of Chronicles
Books of Chronicles
cover much the same material as the Pentateuch and Deuteronomistic history and probably date from the 4th century BC.[10] Chronicles, and Ezra–Nehemiah, were probably finished during the 3rd century BC.[11] Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain two (Catholic Old Testament) to four (Orthodox) Books of Maccabees, written in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. These history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. Of the remainder, the books of the various prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and the twelve "minor prophets" – were written between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, with the exceptions of Jonah and Daniel, which were written much later.[12] The "wisdom" books – Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Psalms, Song of Solomon
Song of Solomon
– have various dates: Proverbs possibly was completed by the Hellenistic time (332-198 BC), though containing much older material as well; Job completed by the 6th Century BC; Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes
by the 3rd Century BC.[13] Themes[edit] God is consistently depicted as the one who created the world. Although the God of the Old Testament
Old Testament
is not consistently presented as the only God who exists, he is always depicted as the only God whom Israel is to worship, or the one "true God", that only the Jehovah of Israel is Almighty, and both Jews and Christians have always interpreted the Bible
Bible
(both the "Old" and "New" Testaments) as an affirmation of the oneness of Almighty God.[14] The Old Testament
Old Testament
stresses the special relationship between God and his chosen people, Israel, but includes instructions for proselytes as well. This relationship is expressed in the biblical covenant (contract) between the two, received by Moses. The law codes in books such as Exodus and especially Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
are the terms of the contract: Israel swears faithfulness to God, and God swears to be Israel's special protector and supporter.[14] Further themes in the Old Testament
Old Testament
include salvation, redemption, divine judgment, obedience and disobedience, faith and faithfulness, among others. Throughout there is a strong emphasis on ethics and ritual purity, both of which God demands, although some of the prophets and wisdom writers seem to question this, arguing that God demands social justice above purity, and perhaps does not even care about purity at all. The Old Testament's moral code enjoins fairness, intervention on behalf of the vulnerable, and the duty of those in power to administer justice righteously. It forbids murder, bribery and corruption, deceitful trading, and many sexual misdemeanors. All morality is traced back to God, who is the source of all goodness.[15] The problem of evil plays a large part in the Old Testament. The problem the Old Testament
Old Testament
authors faced was that a good God must have had just reason for bringing disaster (meaning notably, but not only, the Babylonian exile) upon his people. The theme is played out, with many variations, in books as different as the histories of Kings and Chronicles, the prophets like Ezekiel and Jeremiah, and in the wisdom books like Job and Ecclesiastes.[15] Formation[edit] Main articles: Books of the Bible
Bible
and Biblical canon See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
canon, Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon, Septuagint, and Books of the Latin Vulgate

The interrelationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament, according to the Encyclopaedia Biblica
Encyclopaedia Biblica
(1903). Some manuscripts are identified by their siglum. LXX
LXX
here denotes the original Septuagint.

The process by which scriptures became canons and Bibles was a long one, and its complexities account for the many different Old Testaments which exist today. Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible
Bible
and Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, identifies the Old Testament
Old Testament
as "a collection of authoritative texts of apparently divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."[4] He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. By about the 5th century BC Jews saw the five books of the Torah
Torah
(the Old Testament Pentateuch) as having authoritative status; by the 2nd century BC the Prophets had a similar status, although without quite the same level of respect as the Torah; beyond that, the Jewish scriptures were fluid, with different groups seeing authority in different books.[16] Greek[edit] See also: Septuagint
Septuagint
and Masoretic Text Hebrew texts commenced to be translated into Greek in Alexandria
Alexandria
in about 280 and continued until about 130 BC.[17] These early Greek translations – supposedly commissioned by Ptolemy Philadelphus – were called the Septuagint
Septuagint
(Latin: "Seventy") from the supposed number of translators involved (hence its abbreviation "LXX"). This Septuagint
Septuagint
remains the basis of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[18] It varies in many places from the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
and includes numerous books no longer considered canonical in some traditions: 1 and 2 Esdras, Judith, Tobit, 3 and 4 Maccabees, the Book
Book
of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch.[19] Early modern Biblical criticism
Biblical criticism
typically explained these variations as intentional or ignorant corruptions by the Alexandrian scholars, but most recent scholarship holds it is simply based on early source texts differing from those later used by the Masoretes in their work. The Septuagint
Septuagint
was originally used by Hellenized Jews whose knowledge of Greek was better than Hebrew. But the texts came to be used predominantly by gentile converts to Christianity
Christianity
and by the early Church as its scripture, Greek being the lingua franca of the early Church. The three most acclaimed early interpreters were Aquila of Sinope, Symmachus the Ebionite, and Theodotion; in his Hexapla, Origen placed his edition of the Hebrew text beside its transcription in Greek letters and four parallel translations: Aquila's, Symmachus's, the Septuagint's, and Theodotion's. The so-called "fifth" and "sixth editions" were two other Greek translations supposedly miraculously discovered by students outside the towns of Jericho
Jericho
and Nicopolis: these were added to Origen's Octapla.[20] In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius
Eusebius
to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius[21] recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
and Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus
are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta
Peshitta
and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles.[22] There is no evidence among the canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon, however, Jerome
Jerome
(347–420), in his Prologue to Judith, makes the claim that the Book
Book
of Judith
Judith
was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".[23] Latin[edit] See also: Deuterocanonical books
Deuterocanonical books
and Vulgate In Western Christianity
Christianity
or Christianity
Christianity
in the Western half of the Roman Empire, Latin had displaced Greek as the common language of the early Christians, and in 382 AD Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I
commissioned Jerome, the leading scholar of the day, to produce an updated Latin bible to replace the Vetus Latina, which was a Latin translation of the Septuagint. Jerome's work, called the Vulgate, was a direct translation from Hebrew, since he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint
Septuagint
on both philological and theological grounds.[24] His Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testament
Old Testament
became the standard bible used in the Western Church, specifically as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, while the Churches in the East continued, and still continue, to use the Septuagint.[25] Jerome, however, in the Vulgate's prologues describes some portions of books in the Septuagint
Septuagint
not found in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
as being non-canonical (he called them apocrypha);[26] for Baruch, he mentions by name in his Prologue to Jeremiah and notes that it is neither read nor held among the Hebrews, but does not explicitly call it apocryphal or "not in the canon".[27] The Synod of Hippo (in 393), followed by the Council of Carthage (397)
Council of Carthage (397)
and the Council of Carthage
Carthage
(419), may be the first council that explicitly accepted the first canon which includes the books that did not appear in the Hebrew Bible;[28] the councils were under significant influence of Augustine of Hippo, who regarded the canon as already closed.[29] Protestant[edit] In the 16th century, the Protestant
Protestant
reformers sided with Jerome; yet although most Protestant
Protestant
Bibles now have only those books that appear in the Hebrew Bible, they have them in the order of the Greek Bible.[30] Rome then officially adopted a canon, the Canon of Trent, which is seen as following Augustine's Carthaginian Councils[31] or the Council of Rome,[32][33] and includes most, but not all, of the Septuagint
Septuagint
(3 Ezra and 3 and 4 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
are excluded);[34] the Anglicans after the English Civil War
English Civil War
adopted a compromise position, restoring the 39 Articles and keeping the extra books that were excluded by the Westminster Confession of Faith, but only for private study and for reading in churches, while Lutherans kept them for private study, gathered in an appendix as Biblical Apocrypha.[30] Other versions[edit] While the Hebrew, Greek and Latin versions of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
are the best known Old Testaments, there were others. At much the same time as the Septuagint
Septuagint
was being produced, translations were being made into Aramaic, the language of Jews living in Palestine and the Near East and likely the language of Jesus: these are called the Aramaic Targums, from a word meaning "translation", and were used to help Jewish congregations understand their scriptures.[35] For Aramaic Christians there was a Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
called the Peshitta, as well as versions in Coptic (the everyday language of Egypt in the first Christian centuries, descended from ancient Egyptian), Ethiopic
Ethiopic
(for use in the Ethiopian church, one of the oldest Christian churches), Armenian (Armenia was the first to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as its official religion), and Arabic.[35] Christian theology[edit] Main article: Christian views on the Old Covenant Christianity
Christianity
is based on the belief that the historical Jesus
Jesus
is also the Christ, as in the Confession of Peter. This belief is in turn based on Jewish understandings of the meaning of the Hebrew term messiah, which, like the Greek "Christ", means "anointed". In the Hebrew Scriptures it describes a king anointed with oil on his accession to the throne: he becomes "The LORD's anointed" or Yahweh's Anointed. By the time of Jesus, some Jews expected that a flesh and blood descendant of David (the "Son of David") would come to establish a real Jewish kingdom in Jerusalem, instead of the Roman province.[36] Others stressed the Son of Man, a distinctly other-worldly figure who would appear as a judge at the end of time; and some harmonised the two by expecting a this-worldly messianic kingdom which would last for a set period and be followed by the other-worldly age or World to Come. Some thought the Messiah
Messiah
was already present, but unrecognised due to Israel's sins; some thought that the Messiah
Messiah
would be announced by a fore-runner, probably Elijah
Elijah
(as promised by the prophet Malachi, whose book now ends the Old Testament
Old Testament
and precedes Mark's account of John the Baptist). None predicted a Messiah
Messiah
who suffers and dies for the sins of all the people.[36] The story of Jesus' death therefore involved a profound shift in meaning from the tradition of the Old Testament.[37] The name "Old Testament" reflects Christianity's understanding of itself as the fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy of a New Covenant (which is similar to "testament" and often conflated) to replace the existing covenant between God and Israel (Jeremiah 31:31).[1] The emphasis, however, has shifted from Judaism's understanding of the covenant as a racially or tribally-based contract between God and Jews to one between God and any person of faith who is "in Christ".[38] See also[edit]

Abrogation of Old Covenant laws Biblical and Quranic narratives Book
Book
of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts Books of the Bible Covenant (biblical) Expounding of the Law Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Law and Gospel List of ancient legal codes List of Hebrew Bible
Bible
manuscripts Marcion of Sinope Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible Quotations from the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in the New Testament Supersessionism

Notes[edit]

^ Generally due to derivation from transliterations of names used in the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
in the case of Catholicism, and from transliterations of the Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
in the case of the Orthodox (as opposed to derivation of translations, instead of transliterations, of Hebrew titles) such Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
(DRC) instead of Sirach
Sirach
(LXX) or Ben Sira
Ben Sira
(Hebrew), Paralipomenon
Paralipomenon
(Greek, meaning "things omitted") instead of Chronicles, Sophonias instead of Zephaniah, Noe instead of Noah, Henoch instead of Enoch, Messias instead of Messiah, Sion instead of Zion, etc. ^ The foundational Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
of Anglicanism, in Article VI, asserts these disputed books are not used "to establish any doctrine", but "read for example of life." Although the Biblical apocrypha
Biblical apocrypha
are still used in Anglican
Anglican
Liturgy,[6] the modern trend is to not even print the Old Testament
Old Testament
apocrypha in editions of Anglican-used Bibles. ^ The 24 books of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
are the same as the 39 books of the Protestant
Protestant
Old Testament, only divided and ordered differently: the books of the Minor Prophets are in Christian Bibles twelve different books, and in Hebrew Bibles, one book called "The Twelve". Likewise, Christian Bibles divide the Books of Kingdoms into four books, either 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings or 1–4 Kings: Jewish Bibles divide these into two books. The Jews likewise keep 1–2 Chronicles/ Paralipomenon
Paralipomenon
as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah
Ezra and Nehemiah
are likewise combined in the Jewish Bible, as they are in many Orthodox Bibles, instead of divided into two books, as per the Catholic and Protestant tradition. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k This book is part of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish canon. They have a different order in Jewish canon than in Christian canon. ^ a b c d The books of Samuel and Kings are often called First through Fourth Kings in the Catholic tradition, much like the Orthodox. ^ a b c d e f Names in parentheses are the Septuagint
Septuagint
names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k One of 11 deuterocanonical books in the Russian Synodal Bible. ^ 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
in the Russian Synodal Bible. ^ a b Some Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches follow the Septuagint
Septuagint
and Hebrew Bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Ezra and Nehemiah
as one book. ^ 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
in the Russian Synodal Bible. ^ a b The Catholic and Orthodox Book
Book
of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant
Protestant
Book
Book
of Esther. ^ a b The Latin Vulgate, Douay-Rheims, and Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition place First and Second Maccabees
Maccabees
after Malachi; other Catholic translations place them after Esther. ^ In Greek Bibles, 4 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
is found in the appendix. ^ Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches include Psalm 151
Psalm 151
and the Prayer of Manasseh, not present in all canons. ^ Part of 2 Paralipomenon
Paralipomenon
in the Russian Synodal Bible. ^ a b In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant
Protestant
Bible
Bible
or the Tanakh. ^ Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate. ^ Hebrew (minority view); see Letter of Jeremiah
Letter of Jeremiah
for details. ^ a b In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant
Protestant
Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23–24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon
Bel and the Dragon
is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant
Protestant
Old Testament.

References[edit]

^ a b Jones 2001, p. 215. ^ Preface to the New Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
Anglicised Edition ^ Barton 2001, p. 3. ^ a b Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 41.  ^ Boadt 1984, pp. 11, 15–16. ^ The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments (PDF), Orthodox Anglican, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-05, Two of the hymns used in the American Prayer Book
Book
office of Morning Prayer, the Benedictus es and Benedicite, are taken from the Apocrypha. One of the offertory sentences in Holy Communion comes from an apocryphal book (Tob. 4: 8–9). Lessons from the Apocrypha are regularly appointed to be read in the daily, Sunday, and special services of Morning and Evening Prayer. There are altogether 111 such lessons in the latest revised American Prayer Book
Book
Lectionary [Books used are: II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Three Holy Children, and I Maccabees.]  ^ "Baruch", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911  ^ Blenkinsopp 1998, p. 184. ^ Rogerson 2003, pp. 153–54. ^ Coggins 2003, p. 282. ^ Grabbe 2003, pp. 213–14. ^ Miller 1987, pp. 10–11. ^ Crenshaw 2010, p. 5. ^ a b Barton 2001, p. 9. ^ a b Barton 2001, p. 10. ^ Brettler 2005, p. 274. ^ Gentry 2008, p. 302. ^ Würthwein 1995. ^ Jones 2001, p. 216. ^ Cave, William. A complete history of the lives, acts, and martyrdoms of the holy apostles, and the two evangelists, St. Mark and Luke, Vol. II. Wiatt (Philadelphia), 1810. Retrieved 6 Feb 2013. ^ Apol. Const. 4 ^ The Canon Debate, pp. 414–15, for the entire paragraph ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Book
Book
of Judith". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Canonicity: "..."the Synod of Nicaea is said to have accounted it as Sacred Scripture" (Praef. in Lib.). It is true that no such declaration is to be found in the Canons of Nicaea, and it is uncertain whether St. Jerome
Jerome
is referring to the use made of the book in the discussions of the council, or whether he was misled by some spurious canons attributed to that council". ^ Rebenich, S., Jerome
Jerome
(Routledge, 2013), p. 58. ISBN 9781134638444 ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 91–99. ^ "The Bible".  ^ Kevin P. Edgecomb, Jerome's Prologue to Jeremiah  ^ McDonald & Sanders, editors of The Canon Debate, 2002, chapter 5: The Septuagint: The Bible
Bible
of Hellenistic Judaism by Albert C. Sundberg Jr., page 72, Appendix D-2, note 19. ^ Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament
New Testament
Canon", in The Canon Debate. eds. L. M. McDonald & J. A. Sanders (Hendrickson, 2002) p. 320; F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Intervarsity Press, 1988) p. 230; cf. Augustine, De Civitate Dei 22.8 ^ a b Barton 1997, pp. 80–81. ^ Philip Schaff, "Chapter IX. Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy", History of the Christian Church, CCEL  ^ Lindberg (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. p. 15.  ^ F.L. Cross, E.A. Livingstone, ed. (1983), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 232  ^ Soggin 1987, p. 19. ^ a b Würthwein 1995, pp. 79–90, 100–4. ^ a b Farmer 1991, pp. 570–71. ^ Juel 2000, pp. 236–39. ^ Herion 2000, pp. 291–92.

Bibliography[edit]

Bandstra, Barry L (2004), Reading the Old Testament: an introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth, ISBN 978-0-495-39105-0  Barton, John (1997), How the Bible
Bible
came to be, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-25785-9  ——— (2001), "Introduction to the Old Testament", in Muddiman, John; Barton, John, Bible
Bible
Commentary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-875500-5  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1998), "The Pentateuch", in Barton, John, The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7  Boadt, Lawrence (1984), Reading the Old Testament: an introduction, Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-8091-2631-6  Brettler, Marc Zvi (2005), How to read the Bible, Jewish Publication Society, ISBN 978-0-8276-1001-9  Bultman, Christoph (2001), "Deuteronomy", in Barton, John; Muddiman, John, Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-875500-5  Coggins, Richard J (2003), "1 and 2 Chronicles", in Dunn, James DG; Rogerson, John William, Commentary on the Bible, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0  Crenshaw, James L (2010), Old Testament
Old Testament
wisdom: an introduction, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-23459-1  Davies, GI (1998), "Introduction to the Pentateuch", in Barton, John, Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-875500-5  Dines, Jennifer M (2004), "The Septuagint", Continuum, ISBN 978-0-567-08464-4  Farmer, Ron (1991), "Messiah/Christ", in Mills, Watson E; Bullard, Roger Aubrey, Mercer dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press, ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7  Gentry, Peter R (2008), "Old Greek and Later Revisors", in Sollamo, Raija; Voitila, Anssi; Jokiranta, Jutta, Scripture in transition, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16582-3  Grabbe, Lester L (2003), "Ezra", in Dunn, James DG; Rogerson, John William, Commentary on the Bible, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0  Hasel, Gerhard F (1991), Old Testament
Old Testament
theology: basic issues in the current debate, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-0537-9  Herion, Gary A (2000), "Covenant", in Freedman, David Noel, Dictionary of the Bible, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2  Jobes, Karen H; Silva, Moises (2005), Invitation to the Septuagint, Baker Academic  Jones, Barry A (2000), "Canon of the Old Testament", in Freedman, David Noel, Dictionary of the Bible, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2  Juel, Donald (2000), "Christ", in Freedman, David Noel, Dictionary of the Bible, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2  Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  McLay, Tim (2003), The use of the Septuagint
Septuagint
in New Testament research, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-6091-0  Miller, John W (2004), How the Bible
Bible
came to be, Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-8091-4183-8  Miller, John W (1987), Meet the prophets: a beginner's guide to the books of the biblical prophets, Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-8091-2899-0  Miller, Stephen R. (1994), Daniel, B&H Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8054-0118-0  Rogerson, John W (2003), "Deuteronomy", in Dunn, James DG; Rogerson, John William, Commentary on the Bible, Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0  Sailhamer, John H. (1992), The Pentateuch As Narrative, Zondervan, ISBN 0-310-57421-8  Schniedewind, William M (2004), How the Bible
Bible
Became a Book, Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-521-53622-6  Soggin, J. Alberto (1987), Introduction to the Old Testament, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-22156-0  Stuart, Douglas (1987), Hosea-Jonah, Thomas Nelson, ISBN 0-8499-0230-4  Würthwein, Ernst (1995), The text of the Old Testament: an introduction to the Biblia Hebraica, William B Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-0788-5 

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, Bernhard. Understanding the Old Testament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3 Bahnsen, Greg, et al., Five Views on Law and Gospel
Law and Gospel
(Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993). Berkowitz, Ariel; Berkowitz, D'vorah (2004), Torah
Torah
Rediscovered (4th ed.), Shoreshim, ISBN 0-9752914-0-8 . Dever, William G. (2003), Who Were the Early Israelites?, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B Eerdmans, ISBN 0-8028-0975-8 . von Rad, Gerhard (1982–1984), Theologie des Alten Testaments [Theology of the Old Testament] (in German), Band 1–2, Munich: Auflage . Hill, Andrew; Walton, John (2000), A Survey of the Old Testament
Old Testament
(2nd ed.), Grand Rapids: Zondervan, ISBN 0-310-22903-0 . Kuntz, John Kenneth (1974), The People of Ancient Israel: an introduction to Old Testament
Old Testament
Literature, History, and Thought, Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-043822-3 . Lancaster, D Thomas (2005), Restoration: Returning the Torah
Torah
of God to the Disciples of Jesus, Littleton : First Fruits of Zion . Papadaki-Oekland, Stella, Byzantine Illuminated Manuscripts of the Book
Book
of Job, ISBN 978-2-503-53232-5 . Rouvière, Jean-Marc (2006), Brèves méditations sur la Création du monde [Brief meditations on the creation of the World] (in French), Paris: L'Harmattan . Salibi, Kamal (1985), The Bible
Bible
Came from Arabia, London: Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-224-02830-8 . Schmid, Konrad (2012), The Old Testament: A Literary History, Minneapolis: Fortress, ISBN 978-0-8006-9775-4 . Silberman, Neil A; et al. (2003), The Bible
Bible
Unearthed (hardback)format= requires url= (help), New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 , ISBN 0-684-86913-6 (paperback). Sprinkle, Joseph ‘Joe’ M (2006), Biblical Law and Its Relevance: A Christian Understanding and Ethical Application for Today of the Mosaic Regulations (clothbound)format= requires url= (help), Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-3371-4  and ISBN 0-7618-3372-2 (paperback).

External links[edit]

"The Old Testament
Old Testament
Canon", Scripture & tradition, Church Fathers . Bible
Bible
gateway . Full texts of the Old (and New) Testaments including the full Roman and Orthodox Catholic canons. "Old Testament", Écritures, La feuille d'Olivier, archived from the original on 2010-12-07 . Protestant
Protestant
Old Testament
Old Testament
on a single page. "Old Testament", Reading Room, CA: Tyndale Seminary . Extensive online OT resources (incl. commentaries). "Old Testament", Religious studies (video) (lectures), Yale University, 2011-11-30 . Bible, X10 host : Old Testament
Old Testament
stories and commentary. Old Testament
Old Testament
Timeline (PDF), LDS . Tanakh
Tanakh
ML (parallel Bible)  – Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and the King James Version.

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