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Ojibwe
Ojibwe
/oʊˈdʒɪbweɪ/,[3] also known as Ojibwa,[1][2][4][5] Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,[6] is an Indigenous language of North America, also known as Turtle Island, of the Algonquian language family.[7][8] The language is characterized by a series of dialects that have local names and frequently local writing systems. There is no single dialect that is considered the most prestigious or most prominent, and no standard writing system that covers all dialects. The relative autonomy of its regional dialects is associated with an absence of linguistic or political unity among Ojibwe-speaking groups. Dialects of Ojibwemowin are spoken in Canada, from southwestern Quebec, through Ontario, Manitoba
Manitoba
and parts of Saskatchewan, with outlying communities in Alberta;[9][10] and in the United States, from Michigan
Michigan
to Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota, with a number of communities in North Dakota
North Dakota
and Montana, as well as groups that removed to Kansas
Kansas
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
during the Indian Removal period.[10][11] While there is some variation in the classification of its dialects, at least the following are recognized, from east to west: Algonquin, Eastern Ojibwe, Ottawa (Odawa), Western Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Saulteaux), Oji-Cree (Severn Ojibwe), Northwestern Ojibwe, and Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Chippewa). Based upon contemporary field research, J. R. Valentine also recognizes several other dialects: Berens Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in northwestern Ontario, which he distinguishes from Northwestern Ojibwe; North of (Lake) Superior; and Nipissing. The latter two cover approximately the same territory as Central Ojibwa, which he does not recognize.[12] The aggregated dialects of Ojibwemowin comprise the second most commonly spoken First Nations
First Nations
language in Canada
Canada
(after Cree),[13] and the fourth most widely spoken in the United States
United States
or Canada
Canada
behind Navajo, the Inuit languages
Inuit languages
and Cree.[citation needed] Ojibwemowin is a relatively healthy indigenous language. The Waadookodaading Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Immersion School teaches all classes to children in Ojibwe
Ojibwe
only.[14]

Contents

1 Classification

1.1 Exonyms and endonyms 1.2 Relationship with Potawatomi

2 Geographic distribution

2.1 Dialects 2.2 Lingua franca 2.3 Influence on other languages

3 Phonology 4 Grammar 5 Vocabulary

5.1 Loanwords and neologisms 5.2 Dialect
Dialect
variation 5.3 Sample vocabulary

6 Writing system

6.1 Double vowel system

7 Sample text and analysis

7.1 Text 7.2 Translation 7.3 Gloss

8 Notable speakers 9 Mobile learning apps 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Classification[edit] The Algonquian language family of which Ojibwemowin is a member is itself a member of the Algic language family, other Algic languages being Wiyot and Yurok.[7] Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is sometimes described as a Central Algonquian language, along with Fox, Cree, Menominee, Miami-Illinois, Potawatomi, and Shawnee.[7] Central Algonquian is a geographical term of convenience rather than a genetic subgroup, and its use does not indicate that the Central languages are more closely related to each other than to the other Algonquian languages.[15] Exonyms and endonyms[edit] The most general Indigenous designation for the language is Anishinaabemowin 'speaking the native language' ( Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
'native person,' verb suffix –mo 'speak a language,' suffix –win 'nominalizer'),[16][17] with varying spellings and pronunciations depending upon dialect. Some speakers use the term Ojibwemowin.[18][19] The general term in Oji-Cree (Severn Ojibwe) is Anihshininiimowin, although Anishinaabemowin is widely recognized by Severn speakers.[18] Some speakers of Saulteaux
Saulteaux
Ojibwe
Ojibwe
refer to their language as Nakawemowin.[18] The Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
is sometimes referred to as Daawaamwin,[20] although the general designation is Nishnaabemwin, with the latter term also applied to Jibwemwin or Eastern Ojibwe.[21] Other local terms are listed in Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects. English terms include Ojibwe, with variants including Ojibwa and Ojibway.[22] The related term Chippewa is more commonly employed in the United States
United States
and in southwestern Ontario
Ontario
among descendants of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
migrants from the United States.[23] Relationship with Potawatomi[edit] Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Potawatomi are frequently viewed as being more closely related to each other than to other Algonquian languages.[24] Ojibwe and Potawatomi have been proposed as likely candidates for forming a genetic subgroup within Proto-Algonquian, although the required research to ascertain the linguistic history and status of a hypothetical "Ojibwe–Potawatomi" subgroup has not yet been undertaken. A discussion of Algonquian family subgroups indicates that "Ojibwe–Potawatomi is another possibility that awaits investigation."[25] In a proposed consensus classification of Algonquian languages, Goddard (1996) classifies Ojibwa and Potawatomi as "Ojibwayan," although no supporting evidence is adduced.[26] The Central languages share a significant number of common features. These features can generally attributed to diffusion of features through borrowing: "Extensive lexical, phonological, and perhaps grammatical borrowing—the diffusion of elements and features across language boundaries—appears to have been the major factor in giving the languages in the area of the Upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
their generally similar cast, and it has not been possible to find any shared innovations substantial enough to require the postulation of a genetically distinct Central Algonquian subgroup."[25] The possibility that the proposed genetic subgrouping of Ojibwa and Potawatomi can also be accounted for as diffusion has also been raised: "The putative Ojibwa–Potawatomi subgroup is similarly open to question, but cannot be evaluated without more information on Potawatomi dialects."[27] Geographic distribution[edit]

Pre-contact distribution of the Plains Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwe (Chippewa), and Algonquin dialects of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
communities are found in Canada
Canada
from southwestern Quebec, through Ontario, southern Manitoba
Manitoba
and parts of southern Saskatchewan; and in the United States
United States
from northern Michigan
Michigan
through northern Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and northern Minnesota, with a number of communities in northern North Dakota
North Dakota
and northern Montana.[28] Groups of speakers of the Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
migrated to Kansas
Kansas
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
during the historical period, with a small amount of linguistic documentation of the language in Oklahoma.[29] The presence of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in British Columbia has been noted.[10] Current census data indicate that all varieties of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
are spoken by approximately 56,531 people. This figure reflects census data from the 2000 United States
United States
census and the 2006 Canadian census. The Ojibwe language is reported as spoken by a total of 8,791 people in the United States[30] of which 7,355 are Native Americans[31] and by as many as 47,740 in Canada,[13] making it one of the largest Algic languages by numbers of speakers.[13]

Language Canada
Canada
(2016) Canada
Canada
(2011) United States Total (by speakers) Total ethnic population

Algonquin 1,660 2,680[13] 0 2,680 8,266

Oji-Cree 13,630 12,600[13] 0 12,600 12,600

Ojibwe 20,470 24,896[32] 8,355[30] 33,251 219,711

Ottawa 165 7,564[33] 436[31] 8,000[34] 60,000[34]

Total (by Country) 35,925 47,740 8,791 56,531 300,577

The Red Lake, White Earth, and Leech Lake reservations are known for their tradition of singing hymns in the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language.[35] As of 2011, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is the official language of Red Lake.[36] Dialects[edit] Main article: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects Because the dialects of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
are at least partly mutually intelligible, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is usually considered to be a single language with a number of dialects, i.e. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is "... conventionally regarded as a single language consisting of a continuum of dialectal varieties since ... every dialect is at least partly intelligible to the speakers of the neighboring dialects."[37] The degree of mutually intelligibility between nonadjacent dialects varies considerably; recent research has shown that there is strong differentiation between the Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
spoken in southern Ontario and northern Michigan; the Severn Ojibwa dialect spoken in northern Ontario
Ontario
and Manitoba; and the Algonquin dialect spoken in southwestern Quebec.[38] Valentine notes that isolation is the most plausible explanation for the distinctive linguistic features found in these three dialects.[39] Many communities adjacent to these relatively sharply differentiated dialects show a mix of transitional features, reflecting overlap with other nearby dialects.[40] While each of these dialects has undergone innovations that make them distinctive, their status as part of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language complex is not in dispute.[39] The relatively low degrees of mutual intelligibility between some nonadjacent Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects led Rhodes and Todd to suggest that Ojibwe should be analyzed as a linguistic subgroup consisting of several languages.[41] While there is some variation in the classification of Ojibwe dialects, at a minimum the following are recognized, proceeding west to east: Western Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Saulteaux), Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Chippewa), Northwestern Ojibwe, Severn Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Oji-Cree), Ottawa (Odawa), Eastern Ojibwe, and Algonquin. Based upon contemporary field research, Valentine also recognizes several other dialects: Berens Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in northwestern Ontario, which he distinguishes from Northwestern Ojibwe; North of (Lake) Superior; and Nipissing. The latter two cover approximately the same territory as Central Ojibwa, which he does not recognize.[12] Two recent analyses of the relationships between the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects are in agreement on the assignment of the strongly differentiated Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
to a separate subgroup, and the assignment of Severn Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Algonquin to another subgroup, and differ primarily with respect to the relationships between the less strongly differentiated dialects. Rhodes and Todd recognize several different dialectal subgroupings within Ojibwe: (a) Ottawa; (b) Severn and Algonquian; (c) a third subgroup which is further divided into (i) a subgrouping of Northwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Saulteaux, and a subgrouping consisting of Eastern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and a further subgrouping comprising Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Central Ojibwe.[42] Valentine has proposed that Ojibwe dialects are divided into three groups: a northern tier consisting of Severn Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Algonquin; a southern tier consisting of "Odawa, Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwe, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
of the Border Lakes region between Minnesota
Minnesota
and Ontario, and Saulteaux; and third, a transitional zone between these two polar groups, in which there is a mixture of northern and southern features."[43] Lingua franca[edit]

A sign at Lakehead University
Lakehead University
in English and Ojibwe.

Several different Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects have functioned as lingua franca or trade languages in the circum- Great Lakes
Great Lakes
area, particularly in interactions with speakers of other Algonquian languages.[44] Documentation of such usage dates from the 18th and 19th centuries, but earlier use is likely, with reports as early as 1703 suggesting that Ojibwe
Ojibwe
was used by different groups from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to Lake Winnipeg, and from as far south as Ohio
Ohio
to Hudson Bay.[45] A trade language is "... a language customarily used for communication between speakers of different languages, even though it may be that neither speaker has the trade language as his dominant language ..." although "... there is a relatively high degree of bilingualism involving the trade language."[46] Documentation from the 17th century indicates that the Wyandot language (also called Huron), one of the Iroquoian languages, was also used as a trade language east of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
by speakers of the Nipissing and Algonquin dialects of Ojibwe, and also by other groups south of the Great Lakes, including the Winnebago and by a group of unknown affiliation identified only as "Assistaeronon." The political decline of the Hurons in the 18th century and the ascendancy of Ojibwe-speaking groups including the Ottawa led to the replacement of Huron as a lingua franca.[47] In the area east of Georgian Bay, the Nipissing dialect was a trade language. In the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the eastern end of the Upper Peninsula, the area between Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and Lake Huron, and along the north shore of Georgian Bay, the Ottawa dialect
Ottawa dialect
served as a trade language. In the area south of Lake Superior
Lake Superior
and west of Lake Michigan Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
was the trade language.[48] A widespread pattern of asymmetrical bilingualism is found in the area south of the Great Lakes, in which speakers of Potawatomi or Menominee, both Algonquian languages, could also speak Ojibwe, but Ojibwe
Ojibwe
speakers did not speak the other languages. It is known that some speakers of Menominee also speak Ojibwe, and that this pattern persisted into the 20th century. Similarly bilingualism in Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is still common among Potawatomis who speak Potawatomi.[49] Reports from traders and travellers as early as 1744 indicated that speakers of Menominee, another Algonquian language, used Ojibwe
Ojibwe
as a lingua franca. Other reports from the 18th century and early 19th century indicate that speakers of the unrelated Siouan language Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) also used Ojibwe
Ojibwe
when dealing with Europeans and others.[50] Other reports indicate that agents of the American government at Green Bay, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
spoke Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in their interactions with Menominee, with other reports indicating that "... the Chippewa, Menominee, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac, and Fox tribes used Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in intertribal communication ..."[50] Some reports indicate that further to the west speakers of non-Algonquian languages such as Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Iowa, and Pawnee spoke Ojibwe
Ojibwe
as an 'acquired language.'[50] Influence on other languages[edit] Michif is a mixed language that primarily is based upon French and Plains Cree, with some vocabulary from Ojibwe, in addition to phonological influence in Michif-speaking communities where there is a significant Ojibwe
Ojibwe
influence.[51][52][53] In locations such as Turtle Mountain, North Dakota
North Dakota
individuals of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
ancestry now speak Michif and Ojibwe.[54] Ojibwe
Ojibwe
borrowings have been noted in Menominee, a related Algonquian language.[55] Bungi Creole
Bungi Creole
is the name given to an English Based Creole language spoken in Manitoba
Manitoba
by the descendants of "English, Scottish, and Orkney fur traders and their Cree or Saulteaux
Saulteaux
wives ...".[56] Bungee incorporates elements of Cree; the name may be from the Ojibwe word bangii "a little bit" or the Cree equivalent but whether there is any other Ojibwe
Ojibwe
component in Bungee is not documented.[57] Phonology[edit] Main article: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
phonology All dialects of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
generally have an inventory of seventeen consonants.[58] Most dialects have the segment glottal stop /ʔ/ in their inventory of consonant phonemes; Severn Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and the Algonquin dialect have /h/ in its place. Some dialects have both segments phonetically, but only one is present in phonological representations.[59] The Ottawa and Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Chippewa) have /h/ in a small number of affective vocabulary items in addition to regular /ʔ/.[60][61] Some dialects may have otherwise non-occurring sounds such as /f, l, r/ in loanwords.[62]

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar and palatal Velar Glottal

Plosive and affricate p [pʰ] b [p~b] t [tʰ] d [t~d] ch [tʃʰ] j [tʃ~dʒ] k [kʰ] g [k~ɡ] ’ [ʔ]

Fricative

s [sʰ] z [s~z] sh [ʃʰ] zh [ʃ~ʒ]

(h [h])

Nasal m [m] n [n]

Approximant

y [j] w [w]

Obstruent consonants are divided into lenis and fortis sets, with these features having varying phonological analyses and phonetic realizations cross-dialectally. In some dialects, such as Severn Ojibwe, members of the fortis set are realized as a sequence of /h/ followed by a single segment drawn from the set of lenis consonants: /p t k tʃ s ʃ/. Algonquin Ojibwe
Ojibwe
is reported as distinguishing fortis and lenis consonants on the basis of voicing, with fortis being voiceless and lenis being voiced.[63] In other dialects fortis consonants are realized as having greater duration than the corresponding lenis consonant, invariably voiceless, 'vigorously articulated,' and aspirated in certain environments.[64] In some practical orthographies such as the widely used Double Vowel system, fortis consonants are written with voiceless symbols: p, t, k, ch, s, sh.[65] Lenis consonants have normal duration; are typically voiced intervocalically, although they may be devoiced at the end or beginning of a word; are less vigorously articulated than fortis consonants; and are invariably unaspirated.[66] In the Double Vowel practical orthography, lenis consonants are written with voiced symbols: b, d, g, j, z, zh.[65] All dialects of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
have two nasal consonants /m/ and /n/; one labialized velar approximant /w/; one palatal approximant /j/; and one of glottal stop /ʔ/ or /h/.[67] All dialects of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
have seven oral vowels. Vowel length
Vowel length
is phonologically contrastive, hence phonemic. Although the long and short vowels are phonetically distinguished by vowel quality, recognition of vowel length in phonological representations is required, as the distinction between long and short vowels is essential for the operation of the metrical rule of vowel syncope that characterizes the Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects, as well as for the rules that determine word stress.[21] There are three short vowels, /i a o/; and three corresponding long vowels, /iː aː oː/, in addition to a fourth long vowel /eː/, which lacks a corresponding short vowel. The short vowel /i/ typically has phonetic values centring on [ɪ]; /a/ typically has values centring on [ə]~[ʌ]; and /o/ typically has values centring on [o]~[ʊ]. Long /oː/ is pronounced [uː] for many speakers, and /eː/ is for many [ɛː].[68]

Oral Vowels

Front Central Back

Close iː

oː~uː

Near-Close ɪ

o~ʊ

Mid eː ə

Open

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
has nasal vowels; some arise predictably by rule in all analyses, and other long nasal vowels are of uncertain phonological status.[69] The latter have been analysed both as underlying phonemes,[8] and also as predictable, that is derived by the operation of phonological rules from sequences of a long vowel followed by /n/ and another segment, typically /j/.[70]

Nasal Vowels

Front Central back

Close ĩː

õː~ũː

Mid ẽː

Open

ãː

Placement of word stress is determined by metrical rules that define a characteristic iambic metrical foot, in which a weak syllable is followed by a strong syllable. A Foot consists of a minimum of one syllable, and a maximum of two syllables, with each Foot containing a maximum of one Strong syllable. The structure of the metrical Foot defines the domain for relative prominence, in which a Strong syllable is assigned stress because it is more prominent than the weak member of the Foot. Typically, the Strong syllable in the antepenultimate Foot is assigned the primary stress.[71] Strong syllables that do not receive main stress are assigned at least secondary stress.[72] In some dialects, metrically Weak (unstressed) vowels at the beginning of a word are frequently lost; in the Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects all metrically Weak vowels are deleted.[73] For example, bemisemagak(in) (airplane(s), in the Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialect) is stressed as [be · mise · magak /ˈbɛːmɪˌseːmʌˌgak/] in the singular but as [be · mise · maga · kin /ˌbeːmɪˈsɛːmʌˌgaˌkin/] in the plural. In some other dialects, metrically Weak (unstressed) vowels, especially "a" and "i", are reduced to a schwa and depending on the writer, may be transcribed as "i", "e" or "a". For example, anami'egiizhigad [ana · mi'e · gii · zhigad /əˌnaməˈʔɛːˌgiːʒəˌgad/] (Sunday, literally "prayer day") may be transcribed as anama'egiizhigad in those dialects. Grammar[edit] Main article: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
grammar The general grammatical characteristics of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
are shared across its dialects. The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language is polysynthetic, exhibits characteristics of synthesis and a high morpheme-to-word ratio. Ojibwe is a head-marking language in which inflectional morphology on nouns and particularly verbs carries significant amounts of grammatical information. Word classes include nouns, verbs, grammatical particles, pronouns, preverbs, and prenouns. Preferred word orders in a simple transitive sentence are verb-initial, such as V(erb)–O(bject)–S(ubject) and VSO. While verb-final orders are dispreferred, all logically possible orders are attested.[74] Complex inflectional and derivational morphology play a central role in Ojibwe
Ojibwe
grammar. Noun inflection and particularly verb inflection indicate a wide variety of grammatical information, realized through the use of prefixes and suffixes added to word stems. Grammatical characteristics include the following:

gender,[75] divided into animate and inanimate categories extensive head-marking on verbs of inflectional information concerning person[76] number[77] tense[78] modality[79] evidentiality[80] negation[81] a distinction between obviative and proximate third-person, marked on both verbs and nouns.[82]

There is a distinction between two different types of third person, the proximate (the third person deemed more important or in-focus) and the obviative (the third person deemed less important or out-of-focus). Nouns can be singular or plural, and one of two genders, animate or inanimate. Separate personal pronouns exist, but are usually used for emphasis; they distinguish inclusive and exclusive first person plurals. Verbs constitute the most complex word class. Verbs are inflected for one of three orders (indicative, the default; conjunct, used for participles and in subordinate clauses; and imperative, used with commands), as negative or affirmative, and for the person, number, animacy, and proximate/obviative status of both the subject and object, as well as for several different modes (including the dubitative and preterit) and tenses. Vocabulary[edit] Loanwords and neologisms[edit] Although it does contain a few loans from English (e.g. gaapii, "coffee," ) and French (e.g. mooshwe, "handkerchief" (from mouchoir),[83] ni-tii, "tea" (from le thé, "the tea")), in general, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language is notable for its relative lack of borrowing from other languages. Instead, speakers far prefer to create words for new concepts from existing vocabulary. For example in Minnesota Ojibwemowin, "airplane" is bemisemagak, literally "thing that flies" (from bimisemagad, "to fly"), and "battery" is ishkode-makakoons, literally "little fire-box" (from ishkode, "fire," and makak, "box"). Even "coffee" is called makade-mashkikiwaaboo ("black liquid-medicine") by many speakers, rather than gaapii. These new words vary from region to region, and occasionally from community to community. For example, in Northwest Ontario
Ontario
Ojibwemowin, "airplane" is ombaasijigan, literally "device that gets uplifted by the wind" (from ombaasin, "to be uplifted by the wind") as opposed to the Minnesota's bemisemagak. Dialect
Dialect
variation[edit] Like any language dialects spanning vast regions, some words that may have had identical meaning at one time have evolved to have different meanings today. For example, zhooniyaans (literally "small[-amount of] money" and used to refer to coins) specifically means "dime" (10-cent piece) in the United States, but a "quarter" (25-cent piece) in Canada, or desabiwin (literally "thing to sit upon") means "couch" or "chair" in Canada, but is used to specifically mean a "saddle" in the United States. Cases like "battery" and "coffee" also demonstrate the often great difference between the literal meanings of the individual morphemes in a word, and the overall meaning of the entire word. Sample vocabulary[edit] Below are some examples of common Ojibwe
Ojibwe
words.

Short List of VAIs: onjibaa = he/she comes izhaa = he/she goes maajaa = he/she departs bakade = he/she is hungry mino'endamo = he/she is glad zhaaganaashimo = he/she speaks English biindige = he/she comes in ojibwemo = he/she speaks Ojibwe boogidi = he/she flatulates boogide = he/she has flatulence aadizooke = he/she tells a story wiisini = he/she is eating minikwe = he/she drinks bimose = he/she walks bangishin = he/she falls dagoshin = he/she is arriving giiwe = he/she goes home jiibaakwe = he/she cooks zagaswe = he/she smokes nibaa = he/she sleeps giigoonyike = he/she is fishing (lit. he/she makes fish) gashkendamo = he/she is sad bimaadizi = he/she lives gaasikanaabaagawe = he/she is thirsty

Short List of Nouns: naboob = soup ikwe = woman inini = man ikwezens = girl gwiiwizens = boy mitig = tree asemaa = tobacco opwaagan = pipe mandaamin = corn miskwi = blood doodoosh = breast doodooshaaboo = milk doodooshaaboo-bimide = butter doodooshaaboowi-miijim = cheese manoomin = wild rice omanoominiig = Menomonee peoples giigoonh = fish miskwimin = raspberry gekek = hawk gookooko'oo = owl migizi = bald eagle giniw = golden eagle bemaadizid = person bemaadizijig = people makizin = moccasin, shoe wiigiwaam = wigwam, house

Writing system[edit] Main article: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
writing systems There is no standard writing system used for all Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialects.[84] Local alphabets have been developed by adapting the Latin script, usually based on English or French orthography.[85] A syllabic writing system not related to English or French writing is used by some Ojibwe speakers in northern Ontario
Ontario
and Manitoba. Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Algonquian syllabics are based on the French alphabet with letters organized into syllables. It was primarily used by speakers of Fox, Potawatomi, and Winnebago, but there is indirect evidence of use by speakers of Southwestern Ojibwe.[86][87] A widely used Roman character-based writing system is the Double Vowel system devised by Charles Fiero. Although there is no standard orthography, the Double Vowel system is used by many Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language teachers because of its ease of use. A wide range of materials have been published in this system, including a grammar,[21] dictionaries,[88][89] collections of texts,[90][91][92] and pedagogical grammars.[93][94] In northern Ontario
Ontario
and Manitoba, Ojibwe is most commonly written using the Cree syllabary, a syllabary originally developed by Methodist missionary James Evans around 1840 in order to write Cree. The syllabic system is based in part on Evans' knowledge of Pitman's shorthand
Pitman's shorthand
and his prior experience developing a distinctive alphabetic writing system for Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in southern Ontario.[95] Double vowel system[edit]

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The double vowel system uses three short vowels, four long vowels, and eighteen consonants, represented with the following Roman letters:

a aa b ch d e g ' h i ii j k m n o oo p s sh t w y z zh

Dialects typically either have /h/ or /ʔ/ (the orthographic ⟨'⟩ in most versions) but rarely both.[96] This system is called "double vowel" because the long vowel correspondences to the short vowels ⟨a⟩, ⟨i⟩ and ⟨o⟩ are written with a doubled value. In this system, the nasal ny as a final element is instead written ⟨nh⟩. The allowable consonant clusters are ⟨mb⟩, ⟨nd⟩, ⟨ng⟩, ⟨n'⟩, ⟨nj⟩, ⟨nz⟩, ⟨ns⟩, ⟨nzh⟩, ⟨sk⟩, ⟨shp⟩, ⟨sht⟩, and ⟨shk⟩. Sample text and analysis[edit] The sample text, from the Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialect, is taken, with permission, from the first four lines of Niizh Ikwewag (Two Women),[97] a story told by Earl Nyholm, on Professor Brian Donovan of Bemidji State University's webpage. Text[edit]

Aabiding gii-ayaawag niizh ikwewag: mindimooyenh, odaanisan bezhig. Iwidi Chi-achaabaaning akeyaa gii-onjibaawag. Inashke naa mewinzha gii-aawan, mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaaming gaa-taawaad igo. Mii dash iwapii, aabiding igo gii-awi-bagida'waawaad, giigoonyan wii-amwaawaad.

Translation[edit]

Once there were two women: an old lady, and one of her daughters. They were from over there towards Inger. See now, it was long ago; they just lived there in a wigwam. And at that time, once they went net-fishing; they intended to eat fish.

Gloss[edit]

Aabiding gii-ayaawag niizh ikwewag: mindimooyenh, odaanisan bezhig.

aabiding gii- ayaa -wag niizh ikwe -wag mindimooyenh, o- daanis -an bezhig.

once PAST- be in a certain place -3PL two woman -3PL old woman, 3SG.POSS- daughter -OBV one.

Once they were in a certain place two women: old woman, her daughter one.

Iwidi Chi-achaabaaning akeyaa gii-onjibaawag.

iwidi chi- achaabaan -ing akeyaa gii- onjibaa -wag.

over there big- bowstring -LOC that way PAST- come from -3PL.

Over there by Inger (lit: by Big-Bowstring [River]) that way they came from there.

Inashke naa mewinzha gii-aawan, mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaaming gaa-taawaad igo.

inashke naa mewinzha gii- aawan mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaam -ing gaa- daa -waad igo.

look now long ago PAST- be so only EMPH there EMPH wigwam -LOC PAST.CONJ- live -3PL.CONJ EMPH.

Look now long ago it was, only there so in a wigwam that they lived just then.

Mii dash iwapii, aabiding igo gii-awi-bagida'waawaad, giigoonyan wii-amwaawaad.

mii dash iw- -apii aabiding igo gii- awi- bagida'waa -waad, giigoonh -yan wii- amw -aawaad.

it is that CONTR that- -then once EMPH PAST- go and- fish with a net -3PL.CONJ fish -OBV DESD- eat -3PL/OBV.CONJ

And then then, once just then that they went and fished with a net those fish that they are going to eat those

Abbreviations:

3 third person

SG singular

PL plural

POSS possessive

OBV obviative

LOC locative

EMPH emphatic particle

CONJ conjunct order

CONTR contrastive particle

DESD desiderative

Notable speakers[edit] Notable speakers of Anishinaabemowin include:[citation needed]

Frederic Baraga
Frederic Baraga
(19th century missionary bishop who wrote A theoretical and practical grammar of the Otchipwe language) James "Naawi-giizis" Clark (elder, cultural ambassador) George Copway
George Copway
(chief, missionary, writer, cultural ambassador) Melvin Eagle (elder, cultural ambassador, spiritual leader) Gerri Howard (elder, educator)[98] Basil H. Johnston
Basil H. Johnston
(educator, curator, essayist, cultural ambassador) Peter Jones (missionary, reverend, chief) Maude "Naawakamigookwe" Kegg (narrator, artist, cultural ambassador) Archie Mosay (elder, educator, spiritual leader) Margaret Noodin (educator, writer) Jim Northrup (writer) Kenny Pheasant (educator)[99] Larry Marlon "Amikogaabow" Smallwood, Sr. (elder, educator, cultural ambassador)[98] Marlene Stately (elder, educator)[98] Rose Tainter (elder, educator)[98] Leona Wakonabo (elder, educator)[98]

Mobile learning apps[edit] An "Ojibway Language and People" app is available for iPhone, iPad, and other iOS devices.[100] The source code is available for others interested in developing their own application for learning a native language.[101] See also[edit]

Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Canada
portal Indigenous peoples of North America portal United States
United States
portal Languages portal

Broken Oghibbeway Canadian Aboriginal syllabics List of endangered languages in the United States Lists of languages Ojibwe
Ojibwe
grammar Ojibwe
Ojibwe
phonology Ojibwe
Ojibwe
writing systems

Notes[edit]

^ a b Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Severn Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Eastern Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Central Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Northwestern Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Western Ojibwa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Chippewa at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box) ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ojibwa". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: oji". ISO 639-2 Registration Authority - Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: Ojibwa  ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: oji". ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: Ojibwa  ^ R. R. Bishop Baraga, 1878. A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language ^ a b c Goddard, Ives, 1979. ^ a b Bloomfield, Leonard, 1958. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 6. ^ a b c Nichols, John, 1980, pp. 1–2. ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981. ^ a b Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 456. ^ a b c d e "Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada.  ^ "Waadookodading: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Immersion School". theways.org.  ^ Goddard, Ives, 1978; Goddard, Ives, 1979. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 1. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995, p. 10. ^ a b c Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 1, Fn. 2. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, p. 105. ^ Baraga, Frederic, 1878, p. 336. ^ a b c Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 2. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 3–4. ^ Goddard, Ives, 1978, pp. 585–586; Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 100–102. ^ a b Goddard, Ives, 1979, p. 95. ^ Goddard, Ives, 1996, p. 4. ^ Goddard, Ives, 1979, pp. 95–96. ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 54, Fig. 2. ^ Feest, J. and Feest, C., 1978; Dawes, Charles, 1982. ^ a b U.S. English Foundation: Ojibwa Archived 2010-11-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved November 12, 2009. ^ a b https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/phc-5-pt1.pdf U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population and Housing,Characteristics of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Tribe and Language: 2000. PHC-5. Washington, DC, 2003. ^ 2006 Canadian Census reported 32,460 total Ojibwe–Ottawa speakers less derived Ottawa of 7,564. ^ Ethnologue
Ethnologue
reported 8,000 less 2000 US Census reported 436. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond, 2005. See online version of same: Ethnologue entry for Ottawa. Retrieved November 12, 2009. ^ Dan Gunderson (2013-01-14). "At White Earth, hymns a unique part of a renewed Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture". Park Rapids Enterprise. Park Rapids, Minnesota. Retrieved 2013-01-17. [permanent dead link] ^ Meurs, Michael (2011-09-21). "Native American Language Revitalization on Red Lake Agenda". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 2013-04-13.  ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 52. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994. ^ a b J. Randolph Valentine, 1994, pp. 43–44. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 42–43. ^ Rhodes, Richard and E. Todd, 1981, p. 52. ^ Rhodes, Richard and E. Todd, 1981, p. 61, Fig. 5. ^ J. Randolph Valentine, 1994, pp. 39. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1982, p. 2. ^ Bakker, Peter and Anthony Grant, 1996, p. 1117. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1982, p. 1. ^ Bakker, Peter and Anthony Grant, 1996, p. 1116. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1982. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1982, pp. 3–4. ^ a b c Nichols, John, 1995, p. 1. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1976. ^ Bakker, Peter, 1991. ^ Bakker, Peter, 1996, pp. 264–270. ^ Alex DeCoteau, Turtle Mountain Chippewa member and Ojibwe
Ojibwe
speaker. ^ Bloomfield, Leonard, 1962. ^ Blain, Eleanor, 1987, 7. ^ Blain, Eleanor, 1987. ^ See e.g. Nichols, John, 1981, p. 6 for Southwestern Ojibwe. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 124–125. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1985, p. xlvi. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995, p. xxvi. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1985, p. xli. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 123–124. ^ Bloomfield, Leonard, 1958, p. 8; Rhodes, Richard, 1985, pp. xliv, xlvii, xlix, l, li. ^ a b For Southwestern Ojibwe, see Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995; for Ottawa, see Rhodes, Richard, 1985. ^ Bloomfield, Leonard, 1958, p. 8. ^ For Southwestern Ojibwe, see Nichols, John, 1981; for Ottawa, see Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001. ^ See e.g.: Rhodes, Richard, 1985, for the Ottawa dialect; Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995, for the Southwestern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialect. ^ Nichols, John, 1980, pp. 6–7. ^ Piggott, Glyne, 1981. ^ For discussion of this rule in the Ottawa dialect, see Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, p. 54. ^ Valentine, J. Randoph, 2001, p. 53. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 51–55. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 934–935. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, p. 114. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, Chapters 5–8; pp. 62–72. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, p. 178. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 759–782. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, p. 759. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 830–837. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 837–856. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001, pp. 623–643. ^ O'Meara, John. "Words Borrowed From English/French Into Ojibwe". Archived from the original on 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2008-05-30.  ^ Ningewance, Patricia, 1999. ^ Walker, Willard, 1996. ^ Walker, Willard, 1996, pp. 168–172. ^ Smith, Huron, 1932, p. 335. ^ Nichols, John, 1995. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1985. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1998. ^ Kegg, Maude, 1991. ^ Nichols, John and Leonard Bloomfield, eds., 1991. ^ Vollom, Judith and Thomas M. Vollom, 1994. ^ Ningewance, Patricia, 1993. ^ Nichols, John, 1996. ^ For Southwestern Ojibwe, which has /ʔ/ (orthographic ⟨'⟩) but not /h/, see Nichols, John, 1981. ^ Niizh Ikwewag Archived 2013-12-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e " Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Voices The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
People's Dictionary". ojibwe.lib.umn.edu. Retrieved 2015-06-10.  ^ Interactive, Kenny. "Anishinaabemowin, learn the Anishinaabe language". www.anishinaabemdaa.com. Retrieved 2015-06-10.  ^ "Ojibway Language program for teachers students and schools". Ogoki Learning Systems Inc. iPhone App Developer. Retrieved 2012-09-12.  ^ Dadigan, Marc (2013-04-12). "Learning a Native Language? Ojibway Programmer Has an App For That". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 

References[edit]

Bakker, Peter. 1991. "The Ojibwa element in Michif." W. Cowan, ed., Papers of the twenty-second Algonquian conference, 11–20. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISSN 0831-5671 Bakker, Peter. 1996. A language of our own: The genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree- French language
French language
of the Canadian Métis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509711-4 Bakker, Peter and Anthony Grant. 1996. "Interethnic communication in Canada, Alaska and adjacent areas." Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Muhlhausler, Darrell T. Tyron, eds., Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, 1107–1170. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9 Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958. Eastern Ojibwa: Grammatical sketch, texts and word list. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Michigan
Press. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. The Menomini language. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Dawes, Charles E.] 1982. Dictionary English-Ottawa Ottawa-English. No publisher given. Canada. Statistics Canada
Canada
2006 Retrieved on March 31, 2009. Feest, Johanna, and Christian Feest. 1978. "Ottawa." Bruce Trigger, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15. Northeast, 772–786. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. Goddard, Ives. 1978. "Central Algonquian Languages." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, 583–587. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Goddard, Ives. 1979. "Comparative Algonquian." Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, eds, The languages of Native America, 70–132. Austin: University of Texas Press. Goddard, Ives. 1996. "Introduction." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, 1–16. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. Kegg, Maude. 1991. Edited and transcribed by John D. Nichols. Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Childhood. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. ISBN 0-8166-2415-1 Laverdure, Patline and Ida Rose Allard. 1983. The Michif dictionary: Turtle Mountain Chippewa Cree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican Publications. ISBN 0-919143-35-0 Nichols, John. 1980. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
morphology. PhD dissertation, Harvard University. Nichols, John. 1995. "The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
verb in "Broken Oghibbeway." Amsterdam Creole Studies 12: 1–18. Nichols, John. 1996. "The Cree syllabary." Peter Daniels and William Bright, eds. The world's writing systems, 599–611. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0 Nichols, John D. and Leonard Bloomfield, eds. 1991. The dog's children. Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
texts told by Angeline Williams. Winnipeg: Publications of the Algonquian Text Society, University of Manitoba. ISBN 0-88755-148-3 Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A concise dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. St. Paul: University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. ISBN 0-8166-2427-5 Ningewance, Patricia. 1993. Survival Ojibwe. Winnipeg: Mazinaate Press. ISBN 0-9697826-0-8 Ningewance, Patricia. 1999. Naasaab izhi-anishinaabebii'igeng: Conference report. A conference to find a common Anishinaabemowin writing system. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. ISBN 0-7778-8695-2 Ningewance, Patricia. 2004. Talking Gookom's language: Learning Ojibwe. Lac Seul, ON: Mazinaate Press. ISBN 978-0-9697826-3-6 Piggott, Glyne L. 1980. Aspects of Odawa morphophonemics. New York: Garland. (Published version of PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, 1974) ISBN 0-8240-4557-2 Rhodes, Richard. 1976. "A preliminary report on the dialects of Eastern Ojibwa – Odawa." W. Cowan, ed., Papers of the seventh Algonquian conference, 129–156. Ottawa: Carleton University. Rhodes, Richard. 1982. "Algonquian trade languages." William Cowan, ed., Papers of the thirteenth Algonquian conference, 1–10. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISBN 0-7709-0123-9 Rhodes, Richard A. 1985. Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-013749-6 Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd. 1981. "Subarctic Algonquian languages." June Helm, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6. Subarctic, 52–66. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. Smith, Huron H. 1932. "Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Indians." Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327–525. Todd, Evelyn. 1970. A grammar of the Ojibwa language: The Severn dialect. PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Characteristics of American Indians and Alaska Natives by Tribe and Language: 2000 Retrieved on March 31, 2009. Valentine, J. Randolph. 1994. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
dialect relationships. PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. Valentine, J. Randolph. 1998. Weshki-bimaadzijig ji-noondmowaad. 'That the young might hear': The stories of Andrew Medler as recorded by Leonard Bloomfield. London, ON: The Centre for Teaching and Research of Canadian Native Languages, University of Western Ontario. ISBN 0-7714-2091-9 Valentine, J. Randolph. 2001. Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4870-6 Vollom, Judith L. and Thomas M. Vollom. 1994. Ojibwemowin. Series 1. Second Edition. Ramsey, Minnesota: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Publishing. Walker, Willard. 1996. "Native writing systems." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, 158–184. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9

Further reading[edit]

Beardy, Tom. Introductory Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in Severn dialect. Parts one and two. Thunder Bay, Ontario : Native Language Instructors' program, Lakehead University, 1996. ISBN 0-88663-018-5 Cappel, Constance, editor, "Odawa Language and legends: Andrew J. Blackbird and Raymond Kiogima," Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59926-920-7[self-published source] Hinton, Leanne and Kenneth Hale. 2001. The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-349353-6 (Hardcover), ISBN 90-04-25449-8 (Paperback). Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre. 2014. ᑭᑎᓯᑭᓯᐍᐏᓂᓇᐣ [Kihtisiikisiwewinan] : Anihshininiimowin Oji-Cree Dictionary (Severn River and Winisk River). Part One : Oji-Cree to English, Part Two : English to Oji-Cree. Nichols, John D. et al., editors. Sioux Lookout: Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre. McGregor, Ernest. 1987. Algonquin lexicon. Maniwaki, QC: River Desert Education Authority. Mitchell, Mary. 1988. Eds. J. Randolph Valentine and Lisa Valentine. Introductory Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Severn dialect), Part one. Thunder Bay : Native Language Office, Lakehead University. Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 Moose, Lawrence L. et al. 2009. Aaniin Ekidong: Aaniin Ekidong: Ojibwe Vocabulary Project. St. Paul : Minnesota
Minnesota
Humanities Center. Ningewance, Patricia. 1990. Anishinaabemodaa : Becoming a successful Ojibwe
Ojibwe
eavesdropper. Winnipeg : Manitoba
Manitoba
Association for Native Languages. ISBN 1-894632-01-X Ningewance, Patricia. 1996. Zagataagan - A Northern Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Dictionary. Volume 1 : English-Ojibwe, Volume 2 : Ojibwe-English. Sioux Lookout: Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre. ISBN 978-1-897579-15-2 Northrup, Jim, Marcie R. Rendon, and Linda LeGarde Grover. Nitaawichige = "to Do Something Skillfully" : Selected Poetry and Prose by Four Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Writers. Duluth, MN : Poetry Harbor, 2002. ISBN 1-886895-28-7 Snache, Irene. 2005. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language dictionary. Rama, ON: Mnjikaning Kendaaswin Publishers. ISBN 1-894632-01-X Sugarhead, Cecilia. 1996. ᓂᓄᑕᐣ / Ninoontaan / I can hear it: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
stories from Lansdowne House written by Cecilia Sugarhead. Edited, translated and with a glossary by John O'Meara. Winnipeg: Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics. ISBN 0-921064-14-4 Toulouse, Isadore. Kidwenan, An Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Book. Munsee-Delaware Nation, ON: Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Kendaaswin Pub, 1995. ISBN 1-896027-16-4 Treuer, Anton. Living our language: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
tales & oral histories. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87351-404-1 Treuer, Anton. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in Minnesota. St. Paul : Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2010. Vizenor, Gerald Robert. Summer in the Spring Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Lyric Poems and Stories. American Indian literature and critical studies series, v. 6. Norman: University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8061-2518-7 Williams, Shirley I. 2002. Gdi-nweninaa : Our sound, our voice. Peterborough, ON : Neganigwane. ISBN 0-9731442-1-1

External links[edit]

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Look up Category: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Noongwa e-Anishinaabemjig: People Who Speak Anishinaabemowin Today — hosted at the University of Michigan Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Society Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Group Aboriginal Languages of Canada
Canada
— With data on speaker populations Language Geek Page on Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Syllabary
Syllabary
fonts and keyboard emulators are also available from this site. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Toponyms Niizh Ikwewag — A short story in Ojibwe, originally told by Earl Nyholm, emeritus professor of Ojibwe
Ojibwe
at Bemidji State University. Native Languages: A Support Document for the Teaching of Language Patterns, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
and Cree Native Languages page for Ojibwe Letter Men: Brothers Fight for Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language, a story broadcast on Fresh Air, a National Public Radio
National Public Radio
broadcast show, interviewing Anton and David Treuer. Language and Meaning — An Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Story, a story broadcast on Speaking of Faith, a National Public Radio
National Public Radio
broadcast show. Bemaadizing: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Indigenous Life (An online journal) Comprehensive list of learning resources for Ojibwe
Ojibwe
prepared for the SSILA by Dr. Rand Valentine Gidakiiminaan (Our Earth) wall-map with Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Geographic Place Names in the 1837 Ceded Territories of Minnesota
Minnesota
and Wisconsin, the 1842 Ceded Territories of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Michigan
Michigan
and the 1836 Ceded Territory of the Michigan
Michigan
Upper Peninsula, issued by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission. First Speakers: Restoring the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Documentary produced by Twin Cities Public Television Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Stories: Gaganoonididaa from the Public Radio Exchange Ikwe, a National Film Board of Canada
Canada
film done mostly in the Ojibwe language Baadwewedamojig project featuring audio recording made by William Jones between 1903 and 1905.

Grammar and Lessons

Comparative Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Swadesh vocabulary list of basic words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) Rand Valentine's introduction to Ojibwe Grammar, lessons, and dictionaries — Ojibwe
Ojibwe
site by "Weshki-ayaad" Gikendandaa Ojibwemowin — Ojibwe
Ojibwe
lesson site by James Starkey (Mindjime) Native Languages: A Support Document for the Teaching of Language Patters — basic language patterns for Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(Manitoulin Ojibwe/Ottawa "CO" and Lac Seul Ojibwe
Ojibwe
"WO") and Cree (Swampy Cree "SC"). Baraga, Frederic (Bishop)

(1850). A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language, the Language Spoken by the Chippewa Indians; Which Is Also Spoken by the Algonquin, Otawa and Potawatami Inidans, with Little Difference, For the Use of Missionaries and Other Persons Living Among the Indians of the Above Named Tribes. (1878). A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language for the Use of Missionaries and Other Persons Living Among the Indians

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
numerals " Ojibwe
Ojibwe
iPad app brings language to world" in Wawatay News Online. "Ojibway language tutor? There's an app for that" in CBC News

Dictionaries and Wordlists

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
People's Dictionary — Online Ojibwe-English dictionary with 8,000+ words, 60,000 audio clips by Ojibwe
Ojibwe
elders from Minnesota
Minnesota
and Ontario, and related images/documents. Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Dialect
Dialect
Relations : Lexical Maps by Dr. J. Randolph Valentine (1995) — a study in differences in vocabulary among different Anishinaabemowin-speaking communities, with accompanying dialectological maps. Aaniin Ekidong ... (How Do You Say ...): Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Vocabulary Project — Math and science terms for the Southwestern (Wisconsin, Leech Lake and Red Lake) and Minnesota
Minnesota
Border Chippewa dialect of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language. Our Languages: Nahkawē ( Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Indian Cultural Centre) Anishinaabe-Ikidowinan (Ojibwe) Dictionary — Courtesy of the Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre. Covers Albany River, Berens River and English River dialects of Northwestern Ojibwe Freelang Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Dictionary — Freeware off-line dictionary for Windows-based systems (with instructions on how to load on a Macintosh). On-line searches are also available. Kees van Kolmeschate: My Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Documents — Assorted digital Ojibwe-related documents, including the electronic version of the 1878 Baraga Dictionary. Baraga, Frederic (Bishop). Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language, Explained in English.

Part I: English-Otchipwe and Part II: Otchipwe-English in the 1853 edition at Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Historical Society Part I: English-Otchipwe in the 1878 edition and Part II: Otchipwe-English in the 1880 edition courtesy of Google Books

Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Language Math Supplements Learner Outcomes K–6 Culturally Relevant Curriculum: Math-related words from Red Lake, Minnesota Lemoine, Georges. Dictionnaire français-algonquin

v t e

Algonquian languages

Plains Algonquian

Arapahoan

Arapaho proper Besawunena Gros Ventre Nawathinehena

Blackfoot Cheyenne

Central Algonquian

Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi Menominee Miami–Illinois Ojibwe Potawatomi Sauk–Fox–Kickapoo Shawnee

Eastern Algonquian

Abenakian languages

Abenaki Malecite–Passamaquoddy

Southern New England

Loup Massachusett Mohegan–Pequttôog Narragansett Quiripi-Naugatuck-Unquachog

Delawaran languages

Delaware Mahican

Munsee Unami

Other East Algonquian

Carolina Algonquian Etchemin Mi'kmaq Nanticoke–Piscataway Powhatan

Italics indicate extinct languages

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Languages of Minnesota

Indigenous

Algonquian

Ojibwe

Western Siouan

Sioux

Dakota Lakota

Winnebago

Non-Indigenous

Indo-European

American English

Minnesota
Minnesota
regional dialect

Danish French German

Hutterite

Irish Norwegian Spanish Swedish

Uralic

Finnish

Hmong–Mien

Hmong

Afroasiatic

Arabic Somali

Sign languages

American Sign Language Plains Indian Sign Language

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Languages of Montana

Indigenous

Algonquian

Blackfoot Cheyenne Gros Ventre Ojibwe Plains Cree

Salishan

Montana
Montana
Salish

Western Siouan

Assiniboine Stoney Lakota Crow

Language isolates

Kutenai

Non-Indigenous

Indo-European

American English Spanish German Swedish

Uralic

Finnish

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Languages of Canada

Official languages

English French

Indigenous languages

Algonquian

Abenaki Algonquin Blackfoot Cree Innu Malecite-Passamaquoddy Mi'kmaq Munsee Naskapi Ojibwe Ottawa Potawatomi

Athabaskan

Babine-Witsuwit'en Carrier Chilcotin Chipewyan Dogrib Gwich’in Hän Kaska Nicola Sarcee Sekani Slavey Tagish Tahltan Tutchone

Inuit

Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut Inupiaq Inuvialuktun

Iroquoian

Cayuga Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Seneca Tuscarora Wyandot

Salishan

Bella Coola Comox Halkomelem Lillooet Okanagan Saanich Sechelt Shuswap Squamish Thompson

Wakashan

Ditidaht Haisla Heiltsuk-Oowekyala Kwak'wala Nuu-chah-nulth

other

Beothuk Haida Kutenai Tlingit Coast Tsimshian

Pidgins, creoles and mixed

Broken Slavey Bungee Chiac Chinook Jargon Labrador Inuit Pidgin French Michif

Immigrant languages

Gaelic Irish Ukrainian

Sign languages

American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language Inuk Sign Language Plains Indian Sign Language Maritime Sign Language

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Anishinaabe

Culture

Anishinabek Educational Institute birch bark biting birch bark scrolls clan system Dreamcatcher Drumkeeper Jingle dress Manitou Medicine wheel Grand Medicine Society Nanabozho Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language Ottawa dialect Pow wow Quillwork Ribbon work traditional beliefs Wampum

Political organizations

Assembly of Manitoba
Manitoba
Chiefs Chiefs of Ontario Council of Three Fires Grand Council of Treaty 3 Grand Council of Treaty 8 Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Inter-tribal Council Inter-tribal Council of Michigan Minnesota
Minnesota
Indian Affairs Council Nishnawbe Aski Nation

Independent First Nations
First Nations
Alliance Keewaytinook Okimakanak Council Matawa First Nations Mishkeegogamang First Nation Mocreebec Council of the Cree Nation Mushkegowuk Council Sandy Lake First Nation Shibogama First Nations
First Nations
Council Wabun Tribal Council Weenusk First Nation Windigo First Nations
First Nations
Council

Union

.