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Nubians
Nubians
are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt
Egypt
who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile
Nile
valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.[2] Nubian people have an ancient history predating dynastic Egypt. They speak the Nubian languages, which belong to the Nilo-Saharan language family. In the pre-dynastic period, early Neolithic settlements have been found in the central Nubian region dating back to 7000 BC, with Wadi Halfa believed to be the oldest settlement in the central Nile valley.[3] During the dynastic period, parts of Nubia
Nubia
such as Ta-Seti (the first nome or administrative region of ancient Egypt) were continuously a part of ancient Egypt
Egypt
throughout the dynastic era[4] Other parts of Nubia, particularly Southern or Upper Nubia, were at times a part of ancient Pharaonic Egypt
Egypt
and at other times a rival state representing parts of the Empire of Meroë
Meroë
or the Kushite Kingdom. However, at the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, all of Nubia was united with ancient Egypt, or Kemet, extending down to modern day Khartoum.[5] Towards the end of the dynastic era, Upper Nubia
Nubia
broke off from Egypt proper. During that time, the Nubians
Nubians
founded a dynasty that ruled Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
during the 8th century BC.[6] As warriors, the ancient Nubians
Nubians
were famous for their skill and precision with the bow.[7] Today, people of Nubian descent primarily live in southern Egypt, especially in the Luxor
Luxor
and Aswan
Aswan
area, and in northern Sudan, particularly in the region between the city of Wadi Halfa
Wadi Halfa
on the Egyptian-Sudanese border and Al Dabbah. Additionally, several groups known as the Hill Nubians live in the northern Nuba Mountains
Nuba Mountains
in South Kordofan state, Sudan.[8] The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas and Dongola.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Language 4 Modern Nubians 5 Culture

5.1 Religion

6 Architecture 7 Genetics 8 Nubian vs Nubi 9 Prominent Nubians 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Inline citations 11.2 General references

12 External links

Etymology[edit] Throughout history various parts of Nubia
Nubia
were known by different names, including Ta-Seti, Kush, Meroe, and biblical Aethiopia.[9] The origin of the names Nubia
Nubia
and Nubian are contested. What is more certain is that they ultimately denote geographical provenance rather than ethnic origin. Based on cultural traits, many scholars believe Nubia
Nubia
is derived from the ancient Egyptian noun nebu, meaning gold.[10] The Romans used the term Nubia
Nubia
to describe the area of Southern Egypt
Egypt
and Northern Sudan.[9] Another etymology traces the toponym to a distinct group of people, the Noubai, who in more recent times inhabited the area that would become known as Nubia.[10] The derivation of the term Nubian has also been associated with the Greek historian Strabo, who referred to the Nubas people.[11] History[edit] Further information: Nubia

Shabti figurine of the Kushite King Senkamanisken
Senkamanisken
ca. 643-623 BC (left), marble portrait of a Nubia
Nubia
denizen ca. 120-100 BC (right). The commemorative stela of the Axumite King Ezana indicates that two distinct population groups inhabited ancient Nubia: the Afroasiatic-speaking Kasu (Kushites) who were related to the neighbouring ancient Egyptians, and a Sudanic-speaking population that was instead related to Nilotes.[12]

The prehistory of Nubia
Nubia
dates to the Paleolithic Era, around 300,000 years ago. By about 6000 BC, peoples in the region had developed an agricultural economy. They began using a system of writing relatively late in their history, when they adopted the Egyptian hieroglyphic system. Ancient history in Nubia
Nubia
is categorized according to the following periods:[13] A-Group culture
A-Group culture
(3700-2800 BC), C-Group culture (2300-1600 BC), Kerma culture
Kerma culture
(2500-1500 BC), Nubian contemporaries of Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC), Kingdom of Napata
Napata
and Egypt's Nubian dynasty XXV (1000-653 BC), Kingdom of Napata
Napata
(1000-275 BC), Kingdom of Meroe
Meroe
(275 BC-300/350 AD), Kingdom of Makuria
Kingdom of Makuria
(340-1317 AD), Kingdom of Nobatia (350–650 AD), and Kingdom of Alodia (600s–1504 AD). Historiolinguistic analysis indicates that the early inhabitants of the Nubia
Nubia
region, during the C-Group and Kerma cultures, were speakers of languages belonging to the Berber and Cushitic branches of the Afroasiatic family. They were succeeded by the first Nubian language speakers, whose tongues belonged to the separate Nilo-Saharan phylum.[14][15] Accordingly, a 4th-century victory stela belonging to King Ezana of the Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
contains inscriptions describing two distinct population groups dwelling in ancient Nubia: a "red" Kasu population, who are believed to have been Cushitic speakers related to the neighbouring ancient Egyptians, and a "black" Sudanic-speaking population that was instead related to Nilotes.[12] The existence of two such distinct population groups in Nubia
Nubia
has also been confirmed through genetic analysis (see genetics).[16] Although Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia
Nubia
have a shared pre-dynastic and pharaonic history, the two histories diverge with the fall of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
and the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
by Alexander the Great in 332BC.[5] At this point, the area of land between the 1st and the 6th cataract of the Nile
Nile
became known as Nubia. Egypt
Egypt
was conquered first by the Greeks and then the Romans. During this time period, however, the Kushites formed the kingdom of Meroe, which was ruled by a series of legendary Candaces or Queens. Mythically, the Candace of Meroe
Meroe
was able to intimidate Alexander the Great into retreat with a great army of elephants, while historical documents suggest that the Nubians defeated the Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar, resulting in a favorable peace treaty for Meroe.[17] The kingdom of Meroe
Meroe
also defeated the Persians, and later Christian Nubia
Nubia
defeated the invading Arab armies on three different occasions resulting in the 600 year peace treaty of Baqt, the longest lasting treaty in history.[18] The fall of the kingdom of Christian Nubia
Nubia
occurred in the early 1500s resulting in full Islamization and reunification with Egypt
Egypt
under the Ottoman Empire, the Muhammad Ali dynasty, and British colonial rule. After the 1956 independence of Sudan
Sudan
from Egypt, Nubia
Nubia
and the Nubian people became divided between Southern Egypt
Egypt
and Northern Sudan.

A Nubian woman circa 1900

Modern Nubians
Nubians
speak the Nubian language, an Eastern Sudanic language that is part of the Nilo-Saharan phylum. The Old Nubian language is attested from the 8th century, and is the oldest recorded language of Africa outside of the Afroasiatic family. It was the language of the Noba nomads who occupied the Nile
Nile
between the First and Third Cataracts and also of the Makorae nomads who occupied the land between the Third and Fourth Cataracts, following the collapse of the Kingdom of Kush sometime in the 4th century AD. The Makorae were a separate tribe who eventually conquered or inherited the lands of the Noba: they established a Byzantine-influenced state called the Kingdom of Makuria, which administered the Noba lands separately as the eparchy of Nobadia. Nobadia
Nobadia
was converted to Miaphysitism
Miaphysitism
by the Orthodox priest Julian and Bishop Longinus of Constantinople, and thereafter received its bishops from the Pope of Alexandria. Nubia
Nubia
consisted of four regions with varied agriculture and landscapes. The Nile
Nile
river and its valley were found in the north and central parts of Nubia, allowing farming using irrigation. The western Sudan
Sudan
had a mixture of peasant agriculture and nomadism. Eastern Sudan had primarily nomadism, with a few areas of irrigation and agriculture. Finally, there was the fertile pastoral region of the south, where Nubia's larger agricultural communities were located.[19] Nubia
Nubia
was dominated by kings from clans that controlled the gold mines. Trade in exotic goods from other parts of Africa (ivory, animal skins) passed to Egypt
Egypt
through Nubia. Language[edit] Modern Nubians
Nubians
speak the Nubian language. It belongs to the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan phylum. Before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers, languages from the Afroasiatic family are believed to have been spoken by the early inhabitants of the Nubia
Nubia
region. According to Peter Behrens (1981) and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst (2000), linguistic evidence indicates that the ancient peoples of the C-Group and Kerma civilizations spoke Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
of the Berber and Cushitic branches, respectively.[14][15] The Nilo-Saharan Nobiin language
Nobiin language
today contains a number of key pastoralism related loanwords that are of Berber or proto-Highland East Cushitic origin, including the terms for sheep/goatskin, hen/cock, livestock enclosure, butter and milk. This in turn suggests that the C-Group and Kerma populations, who inhabited the Nile
Nile
Valley immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers, spoke Afroasiatic languages.[14] However, it is uncertain to which language family the ancient Meroitic language is related. Claude Rilly has proposed that it, like the Nobiin language, belongs to the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan family.[20][21] Kirsty Rowan suggests that Meroitic, like the Egyptian language, instead belongs to the Afroasiatic family. She bases this on its sound inventory and phonotactics, which are similar to those of the Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
and dissimilar from those of the Nilo-Saharan languages.[22][23] Modern Nubians[edit]

Nubian wedding near Aswan

The descendants of the ancient Nubians
Nubians
still inhabit the general area of what was ancient Nubia. They currently live in what is called Old Nubia, mainly located in modern Egypt. Nubians
Nubians
have been resettled in large numbers (an estimated 50,000 people) away from southern Egypt since the 1960s, when the Aswan
Aswan
High Dam was built on the Nile, flooding ancestral lands.[24] Some resettled Nubians
Nubians
continue working as farmers (sharecroppers) on resettlement farms whose landowners live elsewhere; most work in Egypt's cities. Whereas Arabic
Arabic
was once only learned by Nubian men who travelled for work, it is increasingly being learned by Nubian women who have access to school, radio and television. Nubian women are working outside the home in increasing numbers.[24] In the 1973 Arab–Israeli War
1973 Arab–Israeli War
Egypt
Egypt
employed Nubian people as codetalkers.[25][26][27] Culture[edit]

Old Nubian manuscript

Nubians
Nubians
have developed a common identity, which has been celebrated in poetry, novels, music and storytelling.[28] Nubians
Nubians
in modern Sudan
Sudan
include the Danaqla around Dongola
Dongola
Reach, the Mahas from the Third Cataract to Wadi Halfa, and the Sikurta around Aswan. These Nubians
Nubians
write using their own script. They also practice scarification: Mahas men and women have three scars on each cheek, while the Danaqla wear these scars on their temples. Younger generations appear to be abandoning this custom.[29] Nubia's ancient cultural development was influenced by its geography. It is sometimes divided into Upper Nubia
Nubia
and Lower Nubia. Upper Nubia was where the ancient Kingdom of Napata
Napata
(the Kush) was located. Lower Nubia
Nubia
has been called "the corridor to Africa", where there was contact and cultural exchange between Nubians, Egyptians, Greeks, Assyrians, Romans, and Arabs. Lower Nubia
Nubia
was also where the Kingdom of Meroe
Meroe
flourished.[19] The languages spoken by modern Nubians
Nubians
are based on ancient Sudanic dialects. From north to south, they are: Kenuz, Fadicha (Matoki), Sukkot, Mahas, Danagla.[30] Kerma, Nepata and Meroe
Meroe
were Nubia's largest population centres. The rich agricultural lands of Nubia
Nubia
supported these cities. Ancient Egyptian rulers sought control of Nubia's wealth, including gold, and the important trade routes within its territories.[31] Nubia's trade links with Egypt
Egypt
led to Egypt's domination over Nubia
Nubia
during the New Kingdom period. The emergence of the Kingdom of Meroe
Meroe
in the 8th century BCE led to Egypt
Egypt
being under the control of Nubian rulers for a century, although they preserved many Egyptian cultural traditions.[32] Nubian kings were considered pious scholars and patrons of the arts, copying ancient Egyptian texts and even restoring some Egyptian cultural practices.[11] After this, Egypt's influence declined greatly. Meroe
Meroe
became the centre of power for Nubia
Nubia
and cultural links with sub-Saharan Africa gained greater influence.[32] Religion[edit] Today, Nubians
Nubians
practice Islam. To a certain degree, Nubian religious practices involve a syncretism of Islam
Islam
and traditional folk beliefs.[33] In ancient times, Nubians
Nubians
practiced a mixture of traditional religion and Egyptian religion. Prior to the spread of Islam, many Nubians
Nubians
practiced Christianity.[29] Ancient Nepata was an important religious centre in Nubia. It was the location of Gebel Barkal, a massive sandstone hill resembling a rearing cobra in the eyes of the ancient inhabitants. Egyptian priests declared it to be the home of the ancient deity Amun, further enhancing Nepata as an ancient religious site. This was the case for both Egyptians and Nubians. Egyptian and Nubian deities alike were worshipped in Nubia
Nubia
for 2500 years, even while Nubia
Nubia
was under the control of the New Kingdom of Egypt.[11] Nubian kings and queens were buried near Gebel Barkal, in pyramids as the Egyptian pharaohs were. Nubian pyramids
Nubian pyramids
were built at Gebel Barkal, at Nuri (across the Nile from Gebel Barkal), at El Kerru, and at Merroe, south of Gebel Barkal.[11] Architecture[edit] Main article: Nubian architecture Modern Nubian architecture
Nubian architecture
in Sudan
Sudan
is distinctive, and typically features a large courtyard surrounded by a high wall. A large, ornately decorated gate, preferably facing the Nile, dominates the property. Brightly colored stucco is often decorated with symbols connected with the family inside, or popular motifs such as geometric patterns, palm trees, or the evil eye that wards away bad luck.[29] Nubians
Nubians
invented the Nubian vault, a type of curved surface forming a vaulted structure.[citation needed] Genetics[edit] According to Y-DNA analysis by Hassan et al. (2008), around 44% of Nubians
Nubians
in Sudan
Sudan
carry the haplogroup J. The remainder mainly belong to the E1b1b clade (23%). Both paternal lineages are also common among local Afroasiatic-speaking populations. The next most frequent haplogroups borne by Nubians
Nubians
are the Western European-linked R1b clade (10%) and the Eurasian lineage F (10%), followed by the archaic African B haplogroup (8%) and the Europe-associated I clade (5%).[34] Maternally, Hassan (2009) observed that approximately 83% of their Nubian samples carried various subclades of the Africa-centered macrohaplogroup L. Of these mtDNA lineages, the most frequently borne clade was L3 (30.8%), followed by the L0a (20.6%), L2 (10.3%), L1 (6.9%), L4 (6.9%) and L5 (6.9%) haplogroups. The remaining 17% of Nubians
Nubians
belonged to sublineages of the Eurasian macrohaplogroups M (3.4% M/D, 3.4% M1) and N (3.4% N1a, 3.4% preHV1, 3.4% R/U6a1).[35] Analysing a different group of Nubian individuals inhabiting Sudan, Non (2010) found a significantly higher frequency of around 48% of the Eurasian macrohaplogroups M and N. Of these mtDNA lineages, 16% of the examined Nubians
Nubians
belonged to the M clade (around 9% to M1), with the rest bearing N subhaplogroups (including approximately 8% R0, 3% T1a, and 1% H). The remaining 52% of Nubians
Nubians
carried various Africa-centered macrohaplogroup L(xM,N) derivatives, with about 11% of individuals belonging to the L2a1 subclade.[36] Dobon et al. (2015) identified an ancestral autosomal component of West Eurasian origin that is common to many modern Nubians
Nubians
and Afroasiatic-speaking populations in the Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa, including Sudanese Arabs. Known as the Coptic component, it peaks among Egyptian Copts
Copts
who settled in Sudan
Sudan
over the past two centuries. The scientists associate the Coptic component with Ancient Egyptian ancestry, without the later Arabian influence that is present among other Egyptians.[37] Hollfelder et al. (2017) also analysed various populations in Sudan
Sudan
and similarly observed close autosomal affinities between their Nubian and Sudanese Arab samples.[38] In 2015, Sirak et al. also analysed the ancient DNA of a Christian-period inhabitant of Kulubnarti in Nubia. The scientists found that the medieval specimen was most closely related to Middle Eastern populations.[39] Further excavations of two Early Christian period (AD 550-800) cemeteries at Kulubnarti, one located on the mainland and the other on an island, revealed the existence of two ancestrally and socioeconomically distinct local populations. Ancient DNA analysis of specimens from these burial sites found that the mainland samples predominantly carried European and Near Eastern mtDNA clades, such as the K1, H, I5, and U1 lineages; only 36.4% of the mainland individuals belonged to African-based maternal haplogroups. By contrast, 70% of the specimens at the island burial site bore African-based clades, among which were the L2, L1 and L5 mtDNA haplogroups.[16] Nubian vs Nubi[edit] Importantly, the Nubians
Nubians
are not to be confused with the Nubi people also sometimes referred to as Nubians, estimated at 100,000-200,000, who live in Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda.[40] The Nubi are descendants of soldiers conscripted by the British during the colonial era, and they are originally from modern day South Sudan
Sudan
and the Darfur region.[41] In contrast, the Nubians
Nubians
are indigenous to only Egypt
Egypt
and Northern Sudan. Prominent Nubians[edit]

Alara of Nubia, founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt Taharqa, Pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty Amanitore, Kandake
Kandake
(queen) of the Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush
centered on Meroë Gaafar Nimeiry, Former Sudanese president Anwar Sadat, The third President of Egypt, first Muslim Nobel prize laureate Mohammed Wardi, Sudanese Nubian singer, considered the greatest Sudanese artist to have ever lived. Mohamed Mounir, Singer, the Prince Mo Ibrahim, Sudanese-British mobile communications entrepreneur and billionaire Hamza El Din, Singer and musicologist Ramey Dawoud, Hiphop artist and actor Khalil Kalfat, Literary critic, political and economic thinker and writer Abdallah Khalil, Ex-Sudanese Prime Minister, co-founder of the White Flag League, co-Founder and ex-general secretary of the Umma Party Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Soliman, Egyptian Field Marshal and statesman, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, de facto head of state of Egypt Muhammad Ahmad, 19th century Sufi sheikh and self-proclaimed Mahdi Osama Abdul Latif, a Sudanese businessman, chairman of DAL Group Idris Ali, Egyptian novelist and short story writer Ibrahim Awad, Sudanese musician Shikabala, Egyptian footballer who currently plays for Egyptian club Zamalek Fathi Hassan, Painter

See also[edit]

Barabra is an old ethnographical term for the Nubian peoples of Sudan and southern Egypt.

References[edit] Inline citations[edit]

^ Hale, Sondra (1973). Nubians: A Study in Ethnic Identity. Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of Khartoum. p. 24. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ Charles Keith Maisels (1993). The Near East: Archaeology in the "Cradle of Civilization. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04742-0. ^ "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Burials: Prehistory". www.ancientsudan.org.  ^ Christopher Ehret[full citation needed] ^ a b " Nubia
Nubia
- ancient region, Africa".  ^ .Draper, Robert. "Black Pharaohs". National Geographic.  ^ Brier, bOB; A. Hoyt Hobbs (2008). Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians (Revised ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0313353062.  ^ Sesana, Renato Kizito; Borruso, Silvano (2006). I Am a Nuba. Paulines Publications Africa. p. 26. ISBN 9789966081797.  ^ a b "The History of Ancient Nubia
Nubia
- The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago". oi.uchicago.edu.  ^ a b Bianchi, Robert Steven (2004). Daily Life Of The Nubians. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 2, 5. ISBN 9780313325014.  ^ a b c d Remier, Pat (2010). Egyptian Mythology, A to Z. Infobase Publishing. p. 135. ISBN 9781438131801.  ^ a b Asiatic Society Monograph Series, Volume 15. Asiatic Society. 1968. p. 43. Retrieved 10 October 2017.  ^ Bianchi, Robert Steven (2004). Daily Life Of The Nubians. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780313325014.  ^ a b c Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, Roger Blench, Kevin MacDonald (ed.) (2014). The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography - "Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of livestock in Sudan" (2000). Routledge. p. 453. ISBN 1135434166. Retrieved 15 September 2014. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Behrens, Peter (1986). Libya Antiqua: Report and Papers of the Symposium Organized by Unesco in Paris, 16 to 18 January 1984 - "Language and migrations of the early Saharan cattle herders: the formation of the Berber branch". Unesco. p. 30. ISBN 9231023764. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ a b Sirak, Kendra; Frenandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Van Gerven, Dennis; Pinhasi, Ron (2016). Abstract Book of the IUAES Inter-Congress 2016 - A community divided? Revealing the community genome(s) of Medieval Kulubnarti using next- generation sequencing. IUAES. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Meroe".  ^ Jakobielski, S. 1992. Chapter 8: "Christian Nubia
Nubia
at the Height of its Civilization." UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume III. University of California Press ^ a b Lobban, Richard (2004). Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press. pp. liii. ISBN 9780810847842.  ^ Rilly, Claude & de Voogt, Alex (2012). The Meroitic Language and Writing System. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107008662. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Rilly, Claude (2004). "The Linguistic Position of Meroitic" (PDF). Sudan
Sudan
Electronic Journal of Archaeology and Anthropology.  ^ Rowan, Kirsty (2011). "Meroitic Consonant and Vowel Patterning". Lingua Aegytia, 19. ^ Rowan, Kirsty (2006), "Meroitic - An Afroasiatic Language?" SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics 14:169–206. ^ a b Fernea, Robert A. (2005). Nubian Ceremonial Life: Studies in Islamic Syncretism
Syncretism
And Cultural Change. American University in Cairo Press. pp. ix–xi. ISBN 9789774249556.  ^ "Changing Egypt
Egypt
Offers Hope to Long-Marginalized Nubians". 1 February 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2016.  ^ "Remembering Nubia: the Land of Gold - Politics - Egypt
Egypt
- Ahram Online". Retrieved 9 August 2016.  ^ West, Cairo. "El Nuba - Cairo West Magazine". Retrieved 9 August 2016.  ^ Kemp, Graham & Douglas P. Fry (2003). Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution and Peaceful Societies Around the World. Psychology Press. p. 99. ISBN 9780415947626.  ^ a b c Clammer, Paul (2010). Sudan: the Bradt travel guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 138. ISBN 9781841622064.  ^ Lobban, Richard (2004). Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press. pp. liv. ISBN 9780810847842.  ^ Bulliet, Richard W., and Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Lyman L. Johnson, Steven W. Hirsch (2007). The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History to 1550. Cengage Learning. p. 82. ISBN 9780618771509. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Bulliet, Richard W., and Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Lyman L. Johnson, Steven W. Hirsch (2007). The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History to 1550. Cengage Learning. p. 83. ISBN 9780618771509. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Fernea, Robert A. (2005). Nubian Ceremonial Life: Studies in Islamic Syncretism
Syncretism
And Cultural Change. American University in Cairo Press. pp. iv–ix. ISBN 9789774249556.  ^ Hassan, Hisham Y. et al. (2008). "Y‐chromosome variation among Sudanese: Restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (3): 316–323. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. PMID 18618658. Retrieved 11 October 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Hassan, Hisham Y. "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan". University of Khartoum. pp. 90–92. Retrieved 13 November 2017.  ^ Non, Amy. "ANALYSES OF GENETIC DATA WITHIN AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FRAMEWORK TO INVESTIGATE RECENT HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY AND COMPLEX DISEASE" (PDF). University of Florida. p. 140. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ Begoña Dobon et al. (28 May 2015). "The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape" (PDF). Scientific Reports. 5: 9996. doi:10.1038/srep09996. PMC 4446898 . PMID 26017457. Retrieved 13 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Hollfelder, Nina; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Günther, Torsten; Babiker, Hiba; Hassan, Hisham Y.; Jakobsson, Mattias (2017-08-24). "Northeast African genomic variation shaped by the continuity of indigenous groups and Eurasian migrations". PLOS Genetics. 13 (8): e1006976. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006976. ISSN 1553-7404.  ^ "Optimizing ancient DNA yield from Saharan African samples" (PDF). Sirak et al. Retrieved 10 April 2016.  ^ Akcay, Ahmet Sait (2016). " Nubians
Nubians
Still Stateless in Kenya
Kenya
after 150 Years". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ "The Nubi of Kenya
Kenya
and Uganda". Orville Boyd Jenkin. 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2076.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)

General references[edit]

Rouchdy, Aleya (1991). Nubians
Nubians
and the Nubian Language in Contemporary Egypt: A Case of Cultural and Linguistic Contact. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09197-1.  Valbelle, Dominique; Charles Bonnet (2007). The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-416-010-X.  Warnock Fernea, Elizabeth; Robert A. Fernea (1990). Nubian Ethnographies. Chicago: Waveland Press Inc. ISBN 0-88133-480-4.  Black Pharaohs - National Geographic Feb 2008

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