The northern goshawk /ˈɡɒs.hɔːk/ (Old English: gōsheafoc,
Accipiter gentilis, is a medium-large raptor in the
family Accipitridae, which also includes other extant diurnal raptors,
such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. As a species in the Accipiter
genus, the goshawk is often considered a "true hawk". The
scientific name is Latin;
Accipiter is "hawk", from accipere, "to
grasp", and gentilis is "noble" or "gentle" because in the Middle Ages
only the nobility were permitted to fly goshawks for falconry.
This species was first described under its current scientific name by
Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758.
It is a widespread species that inhabits many of the temperate parts
of the Northern Hemisphere. The northern goshawk is the only species
Accipiter genus found in both
Eurasia and North America. It
may have the widest distribution of any true member of the
Accipitridae family, behind arguably only the hen harrier (Circus
cyaenus) (which is often considered two species between North America
and Eurasia) and occurring over a slightly wider range than either
golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) or rough-legged buzzards (Buteo
lagopus). Except in a small portion of southern Asia, it is the
only species of "goshawk" in its range and it is thus often referred
to, both officially and unofficially, as simply the "goshawk". It is
mainly resident, but birds from colder regions migrate south for the
winter. In North America, migratory goshawks are often seen
migrating south along mountain ridge tops at nearly any time of the
fall depending on latitude.
3.4 Confusion species
5 Dietary biology
5.1 Hunting behavior
5.2 Prey spectrum
5.4 Pigeons and doves
5.7 Hares and rabbits
5.8 Other birds
5.9 Other mammals
5.10 Alternate prey
5.11 Interspecies predatory relationships
6.1 Nest characteristics
6.3 Parental behavior
6.4 Hatching and development
6.5 Breeding success rates
6.6 Nesting failure
9 Relationship with humans
9.1 Human culture
9.2 In falconry
10.1 Historical material
11 External links
The northern goshawk has a large circumpolar distribution. In Eurasia,
it is found in most areas of
Ireland and Iceland. It
also has a fairly spotty distribution in western
Europe (i.e. Great
Britain, Spain, France) but is more or less found continuously through
the rest of the continent. Their Eurasian distribution sweeps
continuously across most of Russia, excluding the fully treeless
tundra in the northern stretches, to the western limits of
far as Anadyr and Kamchatka. In the Eastern Hemisphere, they are
found in their southern limits in extreme northwestern Morocco,
Corsica and Sardinia, the "toe" of Italy, southern Greece, Turkey, the
Caucasus, Sinkiang's Tien Shan, in some parts of
Tibet and the
Himalayas, western China and Japan. In winter, northern goshawks
may be found rarely as far south as to
Saudi Arabia and
perhaps Tonkin, Vietnam.
In North America, they are most broadly found in the western United
States, including Alaska, and provinces in western Canada. Their
breeding range in the western contiguous United States largely
consists of the wooded foothills of the
Rocky Mountains and many other
large mountain ranges from Washington to southern
east to central
Colorado and westernmost Texas. Somewhat
discontinuous breeding populations are found in southeastern Arizona
and southwestern New Mexico, thence also somewhat spottily into
Mexico down through
Sonora and Chihuahua along the Sierra
Madre Occidental as far as
Jalisco and Guerrero, their worldwide
southern limit as a breeding species.
The goshawk continues eastbound through much of
Canada as a native
species, but is rarer in most of the eastern United States, especially
the Midwest where they are not typically found outside of the Great
Lakes region (a very small population persists in the extreme
northeastern corner of North Dakota), where a good-sized breeding
population occurs in the northern parts of Minnesota, Illinois,
Michigan and somewhat into Ohio. They breed also in mountainous areas
of New England, New York, central
Pennsylvania and northwestern New
Jersey, sporadically down to extreme northwestern
northeastern West Virginia. Vagrants have been reported in Ireland,
central Morocco, northern Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel,
Jordan, Saudi Arabia, southern Iran, Pakistan, western India (Gujarat)
and on Izu-shoto (south of Japan) and the Commander Islands, not to
mention most of the United States where they do not breed.
An adult goshawk in the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, in a pine tree that
typifies the habitat used locally.
Northern goshawks can be found in both deciduous and coniferous
forests. While the species might show strong regional preferences for
certain trees, they seem to have no strong overall preferences nor
even a preference between deciduous or coniferous trees despite claims
to the contrary. More important than the type of trees
are the composition of a given tree stand, which should be tall,
old-growth with intermediate to heavy canopy coverage (often more than
40%) and minimal density undergrowth, both of which are favorable for
hunting conditions. Also, goshawks typically require close
proximity to openings in which to execute additional hunting.
More so than in North America, the goshawks of Eurasia, especially
central Europe, may live in fairly urbanized patchworks of small
woods, shelter-belts and copses and even use largely isolated trees in
central parts of Eurasian cities. Access to waterways and
riparian zones of any kind is not uncommon in goshawk home ranges but
seems to not be a requirement. Narrow tree-lined riparian zones in
otherwise relatively open habitats can provide suitable wintering
habitat in the absence of more extensive woodlands. The northern
goshawk can be found at almost any altitude, but recently is typically
found at high elevations due to a paucity of extensive forests
remaining in lowlands across much of its range. Altitudinally,
goshawks may live anywhere up to a given mountain range’s tree line,
which is usually 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in elevation or less.
The northern limit of their distribution also coincides with the tree
line and here may adapt to dwarf tree communities, often along
drainages of the lower tundra. In winter months, the
northernmost or high mountain populations move down to warmer forests
with lower elevations, often continuing to avoid detection except
while migrating. A majority of goshawks around the world remain
sedentary throughout the year.
Juvenile (left) and adult by Louis Agassiz Fuertes
The northern goshawk has relatively short, broad wings and a long
tail, typical for
Accipiter species and common to raptors that require
maneuverability within forest habitats. For an Accipiter, it has a
relatively sizeable bill, relatively long wings, a relatively short
tail, robust and fairly short legs and particularly thick toes.
Across most of the species' range, it is blue-grey above or
brownish-grey with dark barring or streaking over a grey or white base
color below, but Asian subspecies in particular range from nearly
white overall to nearly black above. Goshawks tend to show clinal
variation in color, with most goshawks further north being paler and
those in warmer areas being darker but individuals can be either dark
in the north or pale in the south. Individuals that live a long life
may gradually become paler as they age, manifesting in mottling and a
lightening of the back from a darker shade to a bluer pale color.
It plumage is more variable than that of the Eurasian sparrowhawk
Accipiter nisus), which is probably due to higher genetic variability
in the larger goshawk. The juvenile northern goshawk is usually a
solid to mildly streaky brown above, with much variation in underside
color from nearly pure white to almost entirely overlaid with broad
dark cinnamon-brown striping. Both juveniles and adults have a barred
tail, with 3 to 5 dark brown or black bars. Adults always have a
white eye stripe or supercilia, which tends to be broader in northern
Eurasian and North American birds. In North America, juveniles have
pale-yellow eyes, and adults develop dark red eyes usually after their
second year, although nutrition and genetics may affect eye color as
Europe and Asia, juveniles also have pale-yellow eyes
while adults typically develop orange-colored eyes. Moulting
starts between late March and late May, the male tends to moult later
and faster than the female. Moulting results in the female being
especially likely to have a gap in its wing feathers while incubating
and this may cause some risk, especially if the male is lost, as it
inhibits her hunting abilities and may hamper her defensive
capabilities, putting both herself and the nestlings in potential
danger of predation. The moult takes a total of 4–6 months, with
tail feathers following the wings then lastly the contour and body
feathers, which may not be completely moulted even as late as
Although existing wing size and body mass measurements indicate that
Henst's goshawk (
Accipiter henstii) and
Meyer's goshawk (Accipiter
meyerianus) broadly overlap in size with this species, the northern
goshawk is on average the largest member of the genus Accipiter,
especially outsizing its tropic cousins in the larger Eurasian
races. The northern goshawk, like all Accipiters, exhibits
sexual dimorphism, where females are significantly larger than males,
with the dimorphism notably greater in most parts of Eurasia.
Linearly, males average about 8% smaller in
North America and 13%
smaller than females in Eurasia, but in the latter landmass can range
up to a very noticeable 28% difference in extreme cases. Male
northern goshawks are 46 to 61 cm (18 to 24 in) long and
have a 89 to 105 cm (35 to 41 in) wingspan. The female is
much larger, 58 to 69 cm (23 to 27 in) long with a 108 to
127 cm (43 to 50 in) wingspan. In a study of
North American goshawks (A. g. atricapillus), males were found to
average 56 cm (22 in) in total length, against females which
averaged 61 cm (24 in). Males from six subspecies
average around 762 g (1.680 lb) in body mass, with a range
from all races of 357 to 1,200 g (0.787 to 2.646 lb). The
female can be up to more than twice as heavy, averaging from the same
races 1,150 g (2.54 lb) with an overall range of 758 to
2,200 g (1.671 to 4.850 lb). Among standard
measurements, the most oft-measured is wing chord which can range from
286 to 354 mm (11.3 to 13.9 in) in males and from 324 to
390 mm (12.8 to 15.4 in) in females. Additional, the tail is
200–295 mm (7.9–11.6 in), the culmen is
20–26.3 mm (0.79–1.04 in) and the tarsus is
68–90 mm (2.7–3.5 in).
Accipiter gentilis - northern goshawk
Northern goshawks normally only vocalize during courtship or the
nesting season. Adult goshawks may chatter a repeated note, varying in
speed and volume based on the context. When calling from a perch,
birds often turn their heads slowly from side to side, producing a
ventriloquial effect. The male calls a fast, high-pitched
kew-kew-kew when delivering food or else a very different croaking
guck or chup. The latter sound has been considered by some authors
similar to that of a person snapping the tongue away from the roof the
mouth; the males produce it by holding the beak wide open, thrusting
the head up and forward, than bringing it down as the sound is
emitted, repeated at intervals of five seconds. This call is uttered
when the male encounters a female. Two calls have been
recorded mainly from brooding females in the race A. g. atricapillus:
a recognition scream of short, intense notes (whee-o or hee-ya) which
ends in harsh, falsetto tone; then a dismissal call given when the
male lingers after delivering food, consisting of a choked, cut-off
scream. Meanwhile, the adult female's rapid strident kek-kek-kek
expresses alarm or intent to mob towards threatening intruders. This
is often done when mobbing a predator such as a great horned owl (Bubo
virginianus) and as it progresses the female's voice may lower
slightly in pitch and becomes harsh and rasping. As the intensity of
her attacks increases, her kakking becomes more rapid and can attain a
constant screaming quality. Females often withdraw into the treetops
when fatigued, and their calls are then spaced at longer intervals.
Males respond to interlopers or predators with a quieter, slower gek
gek gek or ep ep ep. A call consisting of kek…kek.kekk kek
kek-kek-kek is used mainly by females in advertisement and during
pre-laying mutual calling. Both sexes also may engage in kakking
during copulation. Vocalizations mainly peak in late
courtship/early nesting around late March to April, can begin up to 45
minutes before sunrise, and are more than twice in as frequent in the
first three hours of daylight as in the rest of the day.
Occasionally hunting northern goshawks may make shrill screams when
pursuing prey, especially if a lengthy chase is undertaken and the
prey is already aware of its intended predator.
Accipiter contains nearly 50 known living species and is the
most diverse genus of diurnal raptors in the world. This group of
agile, smallish, forest-dwelling hawks has been in existence for
possibly tens of millions of years, probably as an adaptation to the
explosive numbers of small birds that began to occupy the world’s
forest in the last few eras. The harriers are the only group of extant
diurnal raptors that seem to bear remotely close relation to this
genus, whereas buteonines, Old World kites, sea eagles and
chanting-goshawks are much more distantly related and all other modern
accipitrids are not directly related.
Accipiter genus, the northern goshawk seems to belong to a
superspecies with other larger goshawks from different portions of the
world. Meyer's goshawk, found in the South Pacific, has been
posited as the most likely to be most close related living cousin to
the northern goshawk, the somewhat puzzling gap in their respective
ranges explained by other
Palearctic raptors such as Bonelli's eagles
(Aquila fasciata) and short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus) that have
extant isolated tropical island populations and were probably part of
the same southwest Pacific radiation that led to the Meyer's
goshawk. A presumably older radiation of this group occurred in
Africa, where it led to both the
Henst's goshawk of
Madagascar and the
black sparrowhawk (
Accipiter melanoleucus) of the mainland. While the
Henst's goshawk quite resembles the northern goshawks, the black
sparrowhawk is superficially described as a “sparrowhawk” due to
its relatively much longer and finer legs than those of typical
goshawks but overall its size and plumage (especially that of
juveniles) is much more goshawk than sparrowhawk-like.
Outside of the presumed superspecies, the genus
be part of an Australasian radiation of basal goshawks based largely
on their similar morphology to northern goshawks. Genetic studies
have indicated that the
Cooper's hawk of
North America is also fairly
closely related to the northern goshawk, having been present in North
America before either of the other two North American Accipiters.
However, the much smaller sharp-shinned hawk, which has similar
plumage to the
Cooper's hawk and seems to be most closely related to
the Eurasian sparrowhawk, appears to have occupied
North America the
latest of the three North American species, despite having the
broadest current distribution of any
Accipiter in the Americas
(extending down through much of South America).
A typical adult goshawk, with a strong brownish-gray cast, from the
nominate subspecies, A. g. gentilis.
A typical adult from the American goshawk subspecies, A. g.
atricapillus, showing its strong supercilium, black head and blue-gray
The northern goshawk appears to have diversified in northern, central
Eurasia and spread both westwards to occupy
Europe and, later on,
eastwards to spread into
North America across the Bering Land Bridge.
Fossil remains show that goshawks were present in
California by the
Pleistocene era. Two non-exclusive processes could have occurred
to cause the notably color and size variation of northern goshawks
throughout its range: isolation in the past enabled gene combinations
to assort as distinct morphs that suited conditions in different
geographical areas, followed by a remixing of these genotypes to
result in clines, or subtle variation in modern selection pressures
led to a diversity of hues and patterns. As a result of the
high variation of individual goshawks in plumage characteristics and
typical trends in clinal variation and size variations that largely
Bergmann's rule and Gloger's rule, an excessive number of
subspecies have been described for the northern goshawk in the past.
Europe (including European Russia) alone, 12 subspecies were
described between 1758 and 1990. Most modern authorities agree
on listing nine to ten subspecies of northern goshawks from throughout
A. g. gentilis (Linnaeus, 1758) - The nominate race is distributed
through most of the species current European range, excluding northern
Russia and possibly some of the
Mediterranean islands they inhabit. Outside of Europe, this
subspecies' range extends south to northwestern Africa (almost
entirely Morocco) and east in
Eurasia to Urals, the
Caucasus and Asia
Minor. It is a typically large subspecies with high levels of sexual
dimorphism. The wing chord of males ranges from 300 to 342 mm
(11.8 to 13.5 in) and of females from 336 to 385 mm (13.2 to
15.2 in). Body mass is variable, range from 517 to 1,110 g
(1.140 to 2.447 lb) in males and from 820 to 2,200 g (1.81
to 4.85 lb) in females. In some cases, the largest adult females
(including some exceptionally big females which are the heaviest
goshawks known from anywhere) from within a population are up to four
times heavier than the smallest adult males, although this is
exceptional. The highest average weights come from central
Fennoscandia, where the sexes weigh on average 865 g
(1.907 lb) and 1,414 g (3.117 lb), respectively. The
lowest come from Spain, where goshawks of this race weigh a median of
690 g (1.52 lb) in males and 1,050 g (2.31 lb) in
females. The nominate race is generally a dark slaty-brown color
on its back and wing coverts with a blackish-brown head. The
supercilium is thin and the underside is generally creamy with heavy
dark barring. On average, in addition to their smaller size, nominate
goshawks to the south of the race’s distribution have thinner
supericilia and broader and denser barring on the underside. An
aberrant “isabelline” morph is known mainly from central and
eastern Europe, where the goshawk may be a general beige color
(somewhat similar to the pale birds from the races albidus and
buteoides), but such birds appear to be very rare.
A. g. arrigonii (Kleinschmidt, 1903) - This is an island race found on
the Mediterranean isles of
Sardinia and Corsica. It averages smaller
and weaker-footed than goshawks from the nominate race. The wing chord
measures 293 to 308 mm (11.5 to 12.1 in) in males and 335 to
347 mm (13.2 to 13.7 in) in females. This race is typically
a more blackish brown above with almost fully black head, while the
underside is almost pure white and more heavily overlaid with black
barring and conspicuous black shaft-streaks. This subspecies is not
listed by all authorities but is often considered valid.
A. g. buteoides (Menzbier, 1882) - This race is characteristic of the
northern stretches of the western Eurasian range of goshawks, being
found as a breeding species from northern
Fennoscandia to western
Siberia, ranging as far as the Lena River. In the eastern portion of
its distribution, many birds may travel south to central
winter. This is a large race, averaging larger than most populations
of the nominate race but being about the same size as the big nominate
goshawks with which they may overlap and interbreed with in
Fennoscandia. The wing chord in males ranges from 308 to 345 mm
(12.1 to 13.6 in) while that of females ranges from 340 to
388 mm (13.4 to 15.3 in). The body mass of males has been
reported from 870 to 1,170 g (1.92 to 2.58 lb), with an
average of 1,016 g (2.240 lb), while that of females is
reportedly 1,190 to 1,850 g (2.62 to 4.08 lb), with an
average of 1,355 g (2.987 lb). Usually, this race is
an altogether paler colour than the nominate, being blue-grey above
with a dusky-grey crown and a broad supercilium. The underside is
white with rather fine blackish-brown barring. Pale flecking on the
feather shafts sometimes result in barred appearance on the contour
feathers of the nape, back and upper wing. Many birds from this
subspecies also a tan to pale brown eye color. These two
characteristics are sometimes considered typical of this race but
individuals are rather variable. In western Siberia, about 10% of
birds of this race are nearly pure white (similar to albidus) with
varied indications of darker streaking.
A. g. albidus (Menzbier, 1882) - This race of goshawk is found in
Siberia and Kamchatka. Many birds of this race travel
south for the winter to Transbaikalia, northern
Ussuriland. This race continues the trend for goshawks to grow mildly
larger eastbound in
Eurasia and may be the largest known race based on
the midpoint of known measurements of this race, although limited
sample sizes of measured goshawks shows they broadly overlap in size
with A. g. buteoides and large-bodied populations of A. g. gentilis.
The wing chord can range from 316 to 346 mm (12.4 to
13.6 in) in males and from 370 to 388 mm (14.6 to
15.3 in) in females. Known males have scaled from 894 to
1,200 g (1.971 to 2.646 lb) while a small sample of females
weighed have had a body mass between 1,300 and 1,750 g (2.87 and
3.86 lb). This is easily the palest race of northern
goshawk. Many birds are pale grey above with much white about the head
and very sparse barring below. However, about half of the goshawks of
this race are more or less pure white, with only a few remnants of
pale caramel flecking about the back or faint brownish markings
A. g. schvedowi (Menzbier, 1882) - This race ranges from the Urals
east to the Amurland, Ussuriland, Manchuria, west-central China and
sporadically as a breeder into
Sakhalin and the Kuril islands. A. g.
schvedowi averages smaller than other races on the mainland of
Eurasia, with seemingly the highest sexual dimorphism of any goshawk
race, possibly as an adaptation to prey partitioning in the
exceptionally sparse wooded fringes of the desert-like steppe habitat
that characterizes this race’s range. The wing chord has been found
to measure 298 to 323 mm (11.7 to 12.7 in) in males and 330
to 362 mm (13.0 to 14.3 in) in females. Body mass of 15
males was found to be merely 357 to 600 g (0.787 to
1.323 lb) with a mean of 501 g (1.105 lb), the lowest
adult weights known for this species, while two adult females scaled
1,000 and 1,170 g (2.20 and 2.58 lb), respectively, or more
than twice as much on average. Beyond its smaller size, its
wings are reportedly relatively shorter and feet relatively smaller
and weaker than other Eurasian races. In color, this race is
typically a slate-grey above with a blackish head and is densely
marked below with thin brown barring.
A. g. fuyijamae (Swann & Hartert, 1923) - Found through the
species range in Japan, from the islands of
Hokkaido south to the
large island of Honshu, in the latter down to as far south as forests
a bit north of Hiroshima. A fairly small subspecies, it may average
slightly smaller than A. g. schvedowi linearly but it is less sexually
dimorphic in size and weighs slightly more on average. The wing chord
is the smallest known from any race, 286 to 300 mm (11.3 to
11.8 in) in males and 302 to 350 mm (11.9 to 13.8 in)
in females. However, the weights of 22 males ranged from 602 to
848 g (1.327 to 1.870 lb), averaging 715 g
(1.576 lb) while 22 females ranged from 929 to 1,265 g
(2.048 to 2.789 lb), averaging 1,098 g (2.421 lb).
The coloration of this race is not dissimilar from A. g. schvedowi but
is still darker slate above and they tend to have heavier barring
below, probably being the darkest race on average, rivaled only by the
similar insular race from the opposite side of the Pacific, A. g.
A. g. atricapillus (Wilson, 1812) - Sometimes simply referred to as
the American goshawk. This subspecies occupies a majority of the
goshawk’s range in
North America excluding some islands of the
Pacific northwest and the southern part of the American southwest.
American goshawks are generally slightly smaller on average than most
Eurasian ones although there are regional differences in size that
confirm mildly to
Bergmann's rule within this race. Furthermore,
sexual dimorphism in size is notably less pronounced in American
goshawks than in most Eurasian races. Overall, the wing chord is 308
to 337 mm (12.1 to 13.3 in) in males and 324 to 359 mm
(12.8 to 14.1 in) in females. Size within atricapillus based
on body mass seems to be highest in interior Alaska, followed by the
Great Lakes, is intermediate in the northwest United States from
eastern Washington to the
Dakotas as well as in southeast Alaska
thence decreasing mildly along the Pacific in
Oregon and California
and smallest of all within the race in the
Great Basin and Colorado
Plateau states (i.e. Nevada,
Utah and northern and central Arizona).
Conspicuously, wing size did not correspond to variations in body mass
and more southerly goshawks were frequently longer winged than the
more massive northerly ones. Male atricapillus goshawk
have been found weighing from 655 to 1,200 g (1.444 to
2.646 lb) and females from 758 to 1,562 g (1.671 to
3.444 lb). The lightest reported mean weights were
from goshawks in northern and central Arizona, weighing a mean of
680 g (1.50 lb) in males and 935 g (2.061 lb)
while the highest were from a small sample of Alaskan goshawks which
weighed some 905 g (1.995 lb) in males and 1,190 g
(2.62 lb) in females. Almost identical mean weights
for goshawks as in
Alaska were recorded for goshawks from
well. This race is typically a blue-gray color above with a boldly
contrasting black head and broad white supercilia. American goshawks
are often grayish below with fine gray waving barring and, compared to
most Eurasian goshawks, rather apparent black shaft streaks which in
combination create a vermiculated effect that is all-together messier
looking than in most Eurasian birds. From a distance, atricapillus can
easily appear solidly all-gray from the front. Due to this, the
adult goshawk in America is sometimes called the “gray ghost”, a
name also somewhat more commonly used for adult male hen harriers.
Birds from mainland
Alaska tend to be paler overall with more pale
flecking than other American goshawks.
A. g. laingi (Tavernier, 1940) - This insular race is found on the
Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island. This subspecies is
slightly smaller than the goshawks found on the mainland and is
linearly the smallest race on average in North America. The wing chord
of males can range from 312 to 325 mm (12.3 to 12.8 in) and
that of females is 332 to 360 mm (13.1 to 14.2 in) and is on
average nearly 5% smaller than those sampled goshawks from the nearby
mainland. These goshawks are characteristically darker than
mainland goshawks with the black of the crown extending to the
interscapulars. The underside is a sootier gray overall.
A. g. apache (van Rossem, 1938) - The range of this subspecies extends
New Mexico down throughout the species range
in Mexico. This subspecies has the longest median wing size of any
race, running contrary to
Bergmann's rule that northern birds should
outsize southern ones in widely distributed temperate species. In
males the wing chord ranges from 344 to 354 mm (13.5 to
13.9 in) while in females it ranges from 365 to 390 mm (14.4
to 15.4 in). However, in terms of body mass, it is only
slightly heavier than the goshawks found discontinuously somewhat to
the north in the
Great Basin and the
Colorado Plateau and lighter than
the heaviest known American goshawks from
exceeding the goshawks from these areas in wing size. The weight of 49
males ranged from 631 to 744 g (1.391 to 1.640 lb),
averaging 704 g (1.552 lb), while that of 88 females from
two studies ranged from 845 to 1,265 g (1.863 to 2.789 lb),
averaging 1,006 g (2.218 lb). Aside from its overall
larger size, apache reportedly averages larger in foot size than most
other American goshawks. Birds of this race tend to be darker than
other American goshawks aside from the laingi type birds. Due to its
shortage of distinct features beyond proportions, this is considered
one of the more weakly separated among current separate subspecies,
with some authors considering it merely a clinal variation of
atricapillus. Even the greater wing size in southern birds follows a
trend for the wing chord to increase in size in the south on the
contrary to body mass.
Juvenile northern goshawk in flight, the most likely age and condition
to mistake a goshawk for another species.
The juvenile plumage of the species may cause some confusion,
especially with other
Accipiter juveniles. Unlike other northern
Accipiters, the adult northern goshawk never has a rusty color to its
underside barring. In Eurasia, the smaller male goshawk is
sometimes confused with a female sparrowhawk, but is still notably
larger, much bulkier and has relatively longer wings, which are more
pointed and less boxy. Sparrowhawks tend to fly in a frequently
flapping, fluttering type flight. Wing beats of northern goshawks are
deeper, more deliberate, and on average slower than those of the
Eurasian sparrowhawk or the two other North American
Accipiters. The classic
Accipiter flight is a characteristic
"flap flap, glide", but the goshawk, with its greater wing area, can
sometimes be seen steadily soaring in migration (smaller Accipiters
almost always need to flap to stay aloft). In North America
juveniles are sometimes confused with the smaller Cooper's hawk
Accipiter cooperii), especially between small male goshawks and large
female Cooper's hawks. However, the juvenile goshawk displays a
heavier, vertical streaking pattern on chest and abdomen, with the
Cooper's hawk streaking frequently (but not always) in a
“teardrop” pattern wherein the streaking appears to taper at the
top, as opposed to the more even streaking of the goshawk. The goshawk
sometimes seems to have a shorter tail relative to its much broader
body. Although there appears to be a size overlap between small male
goshawks and large female Cooper's hawks, morphometric measurements
(wing and tail length) of both species demonstrate no such overlap,
although weight overlap can rarely occur due to variation in seasonal
condition and food intake at time of weighing. Rarely, in the
southern stretches of its Asian wintering range, the northern goshawk
may live alongside the crested goshawk (
Accipiter trivirgatus) which
is smaller (roughly Cooper's hawk-sized) and has a slight crest as
well as a distinct mixture of denser streaks and bars below and no
Large juvenile Cooper's hawks such as this are at times mistaken for a
Northern goshawks are sometimes mistaken for species even outside of
Accipiter genus especially as juveniles of each respective
species. In North America, four species of buteonine hawk (all four of
which are smaller than goshawks to a certain degree) may be confused
with them on occasion despite the differing proportions of these
hawks, which all have longer wings and shorter tails relative to their
size. A species so similar it is sometimes nicknamed the “Mexican
goshawk”, gray hawk (Buteo plagiatus) juveniles (overlapping with
true goshawks in the southwest United States into Mexico) have
contrasting face pattern with bold dusky eye-stripes, dark eyes,
barred thighs and a bold white “U” on the uppertail coverts. The
roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) (rarely in same range in Mexico)
is noticeably smaller with paddle shaped wings, barred lower breast
and a buff “U” on undertail coverts in young birds. Somewhat less
likely to confused despite their broader extent of overlap are the
red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) which have a narrow white-barred,
dark-looking tail, bold white crescents on their primaries and dark
wing edges and the broad-winged hawk (Buteo playpterus) which also has
dark wing edges and a differing tapered wing shape. Even wintering
gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) juveniles have been mistaken for goshawks
and vice versa on occasion, especially when observed distantly
perched, but have many tell-tale falcon characteristics like pointed,
longer wings, a brown malar stripe as well as its more extensive
barring both above and below.
Adult goshawks maintain territories with display flights.
The northern goshawk is always found solitarily or in pairs. This
species is highly territorial as are most raptorial birds, maintaining
regularly spaced home ranges that constitute their territory.
Territories are maintained by adults via display flights. During
nesting, the home ranges of goshawk pairs are from 600 to
4,040 ha (1,500 to 10,000 acres) and these vicinities tend to be
vigorously defended both to maintain rights to their nests and mates
as well as the ranges’ prey base. During display flight goshawks
may engage in single or mutual high-circling. Each sex tends to
defend the territory from others of their own sex. Territorial
flights may occur almost through the year, but peak from January to
April. Such flights may include slow-flapping with exaggerated high
deep beats interspersed with long glides and undulations. In
general, territorial fights are resolved without physical contact,
often with one (usually a younger bird seeking a territory) retreats
while the other approaches in a harrier-like warning flight, flashing
its white underside at the intruder. If the incoming goshawk does not
leave the vicinity, the defending goshawk may increase the exaggerated
quality of its flight including a mildly undulating wave-formed rowing
flight and the rowing flight with its neck held in a heron-like S to
elevate the head and maximally expose the pale breast as a territorial
threat display. Territorial skirmishes may on occasion escalate to
physical fights in which mortalities may occur. In actual fights,
goshawks fall grappling to the ground as they attempt to strike each
other with talons.
Although at times considered rather sedentary for a northern raptor
species, the northern goshawk is a partial migrant. Migratory
movements generally occur between September and November (occasionally
extending throughout December) in the fall and February to April in
the spring. Spring migration is less extensive and more poorly known
than fall migration, but seems to peak late March to early April. Some
birds up to as far north as northern
Canada and central Scandinavia
may remain on territory throughout the winter. Northern
goshawks from northern
Fennoscandia have been recorded traveling up to
1,640 km (1,020 mi) away from first banding but adults
seldom are recorded more than 300 km (190 mi) from their
summer range. In Sweden, young birds distributed an average of
377 km (234 mi) in the north to an average of 70 km
(43 mi) in the south. In northern Sweden, young generally
disperse somewhat south, whereas in south and central Sweden, they
typically distributed to the south (but not usually across the 5-km
Kattegat straits). On the other hand, 4.3% of the southern Swedish
goshawks actually moved north. Migrating goshawks seem to avoid
crossing water, but sparrowhawks seems to be able to do so more
regularly. In central Europe, few birds travel more than
30 km (19 mi) throughout the year, a few juveniles have
exceptionally been recorded traveling up to 300 km
(190 mi). In Eurasia, very small numbers of migratory northern
goshawks cross the
Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar and
Bosporus in autumn but
further east more significant winter range expansions may extend from
Iran & southern Turkmenia to Aral & Balkhash lakes,
Kashmir to Assam, extreme northwestern Thailand, northern
Vietnam, southern China, Taiwan,
Ryukyu Islands and South Korea.
Migratory goshawks in
North America may move down to Baja California,
Sinaloa and into most of west Texas, but generally in non-irruptive
years, goshawks winter no further south than Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois,
Tennessee and western North Carolina. Some
periodic eruptions to nearly as far as the Gulf of
Mexico have been
recorded at no fewer than 10 years apart. In one case, a female that
was banded in
Wisconsin was recovered 1,860 km (1,160 mi) in
Louisiana, a first ever record of the species in that state.
Prey availability may primarily dictate the proportion of goshawk
populations that migrate and the selection of wintering areas,
followed by the presence of snow which may aid prey capture in the
short-term but in the long-term is likely to cause higher goshawk
mortality. Showing the high variability of migratory
movements, in one study of winter movements of adult female goshawks
that bred in high-elevations forests of Utah, about 36% migrated 100
to 613 km (62 to 381 mi) to the general south, 22% migrated
farther than that distance, 8.3% migrated less far, 2.7% went north
instead of south and 31% stayed throughout winter on their breeding
territory. Irruptive movements seem to occur for northern
populations, i.e. those of the boreal forests in North America,
Scandinavia, and possibly Siberia, with more equal sex ratio of
movement and a strong southward tendency of movements in years where
prey such as hares and grouse crash. Male young goshawks tend to
disperse farther than females, which is unusual in birds, including
raptors. It has been speculated that larger female juveniles
displace male juveniles, forcing them to disperse farther, to the
incidental benefit of the species’ genetic diversity. In Cedar
Grove, Wisconsin, there were more than twice as many juvenile males
than females recorded migrating. At the hawk watch at Cape May
Point State Park in New Jersey, few adult males and no adult females
have been recorded in fall migration apart from irruptive years,
indicating that migration is more important to juveniles. More
juveniles were recorded migrating than adults in several years of
study from Sweden. In northern Accipiters including the goshawk,
there seems to be multiple peaks in numbers of migrants, an
observation that suggests partial segregation by age and sex.
Goshawks are particularly agile hunters of the woodlands.
As typical of the genus
Accipiter (as well as unrelated
forest-dwelling raptors of various lineages), the northern goshawk has
relatively short wings and a long tail which make it ideally adapted
to engaging in brief but agile and twisting hunting flights through
dense vegetation of wooded environments. This species is a
powerful hunter, taking birds and mammals in a variety of woodland
habitats, often utilizing a combination of speed and obstructing cover
to ambush their victims. Goshawks often forage in adjoining habitat
types, such as the edge of a forest and meadow. Hunting habitat can be
variable, as in a comparison of habitats used in
England found that
only 8% of landscapes used were woodlands whereas in
Sweden 73-76% of
the habitat used was woodland, albeit normally within 200 m
(660 ft) of an opening. In North America, goshawks are
generally rather more likely than those from
Eurasia to hunt within
the confines of mature forest, excluding areas where prey numbers are
larger outside of the forest, such as where scrub-dwelling cottontails
are profuse. One study from central
Sweden found that
locally goshawks typically hunt within the largest patches of mature
forests, selecting second growth forest less than half as often as its
prevalence in the local environment. The northern goshawk is
typically considered a perch-hunter. Hunting efforts are punctuated by
a series of quick flights low to the ground, interspersed with brief
periods of scanning for unsuspecting prey from elevated perches (short
duration sit-and-wait predatory movements). These flights are meant to
be inconspicuous, averaging about 83 seconds in males and 94 seconds
in females, and prey pursuits may be abandoned if the victims become
aware of the goshawk too quickly. More sporadically,
northern goshawks may watch from prey from a high soar or gliding
flight above the canopy. One study in
Germany found an exceptional
80% of hunting efforts to be done from a high soar but the author
admitted that he was probably biased by the conspicuousness of this
method. In comparison, a study from
Great Britain found that 95%
of hunting efforts were from perches. A strong bias for pigeons as
prey and a largely urbanized environment in
Germany explains the local
prevalence of hunting from a soaring flight, as the urban environment
provides ample thermals and obstructing tall buildings which are ideal
for hunting pigeons on the wing.
Northern goshawks rarely vary from their perch-hunting style that
typifies the initial part of their hunt but seems to be able to show
nearly endless variation to the concluding pursuit. Hunting
goshawks seem to not only utilize thick vegetation to block them from
view for their prey (as typical of Accipiters) but, while hunting
flying birds, they seem to be able to adjust their flight level so the
prey is unable to see its hunter past their own tails. Once a prey
item is selected, a short tail-chase may occur. The northern goshawk
is capable of considerable, sustained, horizontal speed in pursuit of
prey with speeds of 38 mph (61 km/h) reported. While
pursuing prey, northern goshawks has been described both
“reckless” and “fearless”, able to pursue their prey through
nearly any conditions. There are various times goshawks have been
observed going on foot to pursue prey, at times running without
hesitation (in a crow-like, but more hurried gait) into dense thickets
and brambles (especially in pursuit of galliforms trying to escape),
as well as into water (i.e. usually waterfowl).
Anecdotal cases have been reported when goshawks have pursue domestic
prey into barns and even houses. Prey pursuits may become rather
prolonged depending upon the goshawk’s determination and hunger,
ranging up to 15 minutes while harrying a terrified, agile squirrel or
hare, and occasional pair hunting may benefit goshawks going after
agile prey. As is recorded in many accipitrids, hunting in pairs (or
“tandem hunting”) normally consist of a breeding pair, with one
bird flying conspicuously to distract the prey, while the other swoops
in from behind to ambush the victim. When gliding down
from a perch to capture prey, a goshawk may not even beat its wings,
rendering its flight nearly silent. Prey is killed by driving the
talons into the quarry and squeezing while the head is held back to
avoid flailing limbs, frequently followed by a kneading action until
the prey stops struggling. Kills are normally consumed on the ground
by juvenile or non-breeding goshawks (more rarely an elevated perch or
old nest) or taken to a low perch by breeding goshawks. Habitual
perches are used for dismantling prey especially in the breeding
season, often called “plucking perches”, which are may consist
fallen logs, bent-over trees, stumps or rocks and can see years of
usage. Northern goshawks often leave larger portions of their
prey uneaten than other raptors, with limbs, many feathers and fur and
other body parts strewn near kill sites and plucking perches, and are
helpful to distinguish their kills from other raptors such as large
owls, who usually eat everything. The daily food requirements
of a single goshawks are around 120 to 150 g (4.2 to 5.3 oz)
and most kills can feed a goshawk for 1 to 3 days. Northern
goshawks sometimes cache prey on tree branches or wedged in a crotch
between branches for up to 32 hours. This is done primarily during the
nestling stage. Hunting success rates have been very roughly
estimated at 15-30%, within average range for a bird of prey, but may
be reported as higher elsewhere. One study claimed hunting success
rates for pursuing rabbits was 60% and corvids was 63.8%.
Northern goshawks most often preys on birds, especially in Eurasia.
Northern goshawks are usually opportunistic predators, as are most
birds of prey. The most important prey species are small to
medium-sized mammals and medium to large-sized birds found in forest,
edge and scrub habitats. Primary prey selection varies
considerably not just at the regional but also the individual level as
the primary food species can be dramatically different in nests just a
few kilometers apart. As is typical in various birds of prey, small
prey tends to be underrepresented in prey remains below habitual
perches and nests (as only present in skeletal remains within pellets)
whereas pellets underrepresent large prey (which is usually dismantled
away from the nest) and so a combined study of both remains and
pellets is recommended to get a full picture of goshawks’
diets. Prey selection also varies by season and a majority
of dietary studies are conducted within the breeding season, leaving a
possibility of bias for male-selected prey, whereas recent advanced in
radio-tagging have allowed a broader picture of goshawk’s fairly
different winter diet (without needing to kill goshawks to examine
their stomach contents). Northern goshawks have a varied diet
that has reportedly included over 500 species from across its range,
and at times their prey spectrum can extend to nearly any available
kind of bird or mammal except the particularly large varieties as well
as atypical prey including reptiles and amphibians, fish and
insects. However, a few prey families dominate the diet in most
parts of the range, namely corvids, pigeons, grouse, pheasants,
thrushes and woodpeckers (in roughly descending order of importance)
among birds and squirrels (mainly tree squirrels but also ground
squirrels especially in North America) and rabbits and hares among
Birds are usually the primary prey in Europe, constituting 76.5% of
the diet in 17 studies. In North America, by comparison, they
constitute 47.8% in 33 studies and mammals account for a nearly equal
portion of the diet and in some areas rather dominate the food
spectrum. Studies have shown that from several parts of
the Eurasian continent from
Spain to the
Ural mountains mammals
contributed only about 9% of the breeding season diet. However,
mammals may be slightly underrepresented in Eurasian data because of
the little-studied presence of mammals as a food source in winter,
particularly in the western and southern portions of
Europe where the
lack of snowfall can allow large numbers of rabbits. Staple
prey for northern goshawks usually weighs between 50 and 2,000 g
(1.8 and 70.5 oz), with average prey weights per individual
studies typically between 215 and 770 g (7.6 and
27.2 oz). There is some difference in size and
type between the prey caught by males and larger females. Prey
selection between sexes is more disparate in the more highly dimorphic
Eurasia than those from North America. In the Netherlands,
male prey averaged 277 g (9.8 oz) whereas female prey
averaged 505 g (17.8 oz), thus a rough 45% difference .
In comparison, the average prey caught by each sex in
281.5 g (9.93 oz) and 380.4 g (13.42 oz),
respectively, or around a 26% difference. Northern goshawks often
select young prey during spring and summer, attacking both nestling
and fledgling birds and infant and yearling mammals, as such prey is
often easiest to catch and convenient to bring to the nest. In
general, goshawks in Fennoscandia, shift their prey selection to when
the birds produce their young: first waterfowl, then quickly to
corvids and thrushes and then lastly to grouse, even though adults are
also freely caught opportunistically for all these prey types.
This is fairly different from Vendsyssel, Denmark, where mostly adult
birds were caught except for thrushes and corvids, as in these two
groups, the goshawks caught mostly fledglings.
Overall, one prey family that is taken in nearly every known part of
the goshawk’s range is the corvids. Some 24 species have been
reported in the diet. The second most commonly reported prey species
in breeding season dietary studies from both
Europe and North America
are both large jays, the 160 g (5.6 oz) Eurasian jay
(Glarius glandarius) and the 128 g (4.5 oz) Steller's jay
(Cyanocitta stelleri). which in studies from northeastern
the Apennines of
Italy (where the Eurasian jays made up a quarter of
the food by number) and in northwestern
Oregon and the Kaibab Plateau
Arizona (where the Steller's made up 37% by number) were the main
prey species by number. The conspicuously loud vocalizations, somewhat
sluggish flight (when hunting adult or post-fledging individuals) and
moderate size of these jays make them ideal for prey-gathering male
goshawks. Another medium-sized corvid, the
218 g (7.7 oz)
Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) is also amongst
the most widely reported secondary prey species for goshawks there.
Magpies, like large jays, are rather slow fliers and can be handily
outpaced by a pursuing goshawk. Some authors claim
that taking of large corvids is a rare behavior, due of their
intelligence and complex sociality which in turn impart formidable
group defenses and mobbing capabilities. One estimation claimed this
to be done by about 1-2% of adult goshawks during the breeding season
(based largely on studies from
Sweden and England), however, on the
contrary many goshawks do routinely hunt crows and similar species. In
fact, there’s some recorded cases where goshawks were able to
exploit such mobbing behavior in order to trick crows into close
range, where the mob victim suddenly turned to grab one
predaceously. In the following areas
Corvus species were the
leading prey by number: the 440 g (16 oz) hooded crow
Corvus cornix) in the
Ural mountains (9% by number), the 245 g
(8.6 oz) western jackdaw (
Corvus monedula) in Sierra de
Spain (36.4% by number), the 453 g (0.999 lb)
Corvus frugilegus) in the Zhambyl district,
Kazakhstan (36.6% by
number) and the 457 g (1.008 lb)
American crow (Corvus
brachyrhynchos) in New York and
Pennsylvania (44.8% by
number). Despite evidence that northern
goshawks avoid nesting near common ravens (
Corvus corax), the largest
widespread corvid (about the same size as a goshawk at 1,040 g
(2.29 lb)) and a formidable opponent even one-on-one, they are
even known to prey on ravens seldomly. Corvids taken
have ranged in size from the 72 g (2.5 oz) gray jay
(Perisoreus canadensis) to the raven.
Pigeons and doves
An adult goshawk on
Corsica with its fresh prey, a common wood pigeon
In Europe, the leading prey species numerically (the main prey species
in 41% of 32 European studies largely focused on the nesting season)
is the 352 g (12.4 oz) rock pigeon (Columba livia).
Although the predominance of rock pigeons in urban environments that
host goshawks such as the German cities of
Hamburg (where they
constituted 36% by number and nearly 45% by weight of the local diet)
Cologne is predictable, evidence shows that these
development-clinging pigeons are sought out even within ample
conserved woodland from
Portugal to Georgia. In
areas where goshawk restrict their hunting forays to field and forest,
they often catch another numerous pigeon, the 490 g
(1.08 lb) common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) (the largest
pigeon the goshawk naturally encounters and is known to hunt). The
latter species was the main prey in the diet of northern goshawks from
in the Dutch-German border (37.7% of 4125 prey items) and
by number and 30.5% by biomass of total prey). It has
been theorized that male goshawks in peri-urban regions may be better
suited with their higher agility to ambushing rock pigeons in and
amongst various manmade structures whereas females may be better
suited due the higher overall speeds to taking out common
wood-pigeons, as these typically forage in wood-cloaked but relatively
open fields; however males are efficient predators of common
wood-pigeons as well. Studies have proven that, while hunting
rock pigeons, goshawks quite often select the oddly colored pigeons
out of flocks as prey, whether the plumage of the flock is
predominantly dark or light hued, they disproportionately often select
individuals of the other color. This preference is apparently more
pronounced in older, experienced goshawks and there is some evidence
that the males who select oddly-colored pigeons have higher average
productivity during breeding. Around eight additional
species of pigeon and dove have turned up in the goshawks diet from
throughout the range but only in small numbers and in most of North
America, goshawks take pigeons less commonly than in
Eurasia. One exception is in
Connecticut where the
mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), the smallest known pigeon or dove
the goshawk has hunted at 119 g (4.2 oz), was the second
most numerous prey species.
Hawk and Black-Game (Bruno Liljefors, 1884), a painting of a goshawk
at the moment of catching a black grouse
The northern goshawk is in some parts of its range considered a
specialized predator of gamebirds, particularly grouse. All told 33
species of this order have turned up in their diet, including most of
the species either native to or introduced in
North America and
Europe. Numerically, only in the well-studied taiga habitats of
Alaska and some areas of the eastern United
States do grouse typically take a dominant position. Elsewhere in the
range, gamebirds are often secondary in number but often remain one of
the most important contributors of prey biomass to nests. With their
general ground-dwelling habits, gamebirds tend to be fairly easy for
goshawks to overtake if they remain unseen and, if made aware of the
goshawk, the prey chooses to run rather than fly. If frightened too
soon, gamebirds may take flight and may be chased for some time,
although the capture rates are reduced considerably when this occurs.
Pre-fledgling chicks of gamebirds are particularly vulnerable due to
the fact that they can only run when being pursued. In several
parts of Scandinavia, forest grouse have historically been important
prey for goshawks both in and out of the nesting season, principally
the 1,080 g (2.38 lb) black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and the
430 g (15 oz) hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia) followed in
numbers by larger 2,950 g (6.50 lb) western capercaillies
(Tetrao urogallus) and the 570 g (1.26 lb) willow ptarmigan
(Lagopus lagopus) which replace the other species in the lower tundra
zone. The impression of goshawks on the populations of this prey is
considerable, possibly the most impactful of any predator in northern
Europe considering their proficiency as predators and similarity of
habitat selection to forest grouse. An estimated 25-26% of adult hazel
grouses in Finnish and Swedish populations in a few studies fall
victim to goshawks, whereas about 14% of adult black grouse are lost
to this predator. Lesser numbers were reportedly culled in one study
from northern Finland. However, adult grouse are less important in the
breeding season diet than young birds, an estimated 30% of grouse
taken by Scandinavian goshawks in summer were neonatal chicks whereas
53% were about fledgling age, the remaining 17% being adult
grouse. This is fairly different than in
southeastern Alaska, where grouse are similarly as important as in
Fennoscandia, as 32.1% of avian prey deliveries were adults, 14.4%
were fledglings and 53.5% were nestlings.
Goshawks sometimes become habitual fowl killers. This juvenile was
caught pursuing chickens inside a hen house.
Northern goshawks can show somewhat of a trend for females to be taken
more so than males while hunting adult gamebirds, due to the larger
size and more developed defenses of males (such as leg spurs present
for defense and innerspecies conflicts in male of most pheasant
species). Some authors have claimed this of male ring-necked pheasant
(Phasianus cochilus), but these trends are not reported everywhere, as
Sweden equal numbers of adult male and female ring-necked
pheasants, both sexes averaging 1,135 g (2.502 lb), were
taken. While male goshawks can take black and hazel grouse
of any age and thence deliver them to nests, they can only take
capercaillie of up to adult hen size, averaging some 1,800 g
(4.0 lb), the cock capercaillie at more than twice as heavy as
the hen is too large for a male goshawk to overtake. However, adult
female goshawks have been reported attacking and killing cock
capercaillie, mainly during winter. These average about 4,000 g
(8.8 lb) in body mass and occasionally may weigh even more when
dispatched. Similarly impressive feats of
attacks on other particularly large gamebirds have been reported
elsewhere in the range, including the 2,770 g (6.11 lb)
Altai snowcock (Tetraogallus altaicus) in
Mongolia and, in at least
one case, successful predation on an estimated 3,900 g
(8.6 lb) adult-sized young wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hen
North America (by an immature female goshawk weighing approximately
1,050 g (2.31 lb)), although taking adults of much
larger-bodied prey like this is considered generally rare, the young
chicks and poults of such prey species are likely much more often
taken. At the other end of the size scale, the smallest
gamebird known to be hunted by northern goshawk was the 96 g
(3.4 oz) common quail. Domestic fowl, particularly
chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are taken occasionally, especially
where wild prey populations are depleted. While other raptors are at
times blamed for large numbers of attacks on fowl, goshawks are
reportedly rather more likely to attack chickens during the day than
other raptors and are probably the most habitual avian predator of
domestic fowl, at least in the temperate-zone. Particularly large
numbers of chickens have been reported in Wigry National Park, Poland
(4th most regular prey species and contributing 15.3% of prey weight),
Belarus and the Ukraine, being the third most regularly reported prey
in the latter two.
In a study of British goshawks, the red grouse (Lagopus lagopus
scotica), a race of willow ptarmigan, was found to be the leading prey
species (26.2% of prey by number). In La Segarra, Spain, the
528 g (1.164 lb) red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is
the most commonly reported prey species (just over 18% by number and
24.5% by weight). Despite reports that grouse are less
significant as prey to American goshawks, the 560 g
(1.23 lb) ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is one of the most
important prey species in
North America (fourth most reported prey
species in 22 studies), having been the leading prey species for
goshawks in studies from New York,
New Jersey and
Connecticut (from 12
to 25% of prey selected) and reported as taken in high numbers
elsewhere in several parts of their mutual range.
The 1,056 g (2.328 lb) sooty grouse (Dendragapus
fuliginosus) was reported as the leading prey species in southern
Alaska (28.4% by number). In the boreal forests of
Alberta, grouse are fairly important prey especially in winter.
A goshawk catching a red squirrel.
Among mammalian prey, indisputably the most significant by number are
the squirrels. All told, 44 members of the
Sciuridae have turned up in
their foods. Tree squirrels are the most obviously co-habitants with
goshawks and are indeed taken in high numbers. Alongside martens,
northern goshawks are perhaps the most efficient temperate-zone
predators of tree squirrels. Goshawks are large and powerful enough to
overtake even the heaviest tree squirrels unlike smaller Accipiters
and have greater agility and endurance in pursuits than do most
buteonine hawks, some of which like red-tailed hawks (Buteo
jamaicensis) regularly pursue tree squirrels but have relatively low
hunting success rates due to the agility of squirrels. The
296 g (10.4 oz) red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) of Eurasia
is the most numerous mammalian prey in European studies and the sixth
most often recorded prey species there overall. In Oulu,
Finland during winter (24.6% by number), in Białowieża Forest,
Poland (14.3%), in the
Chřiby uplands of the
Czech Republic (8.5%)
and in Forêt de Bercé,
France (12%) the red squirrel was the main
prey species for goshawks. In North America, tree
squirrels are even more significant as prey, particularly the
modestly-sized pine squirrels which are the single most important prey
type for American goshawks overall. Particularly the 240 g
American red squirrel
American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is
significant, being the primary prey in studies from Minnesota, South
Montana (in each comprising more than 30% of the
diet and present in more than half of known pellets) but also reported
everywhere in their foods from the eastern United States to
Arizona. Much like the
American marten (Martes americana), the
American distribution of goshawks is largely concurrent with that of
American red squirrels, indicating the particular significance of it
as a dietary staple. In the Pacific
northwest, the 165 g (5.8 oz)
Douglas squirrel (Tamiasciurus
douglasii) replaces the red squirrel in both distribution and as the
highest contributor to goshawk diets from northern
British Columbia. The largest occurrence of
Douglas squirrel known was
from Lake Tahoe, where they constituted 23% of prey by number and
32.9% by weight.
Larger tree squirrels are also taken opportunistically, in New York,
New Jersey and Connecticut, the 530 g (1.17 lb) eastern gray
squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) was the third most significant prey
species. Much larger tree squirrels such as western
gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger),
both weighing about 800 g (1.8 lb), are taken occasionally
in North America. Ground squirrels are also important prey
species, mostly in North America, 25 of 44 of squirrel species found
in the diet are ground squirrels. Particularly widely reported as a
secondary food staple from Oregon, Wyoming,
the 187 g (6.6 oz) golden-mantled ground squirrel
(Callospermophilus lateralis). In
Idaho’s Sawtooth National Forest, the 285 g (10.1 oz)
Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel (Urocitellus beldingi) fully dominated the
food spectrum, comprising up to 74.3% of the prey by number and 84.2%
by biomass. Even much bigger ground squirrels such as
prairie dogs and marmots are attacked on occasion. Several
hoary marmots (Marmota caligala) were brought to nests in southeast
Alaska but averaged only 1,894 g (4.176 lb), so were young
animals about half of the average adult (spring) weight (albeit still
considerably heavier than the goshawks who took them). In some
cases, adult marmots such as alpine marmots (Marmota marmota),
yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and woodchucks (Marmota
monax) have been preyed upon when lighter and weaker in spring,
collectively weighing on average about 3,500 g (7.7 lb) or
about three times as much as a female goshawk although are basically
half of what these marmots can weigh by fall. About a
dozen species of chipmunk are known to be taken by goshawks and the
96 g (3.4 oz) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were the
second most numerous prey species at nests in central New York and
Minnesota. Squirrels taken have ranged in size from the
43 g (1.5 oz) least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) to the
aforementioned adult marmots.
Hares and rabbits
Illustrating a goshawk attempting to catch a rabbit, by G. E. Lodge.
Northern goshawks can be locally heavy predators of lagomorphs, of
which they take at least 15 species as prey. Especially in the Iberian
peninsula, the native
European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is often
delivered to nests and can be the most numerous prey. Even where taken
secondarily in numbers in
Spain to gamebirds such as in La Segarra,
Spain, rabbits tend to be the most significant contributor of biomass
to goshawk nests. On average, the weight of rabbits taken in La
Segarra was 662 g (1.459 lb) (making up 38.4% of the prey
biomass there), indicating most of the 333 rabbits taken there were
yearlings and about 2-3 times lighter than a prime adult wild
rabbit. In England, where the
European rabbit is an
introduced species, it was the third most numerous prey species at
nests. In more snowbound areas where wild and feral rabbits are
absent, larger hares may be taken and while perhaps more difficult to
subdue than most typical goshawk prey, are a highly nutritious food
source. In Finland, females were found to take mountain hare (Lepus
timidus) fairly often and they were the second most numerous prey item
for goshawks in winter (14.8% by number). In North America, where
mammals are more important in the diet, more lagomorphs are taken. In
Oregon, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are the largest contributor
of biomass to goshawks foods (making up to 36.6% of the prey by
weight), in eastern
Oregon at least 60% of hares taken were adults
weighing on average 1,500 g (3.3 lb), and in one of three
Oregon be the most numerous prey species (second most
numerous in the other two). This species was also the second
most numerous food species in
Alberta throughout the year and the most
important prey by weight. Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus
floridanus), also averaging some 1,500 g (3.3 lb) in mass
per the study (and thus mostly consisting of adult cottontails in
their prime), were the most significant prey both by weight (42.3%)
and number (13.3%) in
Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest
Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest of Arizona.
Eastern cottontails are also taken regularly in New York and
Pennsylvania. In some parts of the range, larger leporids
may be attacked, extending to the 2,410 g (5.31 lb)
black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and the 3,200 g (7.1 lb)
white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), the 3,800 g
(8.4 lb) European hares (Lepus europaeus), as well as the
mountain hare. In Europe, males have been
recorded successfully attacking rabbits weighing up to 1,600 g
(3.5 lb), or about 2.2 times their own weight, while adult
mountain hares overtaken by female goshawks in
weighed from 2,700 to 3,627 g (5.952 to 7.996 lb) or up to
2.4 times their own weight. Despite historic claims that taking prey
so considerably larger than themselves is exceptional beyond a small
region of Fennoscandia, there is evidence that as grouse numbers have
mysteriously declined since 1960, adult mountain hare are increasingly
the leading prey for wintering female goshawks, favoring and causing
an increase of larger bodied females in order to overpower such a
substantial catch. Asian and American goshawks also take
about a half dozen species of pikas, much smaller cousins of rabbits
and hares, but they are at best supplementary prey for American
goshawks and of unknown importance to little-studied Asian
Woodpeckers such as northern flickers often fall victim to goshawks.
Some 21 species of woodpecker have been reported from northern goshawk
food studies around the world. With their relatively slow, undulating
flight adult and fledged woodpeckers can easily be overtaken by
hunting goshawks, not to mention their habitat preferences frequently
put them within active goshawk ranges. Most of the widespread species
North America have been observed as prey, most
commonly relatively large woodpeckers such as the 76 g
(2.7 oz) greater spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) and the
176 g (6.2 oz)
European green woodpecker
European green woodpecker (Picus viridis) in
Europe and the 134 g (4.7 oz) northern flicker (Colaptes
auratus) in North America. Indeed, the flicker is the third most
regularly reported prey species in America. In south-central
Wyoming, the northern flicker was the second most numerous prey
species and it was the main prey species in a study from New Mexico
(here making up 26.4% of prey by number). All sizes of
woodpeckers available are taken from the 19.8 g (0.70 oz)
lesser spotted woodpecker (Dryobates minor) to the 321 g
(11.3 oz) black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) in
Europe and from
the 25.6 g (0.90 oz) downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)
to the 287 g (10.1 oz) pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus
pileatus) in North America. In many areas, northern
goshawks will pursue water birds of several varieties, although they
rarely form a large portion of the diet. Perhaps the most often
recorded water birds in the diet are ducks. All told, 32 waterfowl
have been recorded in their diet. In the Ural mountains, the nearly
cosmopolitan 1,075 g (2.370 lb) mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)
was third most numerous prey species. The ducks of the genus
Aythya are somewhat frequently recorded as well, especially since
their tree-nesting habits may frequently put them in the hunting range
of nesting goshawks. Similarly, the wood duck (Aix sponsa)
from America and the mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) from
Asia may be
more vulnerable than most waterfowl at their tree nests.
Although etymologists feel that the goshawk is an abbreviation of
“goose-hawk”, geese are seldomly taken considering their generally
much larger size. Nonetheless, four species have been taken, including
adults of species as large as the 2,420 g (5.34 lb) greater
white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons). Adult
common eiders (Somateria mollissima), the largest northern duck at
2,066 g (4.555 lb), have also been captured by
goshawks. Various other water birds reported as taken include
red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) chicks, adult little grebes
(Tachybaptus ruficollis), adult great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo)
(about the same size as a greater white-fronted goose), adult crested
ibis (Nipponia nippon), black stork (Ciconia nigra) chicks and five
species each of heron and rail. Among
shorebirds (or small waders), goshawks have been reported preying on
22 sandpipers, 8 plovers, 10 species of gull and tern, 2 species of
alcids and the
Eurasian stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), the
Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) and the long-tailed
A juvenile goshawk in
Japan with a young bird prey item.
Corvids as aforementioned are quite important prey. Although they take
fewer passerines than other northern Accipiters, smaller types of
songbirds can still be regionally important to the diet. This is
especially true of the thrushes which are often delivered to nests in
Europe. 17 species of thrush have been identified in goshawk food
across their range. The numerous 103 g (3.6 oz) Eurasian
Turdus merula) is often most reported from this family and
can even be the main prey at some locations such as in the Netherlands
(23.5% of prey by number) and in
Norway (just over 14% by number and
two studies showed thrushes collectively make up nearly half of the
prey items in Norwegian nests). All common Turdus
species are taken in some numbers in Europe, being quite regular and
conspicuous in the woodland edge zones most often patrolled by male
goshawks, especially while singing in spring and summer. Even where
larger, more nutritious prey is present such as at pheasant release
sites, the abundant thrushes are more often delivered to the nest
because of the ease of capture such as in Norway. Smaller
numbers of thrush are taken in general in
North America but the
78 g (2.8 oz)
American robin (
Turdus migratorius) are fairly
regular prey nonetheless and were the most numerous prey in the Sierra
California (30.7% by number and 21.4% by
weight). Thrush taken have ranged in size from the
26.4 g (0.93 oz) western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the
smallest bluebird and lightest North American thrush on average, to
the 118 g (4.2 oz) mistle thrush (
Europe’s largest thrush. Beyond corvids and thrushes,
most passerines encountered by northern goshawks are substantially
smaller and are often ignored under most circumstances in favor of
more sizable prey. Nonetheless, more than a hundred passerines have
been recorded their diet beyond these families. Most widespread
passerine families from
North America and
Europe have occasional
losses to goshawks, including tyrant flycatchers, shrikes, vireos,
larks, swallows, nuthatches, treecreepers, wrens, mimids, Old World
warblers, Old World flycatchers, pipits and wagtails, starlings,
waxwings, New World warblers, emberizine sparrows, cardinalids,
icterids, finches and Old World sparrows. Avian prey has even ranged
to as small as the 5.5 g (0.19 oz) goldcrest (Regulus
regulus), the smallest bird in Europe. In North America, the
smallest known bird prey is the 8.2 g (0.29 oz) American
redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Among smaller types of
passerines, one of the most widely reported are finches and, in some
widespread studies, somewhat substantial numbers of finches of many
species may actually be taken. Finches tend to fly more conspicuously
as they cover longer distances, often bounding or undulating as they
do, over the canopy than most forest songbirds, which may make them
more susceptible to goshawk attacks than other small
songbirds. Non-passerine upland birds taken by goshawks in
small numbers include nightjars, swifts, bee-eaters, kingfishers,
rollers, hoopoes and parrots.
Outside of the squirrel family, relatively few other types of rodents
are taken in many regions. In eastern Oregon, the 132 g
(4.7 oz) northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) (flying
squirrels are not true squirrels) was the third or fourth most
frequently caught prey species. Microtine rodents which
are so essential to most northern non-accipiter hawks and a majority
of owls are at best a secondary contributor to goshawk diets, even
though 26 species have been reported in their diet. Exceptionally, in
a study of the
Carpathian mountains of the Ukraine, the 27.5 g
(0.97 oz) common vole (Microtus arvalis) was the second most
numerous prey species. Relatively high numbers of the
18.4 g (0.65 oz) bank vole (Myodes glareolus) were reported
in diets from
Gmina Sobótka and the Białowieża
Forest. During summer in Alberta, the 44 g
(1.6 oz) meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) was the third most
frequently reported prey species, the only known study where large
numbers of microtine rodents were taken in North America.
Microtine rodents taken by goshawks have ranged in size from the
11 g (0.39 oz) western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys
megalotis) to the 1,105 g (2.436 lb) muskrat (Ondatra
zibethicus). Other miscellaneous rodents reported
sporadically in the diet include dormice, porcupines, kangaroo rats,
mountain beavers (Aplodontia rufa), jumping mice, Old World mice and
rats, zokors, gophers and jirds.
Insectivores are taken in low numbers including moles, shrews and
hedgehogs. The smallest mammalian prey
species known to be attacked by goshawks was the 3.65 g
(0.129 oz) masked shrew (Sorex cinereus). Even more
sporadically attacked by goshawks, given this prey’s nocturnal
habits, are bats. In one case a juvenile golden snub-nosed monkey
(Rhinopithecus roxellana), which was successfully taken by a
goshawk. Ungulates such as deer and sheep are sometimes consumed
by goshawks but there is no evidence that they prey on live ones (as
much larger accipitrids such as eagles can sometimes do), but these
are more likely rare cases of scavenging on carrion, which may more
regularly occur than once thought in areas with harsh winter
In a few cases, northern goshawks have been recorded hunting and
killing prey beyond birds and mammals. In some of the warmer drier
extensions of their range, reptiles may be available to them to hunt.
Only one species of snake is recorded from their diet, the small
innocuous grass snake (Natrix natrix), at 66 g (2.3 oz);
however about a half dozen lizards are recorded in their diet,
primarily from the
Iberian peninsula but also from the Ural mountains
and the American southwest. The only known
location in the northern goshawk’s range where reptiles were taken
in large numbers was Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain, where the 77 g
(2.7 oz) ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus) was the second most
numerous prey species. Amphibians are even rarer in the
diet, only recorded more than singly in one study each from
Fish are similarly rare in the diet, recorded
twice each in
Bavaria and Belarus. A few pellets have
included remains of insects, much of which may be ingested
incidentally or via the stomachs of birds that they have consumed.
However, there is some evidence they at times will hunt large
ground-dwelling insects such as dung beetles.
Interspecies predatory relationships
A goshawk chasing an osprey, most likely to rob it of food, but the
osprey is even considered possible prey.
Northern goshawks are often near the top of the avian food chain in
forested biomes but face competition for food resources from various
other predators, including both birds and mammals. Comparative dietary
studies have shown that mean sizes of prey, both in terms of its size
relative to the raptor itself and absolute weight, for goshawks is
relatively larger than in most buteonine hawks in
North America and
Europe. Studies show even buteonine hawks slightly larger
than goshawks on average take prey weighing less than 200 g
(7.1 oz) whereas average goshawk prey is usually well over such a
mass. This is due largely to the much higher importance of microtine
rodents to most buteonine hawks, which, despite their occasional
abundance, are ignored by goshawks in most regions.
Similarly, mean prey mass for sharp-shinned and Cooper's hawks in
North America is between about 10 and 30% of their own mass, whereas
the mean prey of American goshawks is between about 25 and 50% of
their own mass and therefore are the goshawks takes prey that is on
average relatively much larger. In many of the ecosystems
that they inhabit, northern goshawks compete with resources with other
predators, particularly where they take sizeable numbers of
lagomorphs. About a dozen mammalian and avian predators in each area
all primarily consume European rabbits and snowshoe hares alongside
goshawks in the
Iberian peninsula and the American boreal forest
regions where these became primary staple foods. Like those
co-habitant predators, the goshawk suffers declines during the low
portion in the lagomorph’s breeding cycles, which rise and fall
cyclically every 10 to 12 years. However, even where these are primary
food sources, the northern goshawk is less specialized than many (even
Bubo owls, some of the more generalist avian predators become
extremely specialized lagomorph hunters locally, to a greater extent
than goshawks) and can alternate their food selection, often taking
equal or greater numbers of tree squirrels and woodland birds. Due to
this dietary variation, the northern goshawk is less effected than
other raptorial birds by prey population cycles and tends to not be
depleted by resource competition.
Despite their propensity to pursue relatively large prey and
capability to pursue alternate prey, northern goshawks can be locally
outcompeted for resources by species that are more adaptable and
flexible, especially in terms of habitat and prey. Most northern
buteonine hawks largely take small rodents such as voles (which are
usually ignored by goshawks) but can adapt to nearly any other type of
prey when the staple local rodent prey populations go down.
Comparisons with goshawks and red-tailed hawk nesting in abutting
Arizona (other large common Buteos like Swainson's hawks
(Buteo swainsonii) and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) utilize open
habitats and so do not come into conflict with goshawks) shows the
red-tailed hawks as being able to take a broader range of prey than
goshawks and nest in more varied habitats, the latter species being
perhaps the most commonly seen, widespread and adaptable of diurnal
American raptors. On occasion, goshawks are robbed of
their prey by a diversity of other birds, including harriers, other
hawks, eagles, falcons and even gulls.
Northern goshawks from
North America are less prone to nesting outside
of mature forests and take larger numbers of mammals as opposed to
abundant birds than in Europe. This may be in part due to heavier
competition from a greater diversity of raptors in North America. In
Europe, the goshawk only co-exists with the much smaller sparrowhawk
within its own genus, while in North America, it lives with the
intermediately-sized Cooper's hawk. The latter species much more
readily nests in semi-open and developed areas of
North America than
goshawks there and hunts an broad assemblage of medium-sized birds,
whereas such prey is more readily available to male goshawks from
Europe than to goshawks in North America. Although the Cooper's hawk
usually avoids and loses individual contests against the larger
goshawk, its adaptability has allowed it to become the most widespread
and commonly found North American Accipiter. The slightly
larger goshawks of
Europe have been shown, in some but not all areas,
to outcompete and possibly lower productivity of the slightly smaller
common buzzard (Buteo buteo) when their ranges overlap. Usually,
however, the dietary habits and nesting preferences are sufficiently
distinct and thus effect neither buzzard or goshawk populations. Both
can mutually be very common even when the other is
present. On the other hand, American goshawks are
slightly smaller on average than their European counterparts and can
be up to 10% smaller in mass than red-tailed hawks. However, studies
have indicated that the goshawk has, beyond its superior speed and
agility, has stronger feet and a more forceful attack than that of the
red-tailed hawk. All in all, individual competitions between
red-tailed hawks and goshawks can go either way and neither is
strongly likely to deter the other from nesting given their distinct
nesting habitats. Other raptors, including most medium to
large-sized owls as well as red-tailed hawks and falcons, will use
nests built by northern goshawks, even when goshawks are still in the
Illustration of the formidable talons and beak, which are both
proportionately large relative to their size, and give them a
predatory advantage over many other raptors.
To many other raptorial birds, the northern goshawk is more
significant as a predatory threat than as competition. The northern
goshawk is one of the most dangerous species to other raptors,
especially to those considerably smaller than itself. In many cases,
raptors of any age from nestlings to adults are taken around their
nests but free-flying raptors too are readily taken or ambushed at a
perch. One example is a study from northern England, the
common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), which average about 184 g
(6.5 oz), recorded as prey at goshawk nests (mainly in March and
April) numbered 139, a larger number than kestrels recorded alive in
the spring in the same area. In the
Veluwe province of the
Netherlands, the percentage of nest of European honey buzzards (Pernis
apivorus), weighing on average 760 g (1.68 lb), predated by
goshawks increased from a little as 7.7% in 1981-1990 to 33% in
2000-2004. As their habitat preferences may overlap with
goshawks, all other Accipiters encountered may be predated in multiple
cases, including the 238 g (8.4 oz) Eurasian sparrowhawk,
the 188 g (6.6 oz) levant sparrowhawk (
the 136 g (4.8 oz) sharp-shinned hawk, the 122 g
Japanese sparrowhawk (
Accipiter gularis) and the
440 g (0.97 lb) Cooper's hawk.
Other assorted accipitrids of up to their own size to be predated by
goshawks include the 747 g (1.647 lb) black kite (Milvus
migrans), the 1,080 g (2.38 lb) red kite (
the 712 g (1.570 lb) western marsh-harrier (Circus
aeruginosus), the 316 g (11.1 oz)
Montagu's harrier (Circus
pygargus), the 390 g (14 oz) pallid harrier (Circus
macrourus) and Buteos of up to adults including the 776 g
(1.711 lb) common buzzard, the 424 g (15.0 oz)
broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus), the 610 g (1.34 lb)
red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) and the 1,065 g
(2.348 lb) red-tailed
Even raptors somewhat larger than a northern goshawks have been
considered as prey, although it is not clear whether adults are among
the victims, including the 1,494 g (3.294 lb) osprey
(Pandion haliaetus), 1,147 g (2.529 lb) crested
honey-buzzard (Pernis ptilorhynchus) and the 1,370 g
(3.02 lb) lesser spotted eagle (Clanga
Outside of the accipitrid group, heavy predation on different
varieties of raptorial birds by northern goshawks can continue
unabated. Many types of owl are taken and in Europe, the northern
goshawk is the second most prolific predator of owls behind the
Eurasian eagle owl
Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo). In Bavaria, Germany, the
287 g (10.1 oz) long-eared owl (Asio otus) was the second
most common prey species for nesting goshawks. In the
Białowieża Forest of Poland, fairly high numbers of the 475 g
(1.047 lb) tawny owl (Strix alucco) were taken. In all,
some 18 species of owl have been recorded in the diet, ranging in size
from the Eurasian (Glaucidium passerinum) and northern pygmy owls
(Glaucidium gnoma) at 58.5 g (0.129 lb) and 61.8 g
(2.18 oz), respectively, to all the large northern Strix owls
including adults and even the 1,400 g (3.1 lb) great horned
owl. Whether adults have ever been killed as prey though is unknown
but goshawks have been known to kill great horned owls that they’ve
found near their nests. In addition, about
eight species of falcon have been identified in the foods of goshawks.
Adult falcons of small species such as kestrels and merlins (Falco
columbarius) can be overpowered quite easily if they can manage to
surprise the prey. Larger falcons have turned up
in the diet as well, including the 720 g (1.59 lb) prairie
falcon (Falco mexicanus) and the 966 g (2.130 lb) saker
falcon (Falco cherrug), although possible only nestlings of these
species. Brief aerial skirmishes between goshawks and
peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been described but neither
species is known to have killed one another in the wild. In
Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, at least four small passerines species
were recorded as nesting close to active goshawk nest, due to the
incidental shelter that the fierce goshawks inadvertently provides
from smaller raptors which are their main predators. Such raptors,
including Eurasian kestrels, Eurasian sparrowhawks and long-eared
owls, not only avoid goshawk activity where possible but also were
found to have lower nest productivity any time they nested relatively
close to goshawks per the study. A similar phenomenon, with
goshawks inadvertently providing shelter to small passerines, has been
North America as well.
Prey selection frequently overlaps between American goshawks and
American martens, more seldomly both species will prey on the other.
Competition for northern goshawks can also come from mammalian
carnivores. Martens, and to a lesser extent other weasels, are
presumably one of their more major competitors as their diet often
consists of similar prey primarily during spring and summer, tree
squirrels and woodland birds, but little has been studied in terms of
how the two types of predator effect each other. Most recorded
interactions have been predatory, as the goshawk has been recorded
preying on a dozen species, from the 122 g (4.3 oz) least
weasel (Mustela nivalis) to the 1,700 g (3.7 lb) stone
marten (Martes foina). Northern goshawks have also
been recorded as feeding on much bigger predators such as the
5,775 g (12.732 lb) red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the
4,040 g (8.91 lb) raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and
the 3,500 g (7.7 lb) striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), but
it is not clear whether these were actual kills, as many may be
encountered as already dead carrion. Domestic
carnivores are sometimes eaten, including dogs and cats, the latter of
which has reportedly been taken alive by goshawks. The red
fox is a surprisingly considerable competitor for resources with
northern goshawks. It was found in
Norway that goshawk numbers were
higher when voles were at peak numbers, not due to voles as a food
source but because foxes were more likely to eat the rodents and
ignore grouse, whereas during low vole numbers the foxes are more
likely to compete with goshawks over grouse as prey. A decrease
of the fox population of
Norway due to sarcoptic mange was found
result in an increase of grouse numbers and, in turn, northern
goshawks. In some areas, red foxes have been found to steal up to
half of the goshawks’ kills.
Unlike the predators at the top of the avian food chain such as eagles
and the largest owls, which are rarely endangered by predation as
adults, the northern goshawk is itself susceptible to a fairly
extensive range of predators. The most deadly are likely to be the
Eurasian eagle owl
Eurasian eagle owl and the great horned owl, which not only predate
goshawks of any age and at any season but also opportunistically take
over their own prior nests as their own nesting site. Of the two,
the American horned owl nesting habits are more similar to goshawks,
which most often consists of tree nests whereas the eagle owl usually
nests in rock formations. Thus, the northern goshawk is more likely to
victimized by the great horned owls, which can stage nightly ambushes
and destroy an entire goshawk family as they pick off both adults and
nestlings. In radio-tagging studies of adult and immature goshawks
Great Lakes region and Arizona, up to half of the studied birds
were killed by great horned owls at night, while the horned owls
accounted for 40% of the nest failures in studies from
Arizona and New
Mexico. In comparison, in Schleswig-Holstein, 59%
of reintroduced eagle owls used nests built by goshawks and no goshawk
pairs could successfully nest within 500 m (1,600 ft) of an
active eagle-owl nest. 18% of nest failures here positively were
attributed to eagle owl predation, with another 8% likely due to
eagle-owls. Other larger raptorial birds can threaten them. The
golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus
leucocephalus) in North America, have killed wintering goshawks, but
given the discrepancy in their habitat preferences, such cases are
presumably rare. Other avian predators known to have successfully
preyed on goshawks including adults (usually in singular cases)
include white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), eastern imperial
eagles (Aquila heliaca), snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) and red-tailed
The same mammalian predators that sometimes compete for food with
northern goshawks also sometimes kill them, with seemingly the
nestlings, fledglings and brooding females with impaired flight due to
their wing feather moults seemingly the most vulnerable. In one case,
the American marten, which at 660 g (1.46 lb) is the
smallest marten and is sometimes taken as prey by the goshawks,
successfully ambushed and preyed on a brooding female
Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest
Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest of
Wisconsin, the main source of mortality for northern goshawks is
reintroduced fishers (Martes pennanti), which are the largest kind of
marten at 3,900 g (8.6 lb) and capably kill many chicks,
fledglings and brooding females. In contrast, in Europe, the
pine marten (Martes martes) has only been known to prey on young
goshawks still in the nest and not adults. Other mammals capable
of climbing trees have been observed or inferred to predate goshawks,
either mostly or entirely young in the nests, including wolverines
(Gulo gulo), North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), raccoons
(Procyon lotor), bobcats (Lynx rufus) and American black bears (Ursus
americanus). Overall, the range of nest predators is
more extensive in
North America than in Eurasia, in the latter
continent most recorded nest depredations are by eagle owls, with
martens and corvids usually only preying on goshawk nestlings when low
food supplies cause the goshawks to have lower nest attendance (and
presumably effect these predators to the extent that they take the
risk of coming to the goshawk nest). Fledgling goshawks are also
vulnerable to canids such as coyotes (Canis latrans), gray wolves
(Canis lupus) and red foxes as they may perch lower to the ground and
are clumsier, more unsteady and less cautious than older
birds. In one case, a goshawk that was ambushed and killed at
a kill by a mangy vixen fox was able to lethally slash the windpipe of
the fox, which apparently died moments after partially consuming the
Apart for aforementioned predation events, northern goshawks have at
times been killed by non-predators, including prey that turned the
tables on their pursuer, as well as in hunting accidents. In one case,
a huge group (or murder) of hooded crows heavily mobbed a goshawk that
they caught in a relatively open spot, resulting in a prolonged attack
that ended up killing the goshawk. In another instance, a goshawk
drowned while attempting to capture a tufted duck (Aythya
fuligula). One young goshawk managed to escape a red fox that had
caught it with a chewed wing, only to drown in a nearby creek.
Another, and rather gruesome, hunting mishap occurred when a goshawk
caught a large mountain hare and, while attempting to hold it in place
by grasping vegetation with its other foot, was torn in half.
Egg Collection Museum Wiesbaden
The northern goshawk is one of the most extensively studied raptors in
terms of its breeding habits. Adult goshawks return to their breeding
grounds usually between March and April, but locally as early as
February. If prey levels remain high, adults may remain
on their breeding ground all year. Courtship flights, calls
and even nest building has been recorded in
Finland exceptionally in
September and October right after young dispersed, whereas in most of
Fennoscandia, breeding does not commence any earlier than March and
even then only when it is a warm spring. Most breeding
activity occurs between April and July, exceptionally a month earlier
or later. Even in most areas of Alaska, most pairs have produced
young by May. Courtship flights typical are above the canopy on
sunny, relatively windless days in early spring with the goshawks’
long main tail feathers held together and the undertail coverts spread
so wide to give them an appearance of having a short, broad-tail with
a long dark strip extending from the center. Display flights not
infrequently escalate into an undulating flight, similar to a wood
pigeon but with sharper turns and descents, and are sometimes
embellished with sky-dives that can cover over 200 m
(660 ft). One study found undulating display flights more than
three times more often done by males than females. After display
flights have concluded, the male typically brings a prepared fresh
prey item to the female as part of the courtship. In general, these
displays are presumably to show (or reinforce) to the potential mate
their health and prowess as breeding partner. Copulation is
brief and frequent, ranging up to nearly 520 times per clutch (on
average about 10 times a day or 100-300 throughout the season), and
may be the male’s way of ensuring paternity since he is frequently
away gathering food by the time of egg-laying, although extra-pair
copulation is extremely rare. Female solicits copulations by facing
away from male with drooped wings and flared tail-coverts. The male,
wings drooped and tail-coverts flared, drops from a branch to gain
momentum, then swoops upward and mounts her back. Both birds usually
call while mating. Fidelity studies from Europe
show that about 80-90% of adult females breed with the same male in
consecutive years, whereas up to 96% of males mate with the same
female in consecutive years. In California, 72% of males retained
relationship with the same mates in consecutive years while 70% of
females did the same. Males intruding in Hamburg, Germany
territories were in some cases not evicted and ended up mating with
the female, with the male of the pair not stopping it. In
migratory, northernmost populations, mate retention in consecutive
years is low. Males are sometimes killed by females during
courtship and encounters can be dangerous especially if he does not
bring food to courtship and he often seems nervous withdrawing with a
trill at a given chance.
Northern goshawk nests are usually large structures placed quite high
near the canopy on mature, tall trees, as seen on this birch in
Nesting areas are indefinite, a nest may be used for several years,
also a nest built years prior may be used or an entirely new nest may
be constructed. When nest constructing, the pair will often roost
together. Males construct most new nests but females may assist
somewhat if reinforcing old nests. While the male is building, the
female perches in the vicinity, occasionally screaming, sometimes
flying to inspect the nest. At other times, the female may
take a more active role, or even the primary one, in new nest
construction and this is subject to considerable individual
variation. For the nesting tree, more than 20 species of
conifer have been used including spruce, fir, larch, pine and hemlock.
Broadleaf trees used including ash, alder, aspen, beech, birch, elm,
hickory, hornbeam, lime, maple (including sycamore), oak, poplar,
tamarack, wild cherry and willow. In some areas, the nests may be line
with hard pieces of bark and also with green sprigs of conifers.
Often the tallest tree in a given stand is selected as the nest tree
and this is often the dominant tree species within the given region
and forest. Therefore, hardwood trees are usually used as the nesting
tree in the eastern United States while conifers are usually used in
the western United States. Most nest are constructed
under the canopy or near the main fork of a tree and in North America,
averaging nest height ranged from 5.8 m (19 ft) (in the
Yukon territory) to 16.9 m (55 ft) (in New Mexico),
elsewhere as in
Europe average height is between 9 and 25 m (30
and 82 ft). In the dwarf trees of the tundra,
nests have been found at only 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) off
the ground, and, in the tundra and elsewhere, very rarely on felled
trees, stumps or on the ground. In some studies from
North America up to 15% of nests are in dead trees but this is far
rarer in Eurasia. More significant than species is the maturity
and height of the nesting tree, its structure (which should have ample
surface around the main fork) and, perhaps most significantly, little
to no understory below it. Multiple studies note the habit of
nest being built in forests close to clear-fellings, swamps and
heaths, lakes and meadows, roads (especially light-use logging dirt
roads), railways and swathes cut along power cables, usually near such
openings there'd be prominent boulders, stones or roots of fallen
trees or low branches to use as plucking points. Canopy cover averaged
between 60 and 96% in Europe. As is typical in widely
distributed raptors from temperate-zones, those from cold regions
faced south, 65% in Alaska, 54% in
Norway and also in high latitudes
such as sky-forests of the
Arizona Rockies, otherwise usually nests
face north and east.
Nests, especially after initial construction, may average between 80
and 120 cm (31 and 47 in) in length and50 to 70 cm (20
to 28 in) in width, and are around 20 to 25 cm (7.9 to
9.8 in) deep. After many uses, a nest can range up
to 160 cm (63 in) across and 120 cm (47 in) in
depth and can weigh up to a ton when wet. Northern goshawks
may adopt nests of other species, common buzzards contributed 5% of
nests used in Schleswig-Holstein, including unusually exposed ones on
edges of woods and another 2% were built by common ravens or carrion
crows, but 93% were built by the goshawks themselves. While
colonizing peri-urban areas in Europe, they may displace Eurasian
sparrowhawks not only from their territories but may actually try to
use overly small sparrowhawk nests, usually resulting in nest
collapse. One nest was used continuously by different pairs for a
period of 17 years. A single pair may maintain up to several
nests, usually up to two will occur in an area of no more than a few
hundred kilometers. One nest may be used in sequential years, but
often an alternate is selected. During an 18-year-study from Germany,
many alternate nests were used, 27 pairs had two, 10 had 3, 5 had 4,
one had five and one pair had as many as 11. Other regions where pairs
had on average two nests were Poland,
California and Arizona’s
Kaibab Plateau. The extent of use of alternate nests is unknown as
well as their benefit, but they may reduce significant of parasites
and diseases within the nest. In central
Europe, the goshawk’s nest area can be as small 1 to 2 ha (2.5
to 4.9 acres) of woods and less than 10 hectares are commonplace.
Usually only 1 active nest occurs per 100 ha (250 acres), are
they avoid edges as nest sites and occupied nests are seldom less than
600 m (2,000 ft) apart. The most closely spaced
active nests by a separate pair on record was 400 m
(1,300 ft) in central Europe, another case of two active nests
200 m (660 ft) apart in
Germany was a possible case of
The eggs are laid at 2 to 3 day intervals on average between April and
June (usually May), taking up to 9 days for a clutch of 3-4 and 11
days for a clutch of 5. The eggs are rough, unmarked pale
bluish or dirty white. In A. g, atricapillus, the average
dimensions of the eggs are reported at 57.76 to 59.2 mm (2.274 to
2.331 in) in height by 44.7 to 45.1 mm (1.76 to
1.78 in) in width, with ranges of 52–66 mm
(2.0–2.6 in) x 42–48 mm (1.7–1.9 in). In
Spanish eggs, the average dimensions were 56.3 mm
× 43 mm (2.22 in × 1.69 in) compared to
German ones, which averaged 57.3 mm × 44 mm
(2.26 in × 1.73 in). Goshawks from Lapland, Finland
lay the largest known eggs at 62–65 mm (2.4–2.6 in) x
47–49.5 mm (1.85–1.95 in), while other Finnish goshawk
eggs ranged from 59–64 mm (2.3–2.5 in) x 45–48 mm
(1.8–1.9 in). Weight of the eggs average 59 g
(2.1 oz) in America, 63 g (2.2 oz) in
Great Britain and
50 to 60 g (1.8 to 2.1 oz) in
Poland and Germany, with
extreme weights from the latter nations of 35 to 75 g (1.2 to
2.6 oz). Clutch size almost always averages between
2 and 4 eggs, with a median around 3, rarely as few as 1 or as many
5-6 will be laid. In combination spring weather and prey
population levels seem to drive both egg laying dates and clutch
size. If an entire clutch is lost, a replacement can be laid within
15 to 30 days.
The mother goshawk seldom leaves the nest in either the incubation or
the brooding stage, until the young are about 2 weeks.
During incubation, females tend to become quieter and more
inconspicuous. The mother can develop a brooding patch of up to 15 by
5 cm (5.9 by 2.0 in) on her underside. She may turn the eggs
as frequently as every 30 to 60 minutes. Males may incubate as many as
1 to 3 hours, but usually less than an hour, early in incubation but
rarely do so later on. During daylight females can do as much as 96%
of the observed incubation. The incubation stage last for any time
between 28 and 37 days (rarely up to 41 days in exceptionally big
clutches), varying in different parts of the range.
After hatching occurs, the male does not come directly to the nest but
instead just delivers food (usually already plucked, beheaded or
otherwise dismembered) to a branch near the nest which the female
tears apart and shares between herself and the nestlings.
Food deliveries by the male can be daily or as infrequent as every 3
to 5 days. In turn, the female must feed the young about twice a day
in order for the chicks to avoid starvation. Caching of food has been
recorded near the nest, but only before the young start feeding
themselves. Food deliveries must average about 250 to 320 g (8.8
to 11.3 oz) per young goshawk per day for them to successfully
fledge, or 700 to 950 g (1.54 to 2.09 lb) total daily and 60
to 100 kg (130 to 220 lb) throughout the season for an
average sized clutch of around three. Females will also start
capturing prey later on, but usually only after the young have already
fledged. In Europe, female goshawks may press down on their
nest if a human approaches, others may unobtrusively leave the nest,
although are more reluctant to leave the nest late in incubation. In
North America, the behavior of parent goshawks differs, as they often
vigorously defend their territories fiercely from all intruders,
including passing humans. The northern goshawk has a reputation as the
most aggressive American raptor when the vicinity of their nest is
approached. Here, when the nest is approached (especially soon after
hatching) the goshawk will engage in their defensive kakking vocal
display accompanied by exaggerated swooping in flight which quickly
phases into a violent attack, potentially causing painful (but usually
minor) injuries and blood loss. Research has indicated that attacks on
humans are mostly done by adult females (more than 80% of the time)
and are rarely pressed unless a person is by themselves. However,
large groups and loud noise can appear to irritate the female and may
cause her to attack the next lone person who comes near the nest. The
higher aggression towards humans in
North America than in
been linked to both a more extensive range of potential nest predators
for American goshawks causing them to develop a more aggressive
display or the lower rates of persecution in America than in Europe,
who may account for the relative shyness in the latter
continent. Occasionally, both males and females
have been recorded abandoning the nest and their mates. There are a
few rare cases where males successfully reared up to 4 young after the
female abandoned the nest or was killed between the 2 and 3rd week.
Otherwise male will continue delivering prey but without the female
all the nestlings will starve to death and the food simply
rots. In cases where the male abandons the female and the
brood, she may be able to successfully brood but usually only nestling
is likely to survive to fledge without the male’s contribution of
prey. At other times the mother may be replaced, sometimes
forcefully, by another female, usually an older mature one.
Exceptional cases of polygamy, with a male mating with two females,
have been reported in
Germany and The
Netherlands and typically these
breeding attempts fail.
Hatching and development
Nestling northern goshawks in a
Hatching is asynchronous but not completely, usually an average sized
clutch takes only 2 to 3 days to hatch, although it may take up to 6
days to hatch a clutch of more than 4 eggs. Hatchlings start
calling from within the shell as much as 38 hours before hatching, as
a faint chep, chep, chack, peep, peep, peep may be heard. The
young are covered with down and altricial (as are all raptors) at
first but develop rapidly. Hatchlings measure about 13 cm
(5.1 in) long at first and grow about 5 to 9 cm (2.0 to
3.5 in) in length each week until they fledge. The mothers
typically brood the nestlings intensively for about two weeks, around
the time grayer feathers start to develop through the nestlings’
down. The most key time for development may be at three weeks, when
the nestlings can stand a bit and start to develop their flight
feathers. Also at the three-week stage, they can reach about half the
adults’ weight and females start to noticeably outgrow the males.
However, this growth requires increased food delivery so frequently
results in lower nest attendance and, in turn, higher predation rates.
Also rates of starvation at this stage can exceed 50% especially in
the youngest of large clutches of 4 to 5. Nestlings
at 4 weeks are starting to develop strong flight feathers, which they
frequently flap; also they can start to pull on food but are still
mainly fed by female and begin to make a whistling scream when she
goes to fetch food from the male. More active feeding behavior by
nestlings may increase their aggression towards each other. By the 5th
week, they've developed many typical goshawk behaviors, sometimes
mantling over food, testing balance by extending one leg and one wing
at edge of nest (called "warbling" by falconers) and can wag their
tails vigorously. Starvation risk also increases at this point due
their growing demands and, due to their incessant begging calls, vocal
activity may court predators. In 6th week, they become "branchers",
although still spend much of the time by the nest, especially by the
edge. The young goshawks "play" by seizing and striking violent at a
perch or by yanking off leaves and tossing them over their back. Wing
feathers do not develop highly dimorphically, but male branchers are
better developed than females who have more growing to do and can
leave the nest up to 1–3 days sooner. The young rarely return to the
nest after being 35 to 46 days of age and start their first flight
another 10 days later, thus becoming full fledglings.
Goshawk nestlings frequently engage in “runting”, wherein the
older siblings push aside and call more loudly and are thus are feed
more often at food deliveries, until the younger siblings may either
starve to death, be trampled or killed by their siblings (referred to
as siblicide or “cainism”). There is some evidence that mother
goshawks may lessen the effects of runting by delaying incubation
until their last eggs are laid. Food supply may be linked to higher
rates of siblicides and, in many locations with consistent prey
levels, runting and siblicide can occur somewhat seldomly (meaning the
northern goshawk is a “facultative” rather than “obligate
cainist”). Nonetheless, either by predation,
starvation or siblicide, few nests produce more than 2 to 3
fledglings. One pair in
North America was able to successfully fledge
all four of its young. Somewhat larger numbers of female
fledglings are produced in
Europe with their larger size, but the
opposite is true in
North America where sexual dimorphism is less
pronounced. When food supplies are very high, though, European
goshawks actually can produce somewhat more males than
Two juveniles from
Pennsylvania after they've become "branchers", or
have left the nest but are not yet flying competently.
At about 50 days old, the young goshawks may start hunting on their
own but more often eat carrion either provided by parents or
biologists. Most fledglings stay within 300 m (980 ft) of
the nest at 65 days of age but can wander up to 1,000 km
(620 mi) before dispersal at between 65–80 days old in sync
with the full development of their flight feathers. Between 65 and 90
days after hatching, more or less all young goshawks become
independent. There is no evidence that parents aggressively displace
the young in the fall (as other raptorial birds have sometimes been
reported to do), therefore the young birds seek independence on their
own. Goshawk siblings are not cohesive together past 65
days, except for some lingering young females, whereas common buzzard
broods are not recorded at their nests after 65 days but remain
strongly cohesive with each other. 5% of radio-tagged young in
Sweden (entirely males) were found to disperse to another
breeding area and join a different brood as soon as their flight
feathers were developed enough. These seem to be cases of moving to a
better food area. Parents and adoptive young seem to tolerate this,
although parents do not seem to be able to tell the difference between
their own and other young. It is only after dispersal that goshawks
typically start to hunt and seem to drink more often than older birds,
sometimes spend up to an hour bathing.
Breeding success rates
Nest success averages between 80 and 95% in terms of the number of
nests that produce fledglings, with an average number of 2 to 3
fledglings per nest. About equal numbers of eggs and nestlings may be
lost (6% lost in each the incubation and brooding periods per a study
from Arizona) but according to a study from
Spain large clutches of 4
to 5 had higher losses overall than medium-sized clutches of 2 to
nearly 4. Total losses averaged 36% in
Spain across clutches of 2-5.
Similar results were found in Germany, with similar numbers of
fledglings produced in very large clutches (more than 4) as in
medium-sized ones (2-4). A grading of success from a
Sweden found categories of competent and less competent
pairs, with losses averaging 7% and 17% in these two groups,
respectively. Studies from
Finland and the
Yukon Territory found
that average number of fledglings varied dramatically based on food
supply based on the cyclical nature of most prey in these northern
areas, varying from average success rates of 0 to 3.9 fledglings in
the latter region. Similar wide variations in breeding success in
correlation to prey levels were noted at other areas, including Nevada
(where the number of fledglings could be up to seven times higher when
lagomorphs were at their population peaks) and
Poor weather, which consists of cold springs that bear late cold
spells, snow and freezing rain, causes many nests to fail, and may
also hamper courtship and lower brood size and overall breeding
attempts. However, the most important cause of nest failure
were found to be nest destruction by humans and other predations,
starvation, then bad weather and collapse of nests in declining
order. On average, humans are responsible based on known
studies for about 17% of nest failures in Europe. 32% of 97 nestlings
Germany died because of human activities, while 59% of 111
England failed due to this factor. Low food
supplies are linked to predation, as it seems to cause greater risk of
predation due to the lower nest attendance. Lower densities of
pairs may actually increase nesting success, as per studies from
Finland where the highest median clutch size, at 3.8, was in the area
with the lowest densities. Similarly, in Schleswig-Holstein, nest
failure was 14% higher where active nests were closer than 2 km
(1.2 mi) apart compared to nests farther than this. Age may
also play a factor in nest success, pairings where one mate is not
fully mature (usually the female, as males rarely breed before
attaining adult plumage) is less than half as successful as ones where
both were mature, based on studies from Arizona. Overall,
males do not normally breed at any younger than 3 years of age
(although they are in adult plumage by two years) and females can
breed at as young as 1 to 2 years old, but rarely produce successful,
viable clutches. The age at sexual maturity is the same as other
northern Accipiters as well as most buteonine hawks (eagles on the
other hand can take twice as long to attain full sexual
maturity). 6–9 years of age seem to be the overall peak
reproductive years for most northern goshawks. However, some females
can reproduce at as old as 17 years old and senescence is ambiguous in
both sexes (possibly not occurring in males). Median values of
brood success was found to be 77% in
Europe and 82% in North America
overall. Conversely, the median brood size is about half a chick
North America than in Europe. In Europe, clutch size
overall averages 3.3, the number of nestlings averages 2.5 and
fledglings averages 1.9.
Goshawks may be killed by collisions with man-made objects.
The lifespan in the wild is variable. It is known that in captivity,
northern goshawks may live up to 27 years of age. Wild birds that
survive their first two years can expect a lifespan of up to 11
years. There is one record (apparently sourced to the AOU) of a
16-year, 4 month old goshawk. In Fennoscandia, starvation was
found to account for 3-6% of reported deaths. In Norway, 9% of
deaths were from starvation, but the percentage of demises from this
increased to the north and effected juveniles more so than
adults. In Gotland, Sweden, 28% of mortality was from starvation
and disease. Both bacterial and viral diseases have been known to
cause mortality in wild northern goshawks. Variable numbers
of goshawks are killed by flying into man-made objects such as
powerlines and buildings and by automobiles, although lesser numbers
are effected by powerline collisions than larger types of
The breeding range of the northern goshawk extends over one-third of
North America and
Asia each and perhaps five-sixths of Europe, a total
area of over 30,000,000 km2 (12,000,000 sq mi).
Densities in western and central
Europe were recorded at 3-5 pairs per
100 km2 (39 sq mi). In boreal Sweden, numbers vary from
1 to 4.5 pairs per 100 km2 (39 sq mi), while in similar
Alaska there were 0.3 to 2.7/100 km2
(39 sq mi). An average of only 1 pair per 100 km2
(39 sq mi) would give world population of 600,000 breeding
birds, likely at least half as many immature and other non-breeders.
Recent study found 145,000-160,000 in
Europe or 1 pair/60 km2
(23 sq mi) to 1 pair/54 km2 (21 sq mi). The
total population of northern goshawks in the world probably ranges
well over a million. The total European populations, estimated
at as many as 160,000 individuals, makes it the fourth most numerous
raptor in the continent, after the common buzzards (>700,000
Eurasian sparrowhawk (>340,000 pairs) and common kestrel
(>330,000 pairs). The most populated countries by goshawks in
Sweden (an estimated 10,000 pairs),
Germany (8,500 pairs),
Finland (6,000 pairs) and
France (5,600 pairs). The highest densities
of breeding pair per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) of land were in
Latvia and Switzerland, although this is biased due
to the small land area of these countries.
Russia has a
roughly estimated 85,000 pairs of northern goshawk. In North
America, there are an broadly estimated 150,000-300,000 individuals.
In North America, most western populations at mid-latitudes have
approximately 3.6-10.7 pairs100 km2 (39 sq mi). A total
of 107 nesting territories (1991-1996) were located on a
1,754 km2 (677 sq mi) study area on the Kaibab Plateau,
AZ, resulting in a density of 8.4 pairs/100 km2
(39 sq mi). The estimated density in
pairs/100 km2 (39 sq mi)) suggests that eastern
populations may occur at lower densities than western populations, but
densities of eastern populations may increase as these populations
recover. Typically, populations at far northern latitudes may occur at
lower densities than those of southwestern and western populations in
North America. Although median densities was similar,
populations are overall much denser in
Europe than in North America.
The hotspots of density for goshawks in
Europe lie in east-central
Europe (around Poland) and in west-central area (the Netherlands/West
Mortality rates for first-year goshawks is often considerably higher
than older birds. In studies from Gotland, Sweden, Schleswig-Holstein,
Germany and the Netherlands, 40-42% of first-years died. By the second
year, mortality rates drop to 31-35%, based on ring studies from the
Netherlands and Finland. Based on studies from Gotland,
the southwestern United States, annual mortality for adults is 15-21%,
however feather results indicate that annual mortality for adult
goshawks is up to 7% higher in
Europe than in North
America. In many parts of the range, especially
Europe, historic populations decreased regionally due to human
persecution (especially shooting), disturbance and epidemic loss of
habitat, especially during the 19th century and early 20th. Some
states, like Pennsylvania, paid $5 bounties on Goshawks in the
1930s. From 1880-1930, an estimated 3,000-5,500 goshawk were being
killed annually in
Norway when bounties were offered. Shooting rate
lowered later, causing the average number of goshawks shot to drop to
654 to for the period 1965-1970. Northern goshawks continue
to be persecuted in Norway, shown by the high turnover rate of
breeding females in Telemark County, revealed by DNA analysis of
moulted feathers. In Finland, where the species was not legally
protected, 4,000-8,000 goshawks were being killed annually from
1964-1975. Most goshawks shot are incautious juveniles, with 58%
of juvenile mortality in
Germany and 59% from the
killings by humans. Increase of pheasant releases in Vendsyssel,
Denmark from 6,000 to 35,000 since 1994 has resulted in fewer goshawks
as they often hunt the pheasants in winter and are shot, legally, by
the region’s gamekeepers. As recently as about 5 years
before that, intentional killing by humans continued as the main cause
of mortality for goshawks on Gotland, Sweden, causing 36% of
deaths. In the
United Kingdom and Ireland, the northern goshawk
was extirpated in the 19th century because of specimen collectors and
persecution by gamekeepers, but in recent years it has come back by
immigration from Europe, escaped falconry birds, and deliberate
releases. The goshawk is now found in considerable numbers in Kielder
Forest, Northumberland, which is the largest forest in Britain.
Overall there are some 200 birds in Great Britain.
Juvenile goshawk from Poland.
In the 1950s-1960s declines were increasingly linked with pesticide
pollution. However, in early 1970s pesticide levels in the United
States for goshawks were low. Eggshell thinning has not been a problem
for most populations, although
California eggshells (weight and
thickness index) pre-1947 (pre-DDT) to 1947-1964 (DDT in use) declined
some 8-12%. In Illinois, migratory goshawks during the winter of
1972-1973 invasion year contained less organochlorine and PCB residues
than did other raptors, however these birds were probably from
nonagricultural, northern forests. Higher DDT levels
seemed to have persisted quite recently in Europe. This was the case
in Germany, especially in former East
Germany where DDT was widely
available until 1988, having been largely discontinued elsewhere after
the 1970s. Goshawks, which had increased in The
World War II
World War II due to less persecution, new woodlands and increased
pigeon numbers, were found to have suddenly crashed from the late
1950s on. It was later revealed that this was due to DDT, the number
of breeding pairs decreasing 84% from 1958 to 1963. As opposed to
DDT, the main contaminant found to have reduced goshawks in
Scandinavia during the 20th century were methyl mercury seed dressings
used to reduce fungal attack in livestock.
Seemingly the remaining persistent conservation threat to goshawks,
given their seeming overall resilience (at the species level) to both
persecution and pesticides, is deforestation. Timber harvests are
known to destroy many nests and adversely regional
populations. Harvest methods that create extensive
areas of reduced forest canopy cover, dropping to cover less than
35-40%, may be especially detrimental as cases of this usually cause
all goshawks to disappear from the area. However, the
mortality rates due to foresting practices are unknown and it is
possible that some mature goshawks may simply be able to shift to
other regions when a habitat becomes unsuitable but this is presumably
unsustainable in the long-term. In harvest forests of California,
where overstory trees are frequently removed, goshawks have been found
to successfully remain as breeding species as long as some mature
stands are left intact. Despite the decline of habitat quality and the
frequent disturbances, this region’s goshawks breeding success rates
somewhat improbably did not reduce. Similarly, a study from
France shows that goshawks only left woodlots when the
canopy was reduced by more than 30%, although the European goshawk
populations have long been known to be adaptable to some degree of
habitat fragmentation. Based on habitat usage studied in New
Jersey and New York, this adaptability is not seen everywhere, as here
nests were further from human habitation than expected on the basis of
available habitat, an observation suggesting that disturbance
regionally can reduce habitat quality. Similarly, studies from
American southwest and
Canada have indicated that heavily logged
areas caused strong long-term regional declines for goshawks. In
Arizona, it was found that even when the nests were left intact, the
noisy timber harvest work often caused failure of nesting during the
incubation stage, and all nesting attempts that were occurring within
50 to 100 m (160 to 330 ft) of active logging failed,
frequently after parents abandoned the nest. Other
noisy activity, such as camping, have also caused nests to
failure. Wildlife researchers and biologists do not seem to
negatively affect goshawk nests, as they aware to keep forays to the
nest brief and capture of adult goshawks for radio-tagging was found
to not determent their success at raising broods.
In North America, several non-governmental conservation organizations
petitioned the Department of Interior, United States
Wildlife Service (1991 & 1997) to list the goshawk as "threatened"
or "endangered" under the authority of the Endangered Species Act.
Both petitions argued for listing primarily on the basis of historic
and ongoing nesting habitat loss, specifically the loss of old-growth
and mature forest stands throughout the goshawk's known range. In both
instances, the U.S.
Fish & Wildlife Service concluded that listing
was not warranted, but state and federal natural resource agencies
responded during the petition process with standardized and long-term
goshawk inventory and monitoring efforts, especially throughout U.S.
Forest Service lands in the Western U.S. The United States Forest
Service (US Dept of Agriculture) has listed the goshawk as a
"sensitive species", while it also benefits from various protection at
the state level. In North America, the goshawk is federally protected
under the Migratory
Bird Treaty Act of 1918 by an amendment
incorporating native birds of prey into the Act in 1972. The northern
goshawk is also listed in Appendix II of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
Relationship with humans
The northern goshawk appears on the flag of the Azores. The
archipelago of the Azores, Portugal, takes its name from the
Portuguese language word for goshawk, (açor), because the explorers
who discovered the archipelago thought the birds of prey they saw
there were goshawks; later it was found that these birds were kites or
common buzzards (Buteo buteo rothschildi). The goshawk features in
Stirling Council's coat of arms via the crest of the Drummond Clan.
Iranian falconer with a trained goshawk.
The name "goshawk" is a traditional name from Anglo-Saxon gōshafoc,
literally "goose hawk". The name implies prowess against larger
quarry such as wild geese, but were also flown against crane species
and other large waterbirds. The name "goose hawk" is somewhat of a
misnomer, however, as the traditional quarry for goshawks in ancient
and contemporary falconry has been rabbits, pheasants, partridge, and
medium-sized waterfowl, which are similar to much of the prey the
species hunts in the wild. A notable exception is in records of
traditional Japanese falconry, where goshawks were used more regularly
on goose and crane species. In ancient European falconry
literature, goshawks were often referred to as a yeoman's bird or the
"cook's bird" because of their utility as a hunting partner catching
edible prey, as opposed to the peregrine falcon, also a prized
falconry bird, but more associated with noblemen and less adapted to a
variety of hunting techniques and prey types found in wooded areas.
The northern goshawk has remained equal to the peregrine falcon in its
stature and popularity in modern falconry.
Falconer's bird in Scotland
Goshawk hunting flights in falconry typically begin from the
falconer's gloved hand, where the fleeing bird or rabbit is pursued in
a horizontal chase. The goshawk's flight in pursuit of prey is
characterized by an intense burst of speed often followed by a binding
maneuver, where the goshawk, if the prey is a bird, inverts and seizes
the prey from below. The goshawk, like other accipiters, shows a
marked willingness to follow prey into thick vegetation, even pursuing
prey on foot through brush. Goshawks trained for falconry not
infrequently escape their handlers and, extrapolated from the present
day British population which is composed mostly of escaped birds as
such, have reasonably high survival rates, although many do die
shortly after escape and many do not successfully breed. The
effect of modern-day collection of northern goshawks for falconry
purposes is unclear, unlike some falcon species which can show
regional declines due to heavy falconry collections but can increase
in other areas due to established escapees from falconers.
BirdLife International (2013). "
Accipiter gentilis". IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for
Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
^ "Astur gentilis schvedowi AVIS-IBIS".
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad
Brown, Leslie; Amadon, Dean (1986). Eagles, Hawks and Falcons of the
World. Wellfleet. ISBN 978-1555214722.
^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird
Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 30, 171–172.
^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae,
secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus,
differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in
Latin). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 89. F. cera
pedibusque flavis, corpore cinereo maculis fuscis cauda fasciis
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb
bc bd be bf Ferguson-Lees, James; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors
of the World. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af Squires, J.; Reynolds, R. (1997). Northern Goshawk. Birds of North
America. 298. pp. 2–27.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb
bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by
bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck Kenward, Robert (2006). The
Goshawk. London, UK: T & A D Poyser. p. 274.
^ Monson, G. & Phillips, A.R. (1964). A check-list of the birds of
Arizona. Tucson: Univ. of
^ Howell, S. N. G. & Webb, S. (1995). A guide to the birds of
Mexico and northern Central America. New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0198540120
^ a b Penteriani, V. (2002). Goshawk nesting habitat in
North America: a review. Ornis Fennica, 79: 149-163.
^ Ludwig, T. W. "
Northern goshawk forest type preference in the
Chippewa National Forest" (PDF). Saint Mary's University of Minnesota.
Retrieved 27 February 2017.
^ Austin, K. K. (1993). "Habitat use and home range size of breeding
northern goshawks in the southern Cascades" (PDF).
University (Master's Thesis). Corvallis, Oregon. Retrieved 27 February
^ Erickson, M. G. (1987). Nest site habitat selection of the goshawk
Accipiter gentilis) in the Black Hills of
South Dakota (Doctoral
dissertation, MS thesis. University of South Dakota. Brookings, South
^ Bednarek, W. (1975). Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur
Populationsökologie des Habichts (
Habitatbesetzung und Bestandsregulation. Deutscher Falkenorden
Jahrbuch, 1975, 47-53.
^ a b c d e Link, H. (1977). Beiträge zur Bestandssituation,
Ökologie, Brutbiologie und Beutewahl einer nordbayerischer Population
des Habichts (
Accipiter gentilis). PhD thesis.
^ a b Bull, E. L., & Hohmann, J. E. (1994). Breeding biology of
northern goshawks in northeastern Oregon. Studies in Avian Biology,
16, 103-105. ISSN 0197-9922
^ a b c d e f Squires, J. R. Ruggiero, L.F. (1995). Winter movements
of adult northern goshawks that nested in southcentral Wyoming. J.
Raptor Res. no. 29:5-9. ISSN 0892-1016 (print);
^ a b Swem, T.; Adams, M. (1992). "A northern goshawk nest in the
tundra biome". Journal of Raptor Research. 26 (2): 102–102.
^ a b Engelmann, F. 1928. Die Raubvogel Europas: Naturgeschichte,
Kulturgeschichte und Falknerei. Neudamm, Germany.
^ a b c d e Johnsgard, P. (1990). Hawks, Eagles, & Falcons of
North America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
^ Newton, I. (1986). The Sparrowhawk. Poyser Monographs, Calton, UK.
^ Snyder, Noel F. R.; Snyder, Helen A. (1974). "Function of eye
coloration in North American accipiters" (PDF). The Condor. 76 (2):
219–222. doi:10.2307/1366740. eISSN 1938-5129.
ISSN 0010-5422. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
^ "Northern Goshawk". Birds of Quebec. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
^ Del Hoyo, J. E., & Elliot, A. A. & Sargatal, J.(eds.), 1994.
Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2. New World Vultures to
Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona. ISBN 978-84-87334-15-3
^ Blasco-Zumeta, J. & Henze, G.-H. 117. Goshawk. Ibercaja Aula en
Red, Obra Social..
^ a b Mueller, Helmut C.; Berger, Daniel D.; Allez, George (May 1979).
"The Identification of North American Accipiters" (PDF). American
Birds. 33 (3): 236–240. ISSN 0004-7686. Retrieved 28 February
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B.
Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008), ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
^ a b c Johnson, Donald R. (December 1989). "Body size of Northern
Goshawks on coastal islands of British Columbia" (PDF). Wilson
Bulletin. 101 (4): 637–639. ISSN 1559-4491. Retrieved 1 March
^ "Northern Goshawk –
Accipiter gentilis". AVIS-IBIS: Birds of
Indian Subcontinent. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December
^ Hoffman, Stephen W.; Smith, Jeff P.; Gessaman, James A. (Spring
1990). "Size of fall-migrant accipiters from the Goshute Mountains of
Nevada" (PDF). Journal of Field Ornithology. 61 (2): 201–211.
ISSN 0273-8570. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
^ Gromme, O. J. (1935). "The goshawk (Astur atricapillus atricapillus)
nesting in Wisconsin" (PDF). The Auk. 52 (1): 15–20.
doi:10.2307/4077102. ISSN 0004-8038. Retrieved 11 March
^ a b c d e f Schnell,
Jay H. (1958). "Nesting behavior and food
habits of goshawks in the Sierra
Nevada of California" (PDF). The
Condor. 60 (6): 377–403. doi:10.2307/1365696. eISSN 1938-5129.
ISSN 0010-5422. Retrieved 11 March 2017. .
^ Penteriani, Vincenzo (2001). "The annual and diel cycles of goshawk
vocalizations at nest sites" (PDF). Journal of Raptor Research. 35
(1): 24–30. ISSN 0892-1016. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
^ a b c Zirrer, Francis. "The goshawk". Passenger Pigeon. IX (3):
79–94. ISSN 0031-2703. Retrieved 12 March 2017. .
^ Kleinschmidt, O. (1923). Berajah, Zoografia infinita. Die
Realgattung Habicht, Falco columbarius (KL). Gebauer-Schwetschke,
^ a b Wattel, Jan. "Geographical differentiation in the genus
Accipiter". Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club.
Cambridge, Mass. (13). ISBN 9781877973239. .
^ Grossman, Mary Louise; Hamlet, John (1964). Birds of Prey of the
World. New York: Bonanza Books. ISBN 9780517067888.
^ Brodkorb, Pierce (1964). "Catalogue of fossil birds: Part 2
(Anseriformes through Galliformes)". Bulletin of the Florida State
Museum, Biological Sciences. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 3
^ a b c d e Palmer, Ralph S. (1988). Handbook of North American Birds,
Vol. 4: Diurnal Raptors. Pt. 1. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
^ a b c d e Gladkov, N. A. (January 1941). "Taxonomy of Palaearctic
goshawks". The Auk. 58 (1): 80–90. doi:10.2307/4078901.
ISSN 0004-8038. .
^ a b c Zuberogoitia, Iñigo; Martínez, José Enrique (2015).
Salvador, A.; Morales, M. B., eds. "Azor común – Accipiter
gentilis". Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Madrid:
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
^ a b c d e Fischer, Wolfgang (1980). Die Habichte: Accipiter. Die
Neue Brehm-Bucherei. 158. Wittenberg Lutherstadt, Germany: A. Ziemsen.
ISSN 0138-1423. OCLC 716324621.
^ Maniarski, Roman; Ciach, Michal (October 2012). "Plumage aberration
in Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis". Ardea. 100 (2): 211–213.
doi:10.5253/078.100.0214. ISSN 0373-2266.
^ Thibault, Jena-Claude; Patrimonio, Olivier; Torre, José (July
1992). "Does the diurnal raptor community of
Mediterranean) show insular characteristics?". Journal of
Biogeography. 19 (4): 363–373. doi:10.2307/2845564.
eISSN 1365-2699. ISSN 0305-0270.
^ Wendt, Karin (8 May 2000). Topographische Anatomie der
Hintergliedmaße beim Habicht (
Accipiter gentilis Linne 1758) (PDF)
(Dissertation) (in German). Institut für Veterinär-Anatomie,
-Histologie und -Embryologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen.
Retrieved 14 March 2017.
^ a b Shigeta, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Hiroshi; Momose, Hiroshi (September
2006). "Measurements and identification of the Japanese Northern
Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae". Journal of the Yamashina
Institute for Ornithology (in Japanese). 38 (1): 22–29.
doi:10.3312/jyio.38.22. ISSN 1348-5032. Retrieved 15 March
^ a b Smith, J. P., Hoffman, S. W., & Gessaman, J. A. (1990).
Regional Size Differences among Fall-Migrant Accipiters in North
America. Journal of Field Ornithology, 192-200.
^ Whaley, W. H. & White, C.M. (1994). Trends in geographic
Cooper's hawk and northern goshawk in North America: a
multivariate analysis. Proc. West. Found. Vertebr. Zool. no.
^ Henny, C. J., Olson. R.A. & Fleming, T.L. (1985). Breeding
chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern
Oregon. J. Field Ornithol. no. 56: 97-112.
^ Mavrogordato, J. (1973). A
Hawk for the Bush: A Treatise on the
Training of the Sparrow-hawk and Other Short-winged Hawks. Spearman.
^ Mueller, H. C., Berger, D.D. & Allez, G. (1976). Age and sex
variation in the size of goshawks. Bird-Banding no. 47 (4):310-318.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rashid, S. (2015). Northern Goshawk, the
Grey Ghost: Habits, Habitats and Rehabilitation. Schiffer Publishing
^ Taverner, P. A. (1940). "Variation in the American goshawk". The
Condor. 42 (3): 157–160. doi:10.2307/1364206.
^ Iverson, G. C., Hayward, G. D., Titus, K. DeGayner, E., Lowell,
R.E., Crocker-Bedford, D.C., Schempf, P.F. & Lindell, J.F. (1996).
Conservation assessment for the northern goshawk in southeast Alaska.
U.S. Dept., Agric., For. Serv. Publ.
^ Ingraldi, M.F. (2005). A skewed sex ratio in Northern Goshawks: is
it a sign of a stressed population? Journal of Raptor Research 39.3
^ a b c d e Cramp, S. and K. E. L. Simmons. (1980). Handbook of the
Europe and the Middle East and north Africa: the birds of the
western Palearctic, Vol. 2. Hawks to bustards. Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Press. ISBN 9780198575054
^ Kaufman, K. (1990). A Field Guide to advanced birding: birding
challenges and how to approach them. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
^ "Northern Goshawk". Hanging Rock Raptor Observatory. Retrieved 23
^ Crossley, R. T.; Couzens, D. (2013), The Crossley ID Guide: Britain
and Ireland, The Crossley ID Guides, Princeton University Press,
^ Smith, Jeff P.; Hoffman, Stephen W.; Gessaman, James A. (Spring
1990). "Regional Size Differences among Fall-Migrant Accipiters in
North America" (PDF). Journal of Field Ornithology. 61 (2): 192–200.
ISSN 0273-8570. Retrieved 11 March 2017. .
^ Dobler, G. (1990). Brutbiotop und territorialitèt bei habicht
Accipiter gentilis) und rotmilan (
Milvus milvus) [Nesting habitat and
territoriality in goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis) and red kite (Milvus
milvus)]. J. Ornithologie no. 131:85-93.
^ Schnurre, O. (1956). Ernahrungbiologische Studien au Raubvogel und
Eulen dur Darbhalbinsel (Mecklenberg). Beitrage zur Vogelkunde, 19:
^ Atkinson, E. C., Goodrich, L. J., & Bildstein, K. L. (1996).
Temporal field guide to autumn raptor migration at
Pennsylvania Birds, 10, 134-137.
^ Smith, G. A. and D. G. Muir. 1980. Derby Hill spring hawk migration.
Birding no. 12:224-234.
^ Fransson, T., & Pettersson, J. (2001). Swedish bird ringing
atlas. Swedish Museum of Natural History & Swedish Ornitological
^ a b c d Marcström, V., & Kenward, R. (1981). Movements of
wintering goshawks in Sweden. Swedish Sportsmen's Association.
^ a b c Hoglund, N. H. 1964. The hawk
Accipiter gentilis Linne in
Fennos Kandia (English translation). Viltrevy no. 2:195-269.
^ Keane, J. J. & Morrison, M.L. (1994). Northern Goshawk ecology:
effects of scale and levels of biological organization. Stud. Avian
Biol. no. 16:3-11.
^ Evans, D. L. & Sindelar, C.R. (1974). First record of the
goshawk for Louisiana-a collected, banded bird. Bird-Banding no. 45:
^ a b c d e Doyle, F. I. & Smith, J.M.N. (1994). Population
responses of northern goshawks to the 10-year cycle in numbers of
snowshoe hares. Stud. Avian Biol. no. 16:122-129.
^ Sonsthagen, S. A., Rodriguez, R., & White, C. M. (2006).
Satellite telemetry of Northern Goshawks breeding in Utah-I. Annual
movements. Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 239.
^ Haukioja, E., & Haukioja, M. (1970). Mortality rates of Finnish
and Swedish goshawks (
Accipiter gentilis). Finnish Game Research, 31,
^ Mueller, H. C., D. D. Berger and G. Allez. 1977. The periodic
invasions of goshawks. Auk no. 94:652-663.
^ Sibley, D. A. 1997. Birds of Cape May. 2nd ed. Cape May Point: New
Jersey Audubon Soc.
^ Hoffman, S. W., W. R. DeRagon and J. C. Bednarz. (1992). Patterns
and recent trends in counts of migrant hawks in western North America,
1977-1991. Unpubl. report.
^ Wattel, J. (1973). Geographical differentiation in the genus
Accipiter (No. 13). Harvard Univ Nuttall Ornithological.
^ a b Bright-Smith, D. J. & Mannan, R.W. (1994). Habitat use by
breeding male northern goshawks in northern Arizona. Stud. Avian Biol.
^ Beier, P.; Drennan, J. E. (1997). "Forest structure and prey
abundance in foraging areas of northern goshawks". Ecological
Applications. 7 (2): 564–571. doi:10.2307/2269521.
^ Underwood, J., White, C. M., & Rodriguez, R. (2006). Winter
movement and habitat use of northern goshawks breeding in Utah.
Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 228.
^ Widen, P (1989). "The hunting habitats of goshawks Accipiter
gentilis in boreal forests of central Sweden". Ibis. 131 (2):
^ Fox, N., & Merrick, T. (1995). Understanding the bird of prey.
Hancock House Pub Limited.
^ Widén, P. (1984). Activity patterns and time-budget in the goshawk
Accipiter gentilis in a boreal forest area in Sweden. Ornis Fennica
^ Hantge, E. (1980). Untersuchungen uber den Jagderfolg mehrerer
europaischer Greifvogel. Journal fur Ornithologie, 121: 200-207.
^ Rutz, C. (2006). Home range size, habitat use, activity patterns and
hunting behaviour of urban-breeding Northern Goshawks Accipiter
gentilis. Ardea-Wageningen, 94(2), 185.
^ Kenward, R. E. (1982). Goshawk hunting behaviour, and range size as
a function of food and habitat availability. The Journal of Animal
^ Wittenberg, J. (1985). Habicht
Accipiter gentilis jagt zu Fuß in
der Stadt. Anz. orn. Ges. Bayern 24, Heft 2 (3): 180.
^ Bergstrom, B. J. (1985). Unusual prey-stalking behavior by a
goshawk. J. Field Ornithol. no. 56:415.
^ Backstrom, P. (1991).
Northern goshawk predation on sharp-tailed
grouse. Loon no. 63: 74.
^ Westcott, P. W. (1964). "Unusual feeding behavior of a goshawk".
Condor. 66: 163.
^ Brace, K. 1983. Goshawk-snowshoe hare encounter. Blue
Jay no. 41:
^ a b Beebe, F. L. (1974). "Goshawk." In Field studies of the
Falconiformes of British Columbia, 54-62. Br. Columbia Prov. Mus.
Occas. Pap. Ser. no. 17.
^ Kenward, R. E. (1979). Winter predation by goshawks in lowland
Britain. British Birds, 72, 64-73.
^ Sæther, B. (2014). Prey handling and consumption by northern
Accipiter gentilis): a feeding experiment.
^ a b c d e f g h Reynolds, R. T. & Meslow, E.C. (1984).
Partitioning of food and niche characteristics of coexisting Accipiter
during breeding. Auk no. 101:761-779.
^ Grønnesby, S., & Nygard, T. (2000). Using time-lapse video
monitoring to study prey selection by breeding Goshawks Accipiter
gentilis in Central Norway. Ornis Fennica, 77(3), 117-129.
^ a b c Rutz, C (2003). "Assessing the breeding season diet of
Accipiter gentilis: biases of plucking analysis quantified by
means of continuous radio‐monitoring". Journal of Zoology. 259 (2):
^ Simmons, R.E.; Avery, D.M.; Avery, G. (1991). "Biases in diet
determined from pellets and remains: correction factors for a mammal
and bird-eating raptor". Journal of Raptor Research. 25:
^ a b c d e f Smithers, B.L.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E. (2005).
"Northern Goshawk diet in Minnesota: An analysis using video recording
systems" (PDF). Journal of Raptor Research. 39 (3): 264–273.
Accipiter gentilis – northern goshawk".
Animal Diversity Web.
University of Michigan.
^ a b c d e Lewis, Stephen B.; Titus, Kimberly; Fuller, Mark R.
(2006). "Northern Goshawk Diet During the Nesting Season in Southeast
Alaska" (PDF). Journal of Wildlife Management. 70 (4): 1151–1160.
^ Kennedy, P. L. (2003).
Northern goshawk (
atricapillus): A technical conservation assessment. USFS, Rocky
Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project. Fort Collins, Colorado.
^ Bosakowski, T. (1999). The Northern Goshawk: Ecology, Behavior and
Management in North America. Hancock House Pub Limited.
^ Jones, S. (1979). The accipiters: goshawk, Cooper's hawk,
sharp-shinned hawk (No. 17). US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land
^ García-Salgado, G.; Rebollo, S.; Pérez-Camacho, L.;
Martínez-Hesterkamp, S.; Navarro, A.; Fernández-Pereira, J. M.
(2015). "Evaluation of trail-cameras for analyzing the diet of nesting
raptors using the Northern Goshawk as a model". PLoS ONE. 10 (5):
^ a b c d e f g h i j Zawadzka, D., & Zawadzki, J. (1998). The
Accipiter gentilis in
Wigry National Park
Wigry National Park (NE Poland)-numbers,
breeding results, diet composition and prey selection. Acta
ornithologica, 33(3-4), 181-190.
^ Boal, C. W., & Mannan, R. W. (1996). Prey sizes of male and
female northern goshawks. The Southwestern Naturalist, 355-358.
^ a b Tornberg, R. (1997). Prey selection of the goshawk Accipiter
gentilis during the breeding season: the role of prey profitability
and vulnerability. Ornis Fennica, 74(1), 15-28.
^ Nielsen, J. T., & Drachmann, J. (1999). Prey selection of
Accipiter gentilis during the breeding season in Vendsyssel,
Denmark. Dansk Orn Foren Tidsskr, 93, 85-90.
^ a b c d e Penteriani, V (1997). "Long-term study of a Goshawk
breeding population on a Mediterranean mountain (Abruzzi Apennines,
Central, Italy): density, breeding performance and diet". Journal of
Raptor Research. 31: 308–312.
^ a b Boal, C. W., & Mannan, R. W. (1994).
Northern goshawk diets
in ponderosa pine forests on the Kaibab Plateau. Studies in Avian
Biology, 16, 97-102.
^ a b Rutz, C. (2004). Breeding season diet of Northern Goshawks
Accipiter gentilis in the city of Hamburg, Germany. Corax, 19,
^ a b c d e Verdal, T., & Selås, V. (2010). A comparison of
Goshawk summer diet in three areas with different breeding density in
western Norway. Ornis Norvegica, 33, 110-117.
^ Sulkava, S. (1964). Zur Nahrungbiologies des Habichts, Accipiter
gentilis L. Aquilo Seria Zoologica, 3: 1-103.
^ a b c d Karyakin, I. (2009). Goshawk in the Urals and adjacent
territories. Raptor Conservation, A (4).
^ a b Araujo, J. (1974). Falconiformes del Guadarrama suroccidental.
Ardeola, 19(2), 257-278.
^ Zuban, I.A. (2012). Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis in Zhambyl district
of North Kazakhstan. Russian Ornithological Journal, 749 (21):
^ a b c Meng, H. (1959). Food habits of nesting Cooper's Hawks and
Goshawks in New York and Pennsylvania. The Wilson Bulletin, 71(2),
^ Ellenberg, H. & Dreifke, R. (1993). “Abrition”– Der
Kolrabe als Schutzchild vor dem Habicht. Corax, 15: 2-10.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Watson, J. W.; Hays, D. W.; Finn, S. P.;
Meehan-Martin, P. (1998). "Prey of breeding northern goshawks in
Washington". Journal of Raptor Research. 32 (4): 297–305.
^ a b Skilsky, I.V. & Meleshchuk, L.I. (2007). Diet of the Goshawk
in the southern part of the Ukraine. Berkut, 16 (1): 159-161.
^ Petronilho, J., & Vingada, J. V. (2002). First data on feeding
ecology of Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis during the breeding season in
the natura 2000 site Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas (Beira
Litoral, Portugal). Airo, 12, 11-16.
^ a b Abuladze, A. (2013). Birds of Prey of Georgia. Materials towards
Fauna of Georgia, Issue VI, Institute of Zoology, Ilia State
^ a b c Opdam, P. F. M. (1980). Feeding ecology and niche
`1qdifferentiation in goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis L.) and sparrowhawk
Accipiter nisus L.) (Doctoral dissertation, [Sl]: PFM Opdam).
^ Toyne, E. P. (1998). "Breeding season diet of the Goshawk Accipiter
gentilis in Wales". Ibis. 140 (4): 569–579.
^ Brüll, H. (1964). Das Leben deutscher Greifvögel. Fischer,
^ Pielowski, Z. (1961). Uber den Unifikationseinfluss der selektiven
Narhungswahl des Habichts,
Accipiter gentilis L., auf Haustauben.
Ekologa Polska, 9: 183-194.
^ Rutz, C (2012). "Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd
prey". Current Biology. 22 (9): 820–824.
^ Takagi, M.; Ueta, M.; Ikeda, S. (1995). "Accipiters prey on nestling
birds in Japan". Journal of Raptor Research. 29: 267–268.
^ a b c Bosakowski, T., & Smith, D. G. (2006). Ecology of the
Northern Goshawk in the New York-
New Jersey highlands. Studies in
Avian Biology, 31, 109.
^ a b c d e f g Becker, T. E., Smith, D. G., & Bosakowski, T.
(2006). Habitat, food habits, and productivity of northern goshawks
nesting in Connecticut. Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 119-125.
^ a b Widen, P. (1987). Goshawk predation during winter, spring and
summer in a boreal forest area in Sweden. Ornis Fennica, 61: 109-112.
^ Linden, H., & Wikman, M. (1983). Goshawk predation on
tetraonids: availability of prey and diet of the predator in the
breeding season. The Journal of
Animal Ecology, 953-968.
^ a b c Tornberg, R., Korpimaki, E., & Byholm, P. (2006). Ecology
of the northern goshawk in Fennoscandia. Studies in Avian Biology, 31,
^ Tornberg, R (2001). "Pattern of goshawk
Accipiter gentilis predation
on four forest grouse species in northern Finland". Wildlife Biology.
7 (4): 245–256.
^ Lewis, S. B.; Fuller, M. R.; Titus, K. (2004). "A comparison of 3
methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season".
Wildlife Society Bulletin. 32 (2): 373–385.
^ Marcstrom, V. & Widen, P. (1977). Hur skulle det ga for duvhoken
om inte Fasan fanns? Svensk Jakt, 115: 98-101.
^ Badarch, D., Zilinskas, R. A., & Balint, P. J. (2003). Mongolia
today: science, culture, environment and development (Vol. 1).
^ Golet, G. H.; Golet, H. T.; Colton, A. M. (2003). "Immature Northern
Goshawk captures, kills, and feeds on adult-sized wild turkey".
Journal of Raptor Research. 37 (4): 337–340.
^ a b c d e f Mañosa, S (1994). "Goshawk diet in a Mediterranean area
of northeastern Spain". Journal of Raptor Research. 28 (2):
^ a b Slisky, I.V. & Meleshchuk, L.I. (2007). Diet of the goshawk
in southern part of western Ukraine. Berkut, 16 (1): 159-161.
^ a b c d Ivanovsky, V. V. (1998). Current status and breeding ecology
of the Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis in northern Belarus. Holarctic Birds
of Prey, ADENEXWWGBP, Calamonte, Spain, 111-115.
^ a b c d e Marquiss, M., & Newton, I. (1982). The goshawk in
Britain. British Birds, 75, 243-260.
^ a b Grzybowski, J. A., & Eaton, S. W. (1976). Prey items of
goshawks in southwestern New York. The Wilson Bulletin, 88(4),
^ a b c Graham, R. T., de Volo, S. B., & Reynolds, R. T. (2015).
Northern goshawk and its prey in the Black Hills: Habitat assessment.
Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-339. Fort Collins, CO: US, Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
^ The Shipley Group (2009). Goshawk Survey; Soule River Watershed,
Alaska Power & Telephone Survey.
^ a b c d e Schaffer, W. W. 1998.
Northern goshawk (Accipiter
gentilis) habitat characterization in central Alberta. Thesis,
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
^ McComb, A. M. (2004). Raptor Predation Attempts on Grey Squirrels
Sciurus carolinensis (Gmelin). The Irish Naturalists' Journal, 27(12),
^ Wauters, L. A.; Dhondt, A. A. (1989). "Variation in length and body
weight of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in two different
habitats". Journal of Zoology. 217 (1): 93–106.
^ a b c d Gompper, M. E. (1999). "Predation in Vertebrate Communities:
The Białowieża Primeval Forest as a Case Study". Ecology. 80 (7):
^ Tomešek, M., & Čermák, P. (2014). Distribution and biology of
Accipiter gentilis L.) in the
Chřiby Upland, the Czech
Republic. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae
Brunensis, 57(1), 153-164.
^ Vaidie, F. (1999). L’Autour des palombes (
Accipiter gentilis) en
^ Steele, M. A. (1998). Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Mammalian Species
Archive, 586, 1-9.
^ a b Squires, J. R. (2000). Food habits of northern goshawks nesting
in south central Wyoming. The Wilson Bulletin, 112(4), 536-539.
^ Clough, L. T. (2000). Nesting habitat selection and productivity of
northern goshawks in west-central Montana. University of Montana.
^ Carey, A. B. (1995). "Sciurids in Pacific Northwest Managed and
Old‐Growth Forests". Ecological Applications. 5 (3): 648–661.
^ a b Promessi, R. L., Matson, J. O., & Flores, M. (2004). Diets
of nesting northern goshawks in the Warner Mountains, California.
Western North American Naturalist, 359-363.
^ Keane, J. J.; Morrison, M. L.; Fry, D. M. (2006). "Prey and weather
factors associated with temporal variation in northern goshawk
reproduction in the Sierra Nevada, California". Studies in Avian
Biology. 31: 87.
^ Lorenzini, A., Tresini, M., Austad, S. N., & Cristofalo, V. J.
(2005). Cellular replicative capacity correlates primarily with
species body mass not longevity. Mechanisms of ageing and development,
^ a b c d e f Drennan, J. E. (2006).
Northern goshawk food habits and
goshawk prey species habitats. Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 198-227.
^ a b Storer, R. W. (1966). "
Sexual dimorphism and food habits in
three North American accipiters". The Auk. 83 (3): 423–436.
^ Kenagy, G. J.; Trombulak, S. C. (1986). "Size and function of
mammalian testes in relation to body size". Journal of Mammalogy. 67
(1): 1–22. doi:10.2307/1380997.
^ a b c Rogers, A. S., DeStefano, S., & Ingraldi, M. F. (2006).
Diet, prey delivery rates, and prey biomass of northern goshawks in
east-central Arizona. Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 219.
^ Jenkins, S. H., & Eshelman, B. D. (1984). Spermophilus beldingi.
Mammalian Species Archive, 221, 1-8.
^ a b c Miller, R. A.; Carlisle, J. D.; Bechard, M. J. (2014).
"Effects of prey abundance on breeding season diet of Northern
Accipiter gentilis) within an unusual prey landscape".
Journal of Raptor Research. 48 (1): 1–12.
^ Feldhamer, G. A., Thompson, B. C., & Chapman, J. A. (2003). Wild
mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation. JHU
^ Slobodchikoff, C., B. Perla, J. Verdolin. 2009. Prairie Dogs:
Communication and Community in an
Animal Society. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
^ a b Perrone, A., Macchi, E., & Durio, P. (1992). Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis) predation on marmot (Marmota marmota). In
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Alpine Marmot
(Marmota marmota) and on genus Marmota (pp. 239-240).
^ Van Vuren, D. H. (2001). "Predation on yellow-bellied marmots
(Marmota flaviventris)". The American Midland Naturalist. 145 (1):
^ a b White, C. R.; Seymour, R. S. (2003). "Mammalian basal metabolic
rate is proportional to body mass2/3". Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences. 100 (7): 4046–4049.
^ Reynolds, R. T., Graham, R. T., & Boyce, D. A. (2006). An
ecosystem-based conservation strategy for the northern goshawk.
Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 299-311.
^ Verts, B. J., & Carraway, L. N. (2001). Tamias minimus.
Mammalian Species, 1-10.
^ Pfeiffer W. (1978). [On the capture of a hare (Lepus europaeus) by a
Northern Goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis)]. Aves 15: 31-33.
^ Lim, B. K. (1987). Lepus townsendii. Mammalian Species Archive, 288,
^ Best, T. L. (1996). Lepus californicus. Mammalian Species Archive,
^ Chapman, J. A., & Flux, J. E. (1990). Rabbits, hares and pikas:
status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN.
^ a b Kenward, R. E., Marcstrom, V. & Karlbom, M. (1981). Goshawk
winter ecology in Swedish pheasant habitats. J. Wildl. Manage. no.
^ Tornberg, R.; Mönkkönen, M.; Pahkala, M. (1999). "Changes in diet
and morphology of Finnish goshawks from 1960s to 1990s". Oecologia.
121 (3): 369–376. doi:10.1007/s004420050941.
^ Bleisch, W. (2011). Asian Highlands Perspectives 18: Environmental
Issues Facing Tibetan Pastoral Communities (Vol. 31). ASIAN HIGHLANDS
^ Smith, A. T.; Foggin, J. M. (1999). "The plateau pika (Ochotona
curzoniae) is a keystone species for biodiversity on the Tibetan
Animal Conservation. 2 (4): 235–240.
^ a b Schreven, K. Een luchtbukskogeltje in een braakbal van een Havik
Accipiter gentilis, in de context van jacht en loodvergifti-ging. De
^ Kennedy, P. L. (1989). The nesting ecology of Cooper's hawks and
northern goshawks in the Jemez Mountains, NM: a summary of results,
1984-1988 (Final Report). Santa Fe National Forest: U.S.D.A. Forest
^ Bacon, B.R. 1983. Goshawk and Red Fox predate Wood Ducks in trap.
^ Lever, C. (2013). The mandarin duck. Bloomsbury Publishing.
^ a b Veldkamp R. (2008). [Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and other
large bird species as prey of goshawks
Accipiter gentilis in De
Wieden]. De Takkeling 16: 85-91.
^ Madsen, J. (1988). Goshawk,
Accipiter gentilis, harassing and
killing brent geese Branta bernicla. Meddelelse fra Vildtbiologisk
^ Castelijns H. 2010. Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis catches Barnacle
Goose Branta leucopsis. De Takkeling 18: 197.
^ a b c d Møller, A. P., Solonen, T., Byholm, P., Huhta, E., Tøttrup
Nielsen, J. and Tornberg, R. 2012. Spatial consistency in
susceptibility of prey species to predation by two
– J. Avian Biol. 43.
^ Møller, A. P., Erritzøe, J., & Tøttrup Nielsen, J. (2010).
Predators and microorganisms of prey: goshawks prefer prey with small
uropygial glands. Functional ecology, 24(3), 608-613.
^ Eriksson, M. O. G., D. Blomqvist, M. Hake and O. C. Johansson. 1990.
Parental feeding in the Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata. Ibis no.
^ Kis B. (1999). [Goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis) robbing a Black Stork
(Ciconia nigra) nest]. Tuzo 4: 87-88
^ a b c d Belika, V.P. (2003). The Goshawk: Place in Russian
ecosystems. Materials to the IV Conference on Raptors of Northern
Eurasia. Penza, 176: 5-173.
^ Camphuysen, C. J. (2015). De Havik
Accipiter gentilis als
meeuwenpredator op Texel. De takkeling, 23(1), 79-85.
^ Kranenbarg S. (1997). [Inland-strayed Long-tailed Skua Stercorarius
longicaudus victim of Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis]. Limosa 70:
^ Nethersole-Thompson, D. (2010). Waders: their breeding, haunts and
watchers. A&C Black.
^ Sonerud, G. A.; Steen, R.; Selås, V.; Aanonsen, O. M.; Aasen, G.
H.; Fagerland, K. L.; Fossa, A.; Kristiansen, L.; Low, L.M.; Ronning,
M.E.; Skouen, S.K.; Asakskogen, E.; Johansen, H.M.; Johnsen, J.T.;
Karlsen, L.T.; Nyhus, G.C.; Roed, L.T.; Skar, K.; Sveen, B.-A.;
Tvelten, R.; Slagsvold, T. (2014). "Evolution of parental roles in
provisioning birds: diet determines role asymmetry in raptors".
Behavioral Ecology. 25 (4): 762–772.
^ a b c Bezzel, E., Rust, R., & Kechele, W. (1997). Nahrungswahl
Accipiter gentilis während der Brutzeit.
Ornithologischer Anzeiger, 36, 19-30.
^ Roberson, A. M., Anderson, D. E., & Kennedy, P. L. (2003). The
northern goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) in the western
Great Lakes Region: a technical conservation assessment. Minnesota
Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Minnesota.
^ Kirby, R. E.; Fuller, M. R. (1978). "Observations and
reinterpretation of Kingfisher-raptor interactions". Auk. 95 (3):
^ Wells-Gosling, N. & Heaney, L.R. 1984. Glaucomys sabrinus.
Mammalian Species No. 229. American Society of Mammalogists.
^ Balčiauskienė, L., & Balčiauskas, L. (2009). Prediction of
the body mass of the bank vole Myodes glareolus from skull
measurements. Estonian J. Ecol, 58, 77-85.
^ a b c Gryz, J., & Krauze-Gryz, D. (2014). The influence of
raptors (Falconiformes) and ravens (
Corvus corax) on populations of
game animals. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW.
Forestry and Wood Technology, 114-125.
^ Reich, L. M. (1981). Microtus pennsylvanicus. Mammalian species,
^ Morand, S.; Poulin, R. (1998). "Density, body mass and parasite
species richness of terrestrial mammals". Evolutionary Ecology. 12
(6): 717–727. doi:10.1023/a:1006537600093.
^ Begall, S., Burda, H., & Schleich, C. E. (2007). Subterranean
rodents: news from underground. In Subterranean Rodents (pp. 3-9).
Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
^ Adamian, M. S., & Klem, D. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of
Armenia. American University of Armenia.
^ Thrailkill, J. A.; Andrews, L. S.; Claremont, R. M. (2000). "Diet of
breeding northern goshawks in the Coast Range of Oregon". Journal of
Raptor Research. 34 (4): 339–340.
^ Curnutt, J. (2007). Conservation Assessment for Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis) Linnaeus in the Western Great Lakes.
^ a b Sherrod, S. K. (1978). Diets of North American Falconiformes.
Raptor Res, 12(3/4), 49-121.
^ Mikula, P.; Morelli, F.; Lučan, R. K.; Jones, D. N.; Tryjanowski,
P. (2016). "Bats as prey of diurnal birds: a global perspective".
Mammal Review. doi:10.1111/mam.12060.
^ Zhang, S.; Ren, B.; Li, B. (1999). "A juvenile Sichuan golden monkey
(Rhinopithecus roxellana) predated by a goshawk (
in the Qinling Mountains". Folia Primatologica. 70 (3): 175–176.
^ Ahmadzadeh, F., Carretero, M. A., Mebert, K., Faghiri, A., Ataei,
S., Hamidi, S., & Böhm, W. (2011). Preliminary results on
biological aspects of the grass snake, Natrix natrix in the southern
coastal area of the Caspian Sea. Acta Herpetologica, 6(2), 209-221.
^ Klein, W., Reuter, C., Böhme, W., & Perry, S. F. (2005). Lungs
and mesopneumonia of scincomorph lizards (Reptilia: Squamata).
Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 5(1), 47-57.
^ a b Thiollay, J. M. (1967). Ecologie d’une population de rapaces
diurnes en Lorraine. 116-183.
^ Young, O. P. (2015). Predation on dung beetles (Coleoptera:
Scarabaeidae): a literature review. Transactions of the American
Entomological Society, 111-155.
^ a b c Marti, C. D., Korpimäki, E., & Jaksić, F. M. (1993).
Trophic structure of raptor communities: a three-continent comparison
and synthesis. In Current ornithology (pp. 47-137). Springer US.
^ Bosakowski, T.; Smith, D. G. (1992). "Comparative diets of sympatric
nesting raptors in the eastern deciduous forest biome". Canadian
Journal of Zoology. 70 (5): 984–992. doi:10.1139/z92-140.
^ Steenhof, K.; Kochert, M. N. (1985). "Dietary shifts of sympatric
buteos during a prey decline". Oecologia. 66 (1): 6–16.
^ Krebs, C. J.; Boutin, S.; Boonstra, R.; Sinclair, A. R. E. (1995).
"Impact of food and predation on the snowshoe hare cycle". Science.
269 (5227): 1112. doi:10.1126/science.269.5227.1112.
^ Hik, D. S. (1995). "Does risk of predation influence population
dynamics? Evidence from cyclic decline of snowshoe hares". Wildlife
Research. 22 (1): 115–129. doi:10.1071/wr9950115.
^ Jaksic, F. M.; Soriguer, R. C. (1981). "Predation upon the European
rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Mediterranean habitats of Chile and
Spain: a comparative analysis". The Journal of
Animal Ecology. 50:
^ Serrano, D (2000). "Relationship between raptors and rabbits in the
Eagle Owls in southwestern Europe: competition removal or food
stress?". Journal of Raptor Research. 34 (4): 305–310.
^ Gatto, A. E., Grubb, T. G., & Chambers, C. L. (2006). Red-tailed
hawk dietary overlap with northern goshawks on the Kaibab Plateau,
Arizona. J. Raptor Res., 39: 439-444.
^ La Sorte, F. A.; Mannan, R. W.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grubb, T. G.
(2004). "Habitat associations of sympatric red-tailed hawks and
northern goshawks on the Kaibab Plateau". Journal of Wildlife
Management. 68 (2): 307–317.
^ Preston, C. R. (2000). Red-tailed hawk. Stackpole Books.
^ a b Ponitz I. 1992. [White-tailed
Eagle and Western Marsh Harrier
steal prey from Northern Goshawk!] Falke 39. Pages 209.
^ a b Moshkin, A. (2009). Kleptoparasitism-One of Hunting Technique of
Falcon that Became Common under Condition of the
Increase in its Number in the Southern Ural Mountains, Russia. Raptors
Conservation, 18 (17): 93-97.
^ Karlsen, Rune Sveinsgjerd. "Den tøffe måka og hauken" [The tough
gull and the hawk] (in Norwegian). Natur i Bilder. Retrieved 28 June
^ a b Kenward, R. E. (1996). Goshawk Adaptation to Deforestation: Does
Europe Differ From North. Raptors in Human Landscapes: Adaptation to
Built and Cultivated Environments, 233.
^ a b c Reynolds, R. T., & Wight, H. M. (1978). Distribution,
density, and productivity of accipiter hawks breeding in Oregon. The
Wilson Bulletin, 182-196.
^ a b c d e f g h Looft, V. & Biesterfeld, G. (1981). Habicht –
Accipiter gentilis. In: Looft, V. & G. Busche (Hrsg.). Vogelwelt
Schleswig-Holsteins. Greifvögel. Wachholtz, Neumünster.
^ Kostrzewa, A. (1991). Interspecific interference competition in
three European raptor species. Ethology, Ecology, and Evolution, 3:
^ Krüger, O (2002). "Interactions between common buzzard Buteo buteo
Accipiter gentilis: trade‐offs revealed by a field
experiment". Oikos. 96 (3): 441–452.
^ Goslow, G. E. (1971). The attack and strike of some North American
raptors. The Auk, 815-827.
^ Sprunt, A., & May, J. B. (1955). North American birds of prey.
Published under the sponsorship of the National Aububon Society by
^ Woodbridge, B.; Detrich, P.J. (1994). "Territory occupancy and
habitat patch size of northern goshawks in the southern Cascades of
California". Studies in Avian Biology. 16: 83–87.
^ Sergio, F., & Hiraldo, F. (2008). Intraguild predation in raptor
assemblages: a review. Ibis, 150(s1), 132-145.
^ Lourenço, R., Santos, S. M., Rabaça, J. E., & Penteriani, V.
(2011). Superpredation patterns in four large European raptors.
Population Ecology, 53(1), 175-185.
^ a b Petty, S. J.; Anderson, D. I. K.; Davison, M.; Little, B.;
Sherratt, T. N.; Thomas, C. J.; Lambin, X. (2003). "The decline of
common kestrels Falco tinnunculus in a forested area of northern
England: the role of predation by northern goshawks Accipiter
gentilis". Ibis. 145 (3): 472–483.
^ Bijlsma, R.G. (2004). Wat is het predatiersico voor Wespendieven
Pernis apivorus in de Nederlands bossen bij een afnemend voedselaanbod
Accipiter gentilis. De Takkeling, 12: 185-197.
^ Iwami, Y (1996). "Some Prey Items of Three Species of Hawks (Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis, Sparrowhawks A, nisus and
Buzzard Buteo buteo) in
Tokachi District, Eastern Hokkaido". Japanese Journal of Ornithology.
45 (1): 37–38. doi:10.3838/jjo.45.37.
^ Snow, D. & Perrins, C. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic
Concise Edition. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press.
^ a b c d e Reynolds, R. T., Joy, S.M. & Leslie, D.G. (1994). Nest
productivity, fidelity, and spacing of northern goshawks in northern
Arizona. Stud. Avian Biol. no. 16:106-113.
^ Kitowski, I. (2002). Present status and conservation problems of
Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus in Southeast Poland. Ornithol.
Anz, 41, 167-174.
^ Crocoll, S. T. (1984). Breeding biology of broad-winged and
red-shouldered hawks in western New York (Doctoral dissertation, State
University of New York at Fredonia, 1984--Department of Biology.)
^ Rosendaal, C. W. C. (1990). Voedselonderzoek 1984-1988 Haviken in
Zuid-Twente I. Het vogeljaar, 38(5), 198-207.
^ a b c János, B. & László, H. (1994). Data on other raptors as
prey animals of Goshawks (
Accipiter gentilis). Aquila, 101: 89-92.
^ Crannell, D.; DeStefano, S. (1992). "An aggressive interaction
between a northern goshawk and a red-tailed hawk". Journal of Raptor
Research. 26 (4): 269–270.
^ Bai, M. L.; Schmidt, D.; Gottschalk, E.; Mühlenberg, M. (2009).
"Distribution pattern of an expanding
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
population in a changing environment". Journal of Ornithology. 150
(1): 255–263. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0345-3.
^ Finlayson, C. (2011). Avian Survivors: the history and biogeography
Palearctic birds (Vol. 16). A&C Black.
^ a b Mikkola, H. (1976). Owls killing and killed by other owls and
raptors in Europe. British Birds, 69, 144-154.
^ Duncan, J. R. (1997). Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa nebulosa) and
forest. J Raptor Res, 31(2), 160-166.
^ Rajkovic, D. 2005. [Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis preys on
chicks of the Common
Kestrel Falco tinnunculus and Red-footed Falcon
Falco vespertinus]. Ciconia 14:115-116.
^ Hogan, C. Michael, ed. (2010). "American Kestrel". Encyclopedia of
Earth. Cleveland: U.S. National Council for Science and the
^ Noskovič, J.; Rakovská, A.; Porhajasova; Babosova, M. (2016).
Falcon (Falco cherrug, Gray) and its relation to agricultural
land Slovakia". Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 48 (1):
^ Stewart, B.S. & DeLong, R.L. (1984). Black-shoulder kite and
northern goshawk interactions with peregrine falcons at San Miguel
Island, California. Western Birds 15:187-188,
^ Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (Vol. 1). JHU
^ Sheffield, S. R., & King, C. M. (1994). Mustela nivalis.
Mammalian Species Archive, 454, 1-10.
^ Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA
(Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), V.G. Heptner and N.P. Naumov editors,
Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998. ISBN 1-886106-81-9
^ Choate, J. R., Wilson, D. E., & Ruff, S. (2001). The Smithsonian
book of North American mammals.
^ Ward, O. G., & Wurster-Hill, D. H. (1990). Nyctereutes
procyonoides. Mammalian Species Archive, 358, 1-5.
^ Selås, V.; Steel, C. (1998). "Large brood sizes of pied flycatcher,
sparrowhawk and goshawk in peak microtine years: support for the mast
depression hypothesis". Oecologia. 116 (4): 449–455.
^ Selås, V (1998). "Does food competition from red fox (Vulpes
vulpes) influence the breeding density of goshawk (Accipiter
gentilis)? Evidence from a natural experiment". Journal of Zoology.
246 (03): 325–335.
^ Ziesemer, F. (1981). Methods of assessing goshawk predation.
Understanding the goshawk, 144-150.
^ a b Ward, J. M., & Kennedy, P. L. (1996). Effects of
supplemental food on size and survival of juvenile Northern Goshawks.
The Auk, 200-208.
^ Boal, C. W., Andersen, D. E., Kennedy, P. L., & Roberson, A. M.
(2006). Northern Goshawk ecology in the western
Great Lakes region.
Studies in Avian Biology, 31, 126.
^ Rohner, C. and F. I. Doyle. 1992. Food-stressed Great Horned Owl
kills adult goshawk: exceptional observation or community process?
Journal of Raptor Research, 26:261-263.
^ Busche, G, Raddatz, H.-J. & Kostrzewa, A. (2004).
Nisplatz-Konkurrenz under Pradation zwischen Uhu (Bubo bubo) und
Accipiter gentilis): erst Ergebnisse aus Norddeustchland.
Vogelwarte, 42: 169-177.
^ Boal, C. W. (2005). Productivity and mortality of northern goshawks
in Minnesota. J. Raptor Res, 39(3), 222-228.
^ Luttich, S.; Rusch, D. H.; Meslow, E. C.; Keith, L. B. (1970).
"Ecology of Red‐Tailed
Hawk Predation in Alberta". Ecology. 51 (2):
^ Voous, K. H., & Ad, C. (1989). Owls of the northern hemisphere.
^ Paragi, T. G. and G. M. Wholecheese. 1994. Marten, Martes americana,
predation on a northern goshawk,
Accipiter gentilis. Can. Field-Nat.
^ Holyan, J. A., Jones, L. L., & Raphael, M. G. (1998). American
Marten Use of Cabins as Resting Sites in Central Oregon. Northwestern
^ Boal, Clint W.; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Roberson,
Aimee M. 2006.
Northern goshawk ecology in the western Great Lakes
region. Studies in Avian Biology. 31: 126-134.
^ Aubry, K. B., & Raley, C. M. (2006). Ecological characteristics
of fishers (Martes pennanti) in the southern
Oregon Cascade range .
USDA Forest Service—Pacific Northwest Research Station. Olympia
Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Olympia, WA,
^ Link, H. (1986). Untersuchungen am Habicht (
Accipiter gentilis). PhD
thesis, Friedrich-Alexander Universitat, Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany.
^ Doyle, F. I. 1995. Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, and
Accipiter gentilis, nests apparently preyed upon by
a wolverine(s), Gulo gulo, in the southwestern Yukon Territory. Can.
Field-Nat. no. 109:115-116.
^ a b c d e McGowan, J. D. 1975. Distribution, density and
productivity of goshawks in interior Alaska.
Alaska Dep. of
Game: Fed. Aid Wildl. Restor.
^ a b Reynolds, Richard T.; Graham, Russel T.; Reiser, M. Hildegard;
Bassett, Richard L.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Boyce, Douglas A., Jr.;
Goodwin, Greg; Smith, Randall; Fisher, E. Leon. 1992. Management
recommendations for the northern goshawk in the southwestern United
States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-217. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. 90 p
^ Novy, S (2014). "Looking for the Goshawk". The Wilson Journal of
Ornithology. 126 (1): 171–172.
^ Savinich IB. 1999. [Killing of the goshawk
Accipiter gentilis by
Corvus cornix]. Russkiy Ornitologicheskiy Zhurnal 69:
^ Monke; Scvhmal R; Wader. 2002. [Goshawk drowns while trying to
capture a Tufted Duck]. Ornithologische Mitteilungen 54: 381-383
^ Lee, J. A. 1981. Comparative breeding behavior of the goshawk and
Cooper's hawk. Master's Thesis, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT.
^ Suklava, P. & Suklava, S. (1981). Petolintujen syksyiesta
pesarakentamista. Lintumies, 16: 77-80.
^ Sulkava, S., Huhtala, K., & Tornberg, R. (1994). Regulation of
Accipiter gentilis breeding in Western
Finland over the last
30 years. Raptor conservation today, 67-76.
^ Demandt, C. (1927). Beobachtungen am Habichtshorst. Beitrage zur
Fortpflanzung der Vogel, 3: 134-136.
^ Demandt, C. (1933). Neue Beobachtungen uber die Flugspiele des
Accipiter gentilis). Beitrage zur Fortpflanzung der Vogel,
^ Møller, A. P. (1987). Copulation behaviour in the goshawk Accipiter
gentilis. Anim. Behav. no. 35:755-763.
^ Gavin, T. A., R. T. Reynolds, S. M. Joy, D. G. Leslie and B. May.
(1998). Genetic evidence for low frequency of extra-pair
fertilizations in Northern Goshawk. Condor no. 100 (3):556-560.
^ a b Detrich, P. J. and B. Woodbridge. 1994. Territory fidelity, mate
fidelity, and movements of color-marked northern goshawks (Accipiter
gentilis) in the southern Cascades of California. Stud. Avian Biol.
^ a b Rutz, C (2005). "Extra‐pair copulation and intraspecific nest
intrusions in the Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis". Ibis. 147 (4):
^ a b Kollinger, D. (1964). Weitere Beobachtungen zur Biologie des
Habichts. Deutscher Falkenorden: 9-18.
^ a b c Holstein, V. (1942). Duehøgen Astur gentilis dubius
(Sparrman). Hirschprung, Copenhagen, Denmark.
^ a b Speiser, R. and T. Bosakowski. 1991. Nesting phenology, site
fidelity, and defense behavior of northern goshawks in New York and
New Jersey. J. Raptor Res. no. 25:132-135.
^ Younk, J. V. and M. J. Bechard. 1994. Breeding ecology of the
northern goshawk in high-elevation aspen forest of northern Nevada.
Stud. Avian Biol. no. 16:119-121.
^ Kennedy, P. L. (1988). Habitat characteristics of Cooper's hawks and
northern goshawks nesting in New Mexico. In Proceedings of the
southwest raptor management symposium and workshop. Natl. Wildl. Fed.
Sci. Tech. Ser (No. 11).
^ a b Bent, A. C. (1938). Life histories of North American birds of
prey: order Falconiformes (No. 170). US Government Printing Office.
^ Krechmar, A.V. & Probst, R. (2003). Der weisse Habicht
Accipitergentilis albidus in Nordost-Sibirien – Portrat eines
Mythos. Limicola, 17: 289-305.
^ Porter, T. W., & Wilcox Jr, H. H. (1941). Goshawk nesting in
Michigan. The Wilson Bulletin, 43-44.
^ Selas, V (1997). "Nest-site selection by four sympatric forest
raptors in southern Norway". Journal of Raptor Research. 31:
^ Crocker-Bedford, D. C., & Chaney, B. (1988). Characteristics of
goshawk nesting stands. In Proceedings of the Southwest raptor
management symposium and workshop. Nat. Wildl. Fed. Sci. Tech. Ser
(No. 11, pp. 210-217).
^ a b c d e Bijlsma, R.G. (1993). Ecologische atlas van de Nederlandse
roofvogels. Haarlem, Schuyt & Co.
^ Schioler, E.L. (1931). Danmarks Fugle III, Copenhagen, Denmark.
^ Woodbridge, B.; Detrich, P. J. (1994). "Territory occupancy and
habitat patch size of northern goshawks in the southern Cascades of
California". Studies in Avian Biology. 16: 83–87.
^ Pielowski, Z. (1968). Studien uber die Bestandsverhaltnissen einer
Habichtspopulation in Zentralpolen. Beitrage zur angewadten
Vogelkunde, 5: 125-136.
^ Ortlieb, R (1978). "Pestizidschadungen auch beuim Habicht". Falke.
^ Petty, S. J.; Anderson, D. I. K. (1989). "Egg measurements from a
northern goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis gentilis) including one
abnormally large egg with twin embryos". J. Raptor Res. 23:
^ Glutz von Blotzheim, U., Bauer, K. & Bezzel, E. (1971). Hanbuch
der Vogel Mittleeuropa. Vol. 4: Falconiformes. Akademische
Verslagsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
^ a b Huhtala, K., & Sulkava, S. (1981). Environmental influences
on goshawk breeding in Finland. Understanding the goshawk. The
International Association for
Falconry and Conservation of Birds of
Prey, Oxford, United Kingdom, 89-104.
^ Parker, J. W. (1999). "Raptor attacks on people". Journal of Raptor
Research. 33: 63–66.
^ Montgomerie, R. D.; Weatherhead, P. J. (1988). "Risks and rewards of
nest defence by parent birds". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 63
(2): 167–187. doi:10.1086/415838.
^ Uttendorfer, O. (1939). Die Ernahrung der deustchen Raubvogel und
Eulen und ihre Bedeutung in der heimischen Natur. Neumann,-Neudamm,
^ Bijlsma, R. G. (1991). Replacement of mates in a persecuted
population of goshawks (
Accipiter gentilis). Birds of Prey Bulletin,
^ a b c d Siewert, H. (1933). Die Brutbiologie des Huhnerhabichts.
Journal fur Ornithologie, 81: 44-94.
^ a b c Boal, C. W. (1994). A photographic and behavioral guide to
aging nestling Northern Goshawks. Studies in Avian Biology, 16, 32-40.
^ a b Manosa, S. (1991). Biologia tofica, us de l'habitat I biologia
de la rproduccio de l'Astor
Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus 1758) a la
Segarra. PhD thesis, University of Barcelona, Spain.
^ Boal, C. W. and J. E. Bacorn. 1994.
Siblicide and cannibalism in
northern goshawk nests. Auk no. 111:748-750.
^ Estes, W. A., Dewey, S. R., & Kennedy, P. L. (1999). Siblicide
at Northern Goshawk nests: Does food play a role? The Wilson Bulletin,
^ Lee, J. A. (1981). Comparative breeding behavior of the goshawk and
Cooper's hawk. Master's Thesis, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT.
^ Ingraldi, M. F. (2005). A skewed sex ratio in Northern Goshawks: is
it a sign of a stressed population? Journal of Raptor Research, 39(3),
^ Tyack, A. J.; Walls, S. S.; Kenward, R. E. (1998). "Behaviour in the
post‐nestling dependence period of radio‐tagged Common Buzzards
Buteo buteo". Ibis. 140 (1): 58–63.
^ a b Wikman, M., & Linden, H. (1981). The influence of food
supply on goshawk population size. Understanding the goshawk, 105-113.
^ Erdman, T. C., Brinker, D. F., Jacobs, J. P., Wilde, J., &
Meyer, T. O. (1998). Productivity, population trend, and status of
Accipiter gentilis atricapillus, in northeastern
Wisconsin. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 112(1), 17-27.
^ Bechard, M. J., Fairhurst, G. D., & Kaltenecker, G. S. (2006).
Occupancy, productivity, turnover, and dispersal of northern goshawks
in portions of the northeastern great basin. Studies in Avian Biology,
^ Kostrzewa, A. and R. Kostrzewa. 1990. The relationship of spring and
summer weather with density and breeding performance of the Buzzard
Buteo buteo, Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis, and kestrel Falco
tinnunculus. Ibis no. 132: 550-559.
^ Marquiss, M., Petty, S. J., Anderson, D. I. K., & Legge, G.
(2003). Contrasting Population Trends of the Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis) in the Scottish/English Borders and North-east
^ Fowler, S. (1985). Recoveries, foreign retraps, returns and repeats:
Bird Banding no. 17:30-34.
^ Frost, P. "Northern Goshawk (Accipter gentilis)".
^ Saurola, P. (1976). Kanahaukkan kuolevuus ja kuolinsyyt. Suomen
Luonto, 35: 310-314.
^ Sunde, P (2002). "Starvation mortality and body condition of
Accipiter gentilis along a latitudinal gradient in Norway".
Ibis. 144 (2): 301–310. doi:10.1046/j.1474-919x.2002.00050.x.
^ Schroder, H. D. 1981. Diseases of birds of prey with special
reference to infectious diseases. In Recent advances in the study of
raptor diseases., edited by J. E. Cooper and A. G. Greenwood, 37-39.
Keighley, W. Yorkshire, U.K: Chiron. Publ. Ltd.
^ BirdLife, F. V. B. (2005). Birds in Europe: population estimates,
trends and conservation status. British Birds, 98, 269-271.
^ Kimmel, J. T. and R. H. Yahner. 1994. The northern goshawk in
Pennsylvania: habitat use, survey protocols, and status (Final
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park: School For.
^ Rutz, C., Marquiss M., Bijlsma, R.G., Kenward, R.E. & Newtonn,
I. (2005). Continental-scale abundance profile in an avian top
predator. MS in Rutz, C. (2005). The northern goshawk: population
dynamics and behavioural ecology (Doctoral dissertation, D. Phil.
thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK).
^ Haukioja, E. & Haukioja, H. (1970). Mortality rates of Finnish
and Swedish goshawks (
Accipiter gentilis). Finnish Game Research no.
^ Muthe-Kass Lund, H. (1950). Honsehauk. Fiske og Friluttsliv, 79:
^ Bergo, G. (1996). Honsehauken I Norge- utbreiing og bestandsforhold.
Pp. 8-14 in Ntgar, T. & Wiseth, B. (eds) Honshauken in
skogbrukslandskaper. Norsk Insittut for Naturforskning Temaheft 5,
^ Selås, V.; Kleven, O.; Steen, O. F. (2017). "Female turnover rate
differs between two Northern Goshawk
Accipiter gentilis nesting areas,
as revealed by DNA analysis of moulted feathers". Ibis. 159 (3):
^ Moilanen, P. (1976). Kanahaukkantapot ja fasaani. Suomen Luonto, 35:
^ Kramer, K. (1973). Habicht und Sperber. Neue Brehm Bucherei,
^ Drachmann, J. & Nielsen, J.T. (2002). Danske duehoges
populationsokologi og forvatlning. Danish Environment Ministry report
398, Copenhagen, Denmark.
^ Kenward, R. E., V. Marcström and M. Karlbom. 1991. The goshawk
Accipiter gentilis) as predator and renewable resource. Proceed.
Intl. Conf. Wise Use as a Conserv. Strategy no. 8:367-378.
^ Morrison, Paul (1989).
Bird Habitats of
Great Britain and Ireland: A
New Approach to Birdwatching. London, UK: Michael Joseph, Ltd.
pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-7181-2899-9.
^ Snyder, N. F. R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.A.; Reynolds, R.T. (1973).
"Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American
accipiters". BioScience. 23: 300–305. doi:10.2307/1296439.
^ Anderson, D. W. and J. J. Hickey. 1972. Eggshell changes in certain
North American birds. In Proceedings of the XVth International
Ornitholological Congress., edited by H. H. Voous, 514-540. Leiden: P.
^ Havera, S. P.; Duzan, R. E. (1986). "Organochlorine and PCB residues
in tissues of raptors from Illinois, 1966-1981". Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 36: 23–32. doi:10.1007/bf01623470.
^ Kenntner, N.; Krone, O.; Altenkamp, R.; Tataruch, F. (2003).
"Environmental contaminants in liver and kidney of free-ranging
northern goshawks (
Accipiter gentilis) from three regions of Germany".
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 45 (1):
^ Thissen, J., Müskens, G., & Opdam, P. (1982). Trends in the
Accipiter gentilis population and their causes.
Understanding the goshawk. International Association for
Conservation of Birds of Prey. Oxford, United Kingdom, 28-43.
^ Borg, K., Wanntorp, H. E., Erne, K., & Hanko, E. (1969). Alkyl
mercury poisoning in terrestrial Swedish wildlife. Svenska
^ Reynolds, R. T. (1989). Accipiters. Paper read at Proccedings of the
Western Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop.
^ Crocker-Bedford, D. C. (1990). "Goshawk reproduction and forest
management". Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18: 262–269.
^ Beier, P.; Drennan, J.E. (1997). "Forest structure and prey
abundance in foraging areas of northern goshawks". Ecol. Applications.
7: 564–571. doi:10.2307/2269521.
^ Hargis, C. D.; McCarthy, C.; Perloff, R. D. (1994). "Home ranges and
habitats of northern goshawks in eastern California". Stud. Avian
Biol. 16: 66–74.
^ Woodbridge, B.; Detrich, P. J. (1994). "Territory occupancy and
habitat patch size of northern goshawks in the southern Cascades of
California". Stud. Avian Biol. 16: 83–87.
^ Penteriani, V.; Faivre, B. (2001). "Effects of harvesting timber
stands on goshawk nesting in two European areas". Biological
Conservation. 101 (2): 211–216.
^ Speiser, R., & Bosakowski, T. (1987). Nest site selection by
northern goshawks in northern
New Jersey and southeastern New York.
^ Reynolds, R. T., Graham, R. T., & Reiser, M. H. (1992).
Management recommendations for the northern goshawk in the
southwestern United States.
^ Doyle, F. I. (2006). "Goshawks in Canada: population responses to
harvesting and the appropriateness of using standard bird monitoring
techniques to assess their status". Studies in Avian Biology. 31:
^ a b Speiser, R (1992). "Notes on the natural history of the northern
goshawk". Kingbird. 42: 133–137.
^ Woodbridge, B.; Hargis, C.D. (2006).
Northern goshawk inventory and
monitoring technical guide (PDF). General Technical Report WO-71
(Report). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
^ Lockwood, W.B. (1993). The Oxford Dictionary of British
OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-866196-2.
^ Jameson, E.W., Jr. (1962). The Hawking of Japan, the History and
Development of Japanese Falconry. Davis, California. p. 2.
^ a b Beebe, F.L.; Webster, H.M. (2000). North American
Hunting Hawks (8th ed.). ISBN 0-685-66290-X.
^ Oggins, R. S. (2004). The Kings and Their Hawks:
Medieval England. Yale University Press.
^ Kenward, R. E.; Marquiss, M.; Newton, I. (1981). "What happens to
goshawks trained for falconry". The Journal of Wildlife Management. 45
(3): 802–806. doi:10.2307/3808727.
^ Kenward, R. E. (2009). Conservation values from falconry.
Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and
^ Millsap, B. A.; Allen, G. T. (2006). "Effects of falconry harvest on
wild raptor populations in the United States: theoretical
considerations and management recommendations". Wildlife Society
Bulletin. 34 (5): 1392–1400.
"Falco atricapillus, Ash-coloured or Black-cap Hawk"; from American
Ornithology 2nd edition, volume 1 (1828) by Alexander Wilson and
George Ord. Colour plate from 1st edition by A. Wilson.
John James Audubon. "The Goshawk", Ornithological Biography volume 2
(1834). "Goshawk" (note in Appendix), Ornithological Biography volume
5 (1839). "The Goshawk" (with illustration), Birds of America octavo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikispecies has information related to
Northern goshawk media". Internet
Northern goshawk species account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Northern goshawk -
Accipiter gentilis – USGS Patuxent Bird
Canada goshawk page
Ageing and sexing (PDF; 5.4 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta &
Northern goshawk (
Accipiter gentilis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Retrieved 22 February 2009.
The Medicine Bow National Forest (A habitat for the Northern goshawk)
– Biodiversity Conservation Alliance
BirdLife species factsheet for
Accipiter gentilis". Avibase.
Northern goshawk photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
Audio recordings of
Northern goshawk on Xeno-canto.
National symbols of North Korea
Magnolia sieboldii (flower)
Northern goshawk (bird)
Pungsan dog (dog)
Juche Tower and
Foundation Day (day)
Fauna Europaea: 96715