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The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal). It is a member of the family Phocidae
Phocidae
("true seals"). Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating competition. Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
in size is great: The males can grow to 14 ft (4 m) and 5,000 lb (2,300 kg), while the females grow to 11 ft (3 m) and 1,400 lb (640 kg). Correspondingly, the mating system is highly polygynous; a successful male is able to impregnate up to 50 females in one season.

Contents

1 Description 2 Range and ecology 3 Social behavior and reproduction 4 History and status 5 References 6 External links

Description[edit]

Northern Elephant Seal Skull on display at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma.

The huge male northern elephant seal typically weighs 1,500–2,300 kg (3,300–5,100 lb) and measures 4–5 m (13–16 ft), although some males can weigh up to 3,700 kg (8,200 lb).[2] Females are much smaller and can range from 400 to 900 kg (880 to 1,980 lb) in weight, or roughly a third of the male's bulk, and measure from 2.5 to 3.6 m (8.2 to 11.8 ft).[3] The bull Southern Elephant Seals are, on average, larger than those in the Northern species but the females in both are around the same size, indicating the even higher level of sexual dimorphism in the Southern species.[4] Both adult and juvenile elephant seals are bar-skinned[discuss] and black before molting. After molting, they generally have a silver to dark gray coat that fades to brownish-yellow and tan. Adult males have hairless necks and chests speckled with pink, white and light brown. Pups are mostly black at birth and molt to a silver gray after weaning.[citation needed] The eyes are large, round and black. The width of the eyes and a high concentration of low light pigments suggest sight plays an important role in the capture of prey. Like all seals, elephant seals have atrophied hind limbs whose underdeveloped ends form the tail and tail fin. Each of the "feet" can deploy five long, webbed fingers. This agile, dual palm is used to propel water. The pectoral fins are used little while swimming.[citation needed] While their hind limbs are unfit for locomotion on land, elephant seals use their fins as support to propel their bodies. They are able to propel themselves quickly (as fast as 8 km/h) in this way for short-distance travel, to return to water, catch up with a female or chase an intruder.[citation needed] Like other seals, elephant seals' bloodstreams are adapted to the cold in which a mixture of small veins surrounds arteries capturing heat from them. This structure is present in extremities such as the hindlimbs.[citation needed] A unique characteristic of the northern elephant seal is that it has developed the ability to store oxygenated red blood cells within its spleen. In a 2004 study researchers used MRI
MRI
to observe physiological changes of the spleens of 5 seal pups during simulated dives. By 3 minutes, the spleens on average contracted to a fifth of their original size, indicating a dive-related sympathetic contraction of the spleen. Also, a delay was observed between contraction of the spleen and increased hematocrit within the circulating blood, and attributed to the hepatic sinus. This fluid-filled structure is initially expanded due to the rush of RBC from the spleen and slowly releases the red blood cells into the circulatory system via a muscular vena caval sphincter found on the cranial aspect of the diaphragm. This ability to slowly introduce RBC into the blood stream is likely to prevent any harmful effects caused by a rapid increase in hematocrit.[5] Range and ecology[edit]

Mother and pup, Piedras Blancas

The northern elephant seal lives in the eastern Pacific Ocean. They spend most of their time at sea, and usually only come to land to give birth, breed, and molt. These activities occur at rookeries that are located on offshore islands or remote mainland beaches. The majority of these rookeries are in California and northern Baja California, ranging from Point Reyes
Point Reyes
National Seashore, California to Isla Natividad, Mexico.[6] Significant breeding colonies exist at Channel Islands, Año Nuevo State Reserve, Piedras Blancas Light, Morro Bay State Park and the Farallon Islands
Farallon Islands
in the US,[7] and Isla Guadalupe, Isla Benito del Este and Isla Cedros
Isla Cedros
in Mexico.[7] In recent decades the breeding range has extended northwards. In 1976 the first pup was found on Point Reyes
Point Reyes
in 1976 and a breeding colony established there in 1981.[8] Since the mid-1990s some breeding has been observed at Castle Rock in Northern California and Shell Island off Oregon[9] and in January 2009, the first elephant seal births were recorded in British Columbia at Race Rocks.[10] The California breeding population is now demographically isolated from the population in Baja California.[7] Northern elephant seals exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism in their feeding behaviours. When the males leave their rookeries, they migrate northwards to their feeding grounds along the continental shelf from Washington to the western Aleutians in Alaska.[11][12] The males mostly feed on benthic organisms on the ocean floor.[11] When the females leave their rookeries, they head north or west into open ocean, and forage across a large area in the northeastern Pacific.[11] They have been recorded as far west as Hawaii.[11] Female elephant seals feed mainly on pelagic organisms in the water column.[11] Vagrant elephant seals possibly appear on tropical regions such as at Mariana Islands.[13] Historical occurrences of elephant seal presence, residential or occasional, in western North Pacific are fairly unknown. There have been two records of vagrants visiting to Japanese coasts; a male on Niijima
Niijima
in 1989[14] (reference introducing a visit by a North Pacific right whale
North Pacific right whale
in 2011), and a young seal on beaches in Hasama, Tateyama in 2001[15] (where another right whale was seen in 2000). A 2.5 meter female was found on Sanze beach, Tsuruoka, Yamagata in October 2017, making it the first record from Sea of Japan. This individual was severely weaken but showing signs of recovery after receiving medications at Kamo Aquarium, and the aquarium is discussing whether or not to release her.[16] Some individuals have been observed on the coast of northeast Asia. Certain individuals established haul-out sites at the Commander Islands
Commander Islands
in the early 2000s; however, due to aggressive interactions with local Steller sea lions, long-term colonization is not expected.[17][18]

Adult male northern elephant seal at Point Reyes
Point Reyes
National Seashore, California

Female elephant seals forage in the open ocean, while male elephant seals forage along the continental shelf.[11] Males usually dive straight down to the ocean floor and stay at the bottom foraging for benthic prey.[11] The females hunt for pelagic prey in the open ocean, and dive deeper (up to 1000 m) and stay down longer than the males.[11] Northern elephant seals eat a variety of prey, including pelagic, deep-water squid, Pacific hake, pelagic crustaceans, sharks, rays, and ratfish.[12][19] Octopoteuthis deletron
Octopoteuthis deletron
squid are a common prey item, one study found this species in the stomachs of 58% of individuals sampled off the coast of California.[20] A female northern elephant seal was documented in 2013 by a deep sea camera at a depth of 894 m (2,933 ft), where it consumed a Pacific hagfish, slurping it up from the ocean floor. The event was reported by a Ukrainian boy named Kirill Dudko, who further reported the find to scientists in Canada.[21] Elephant seals do not need to drink, as they get their water from food and metabolism of fats. While hunting in the dark depths, elephant seals seem to locate their prey at least partly by vision; the bioluminescence of some prey animals can facilitate their capture. Elephant seals do not have a developed a system of echolocation in the manner of cetaceans, but their vibrissae, which are sensitive to vibrations, are assumed to play a role in search of food. Males and females differ in diving behavior. Males tend to hug the continental shelf while making deep dives and forage along the bottom,[11] while females have more jagged routes and forage in the open ocean.[11] Males return to the same feeding ground every year, while females have less predictable feeding migrations. Elephant seals are prey for killer whales and white sharks. Both are most likely to hunt pups, and seldom hunt large bull elephant seals, but have taken seals of all ages. The shark, when hunting adults, is most likely to ambush a seal with a damaging bite and wait until it is weakened by blood loss to finish the kill.[22] Social behavior and reproduction[edit]

Play media

Male elephant seals fighting for mates

Northern elephant seals return to their terrestrial breeding ground in December and January, with the bulls arriving first. The bulls haul out on isolated or otherwise protected beaches, typically on islands or very remote mainland locations. It is important that these beach areas offer protection from the winter storms and high surf wave action.[23] The bulls engage in fights of supremacy to determine which few bulls will achieve a harem.[24][25] After the males have arrived to the beach, the females arrive to give birth. Females fast for five weeks and nurse their single pup for four weeks; in the last few days of lactation, females come into estrus and mate.[26] In this polygynous society, a high-ranking bull can have a harem of 30–100 cows, depending on his size and strength. Males unable to establish harems will wait on the periphery, and will try to mount nearby females.[24] Dominant bulls will disrupt copulations of lower-ranking bulls.[24] They can mount females without interference, but commonly break off to chase off rivals.[24] While fights are not usually to the death, they are brutal and often with significant bloodshed and injury; however, in many cases of mismatched opponents, the younger, less capable males are simply chased away, often to upland dunes. In a lifetime, a successful bull could easily sire over 500 pups. Most copulations in a breeding colony are done by only a small number of males and the rest may never be able to mate with a female.[25] Pups are sometimes crushed during battles between bulls.[23][25]

Three pups are nursing from a single adult female: Female elephant seals deliver only one pup; the two other may have wandered away from their mothers and gotten lost. In this situation, no pup would get enough milk.

After arrival on shore, males fast for three months, and females fast for five weeks during mating and when nursing their pups. The gestation period is about 11 months. Sometimes, a female can become very aggressive after giving birth and will defend her pup from other females.[27] Such aggression is more common in crowded beaches.[27] While most females nurse their own pups and reject nursings from alien pups, some do accept alien pups with their own.[23][26] An orphaned pup may try to find another female to suckle and some are adopted, at least on Año Nuevo Island.[23][26] Pups nurse about four weeks and are weaned abruptly before being abandoned by their mother, who heads out to sea within a few days. Left alone, weaned pups will gather into groups and stay on shore for 12 more weeks. The pups learn how to swim in the surf and eventually swim farther to forage. Thus, their first long journey at sea begins. Elephant seals communicate though various means. Males will threaten each other with the snort, a sound caused by expelling air though their probosces, and the clap-trap, a loud, clapping sound comparable to the sound of a diesel engine.[28] Pups will vocalize when stressed or when prodding their mothers to allow them to suckle. Females make an unpulsed attraction call when responding to their young, and a harsh, pulsed call when threatened by other females, males or alien pups.[28] Elephant seals produce low-frequency sounds, both substrate-borne and air-borne. These sounds help maintain social hierarchy in crowded or noisy environments and reduce energy consumption when fasting.[28] History and status[edit]

The northern elephant seal population was estimated to be 171,000 in 2005.[1]

Beginning in the 18th century, northern elephant seals were hunted extensively, almost to extinction by the end of the 19th century,[1] being prized for oil made from their blubber, and the population may have fallen as low as only 20 individuals.[1] In 1874, Charles Melville Scammon recorded in Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast of America, that an 18-ft-long bull caught on Santa Barbara Island yielded 210 gallons of oil.[29] They were thought to be extinct in 1884 until a remnant population of eight individuals was discovered on Guadalupe Island
Guadalupe Island
in 1892 by a Smithsonian expedition, who promptly killed seven of the eight for their collections.[30] The elephant seals managed to survive, and were finally protected by the Mexican government in 1922. Since the early 20th century, they have been protected by law in both Mexico and in the United States. Subsequently, the U.S. protection was strengthened after passage of the Marine Mammal
Mammal
Protection Act of 1972, and numbers have now recovered to over 100,000.[citation needed] Nevertheless, a genetic bottleneck is present in the existing population, which could make it more susceptible to disease and pollution.[31][32] In California, the population is continuing to grow at around 6% per year, and new colonies are being established; they are now probably limited mostly by the availability of haul-out space. Their breeding was probably restricted to islands, before large carnivores were exterminated or prevented from reaching the side of the ocean.[33] Numbers can be adversely affected by El Niño
El Niño
events and the resultant weather conditions, and the 1997–98 El Niño
El Niño
may have caused the loss of about 80% of that year's pups. Presently, the northern elephant seal is protected under the federal Marine Mammal Protection Act and has a fully protected status under California law.[citation needed] Populations of rookery sites in California have increased during the past century.[1] At Año Nuevo State Park, for example, no individuals were observed whatsoever until 1955; the first pup born there was observed in the early 1960s. Currently, thousands of pups are born every year at Año Nuevo, on both the island and mainland. The growth of the site near San Simeon has proved even more spectacular; no animals were there prior to 1990. Currently, the San Simeon site hosts more breeding animals than Año Nuevo State Park
Año Nuevo State Park
during winter season.[citation needed] References[edit]

^ a b c d e Campagna, C. (2008). "Mirounga angustirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 January 2009.  ^ Beer, Encyclopedia of North American Mammals: An Essential Guide to Mammals of North America. Thunder Bay Press (2004), ISBN 978-1-59223-191-1. ^ Mirounga angustirostris. Northern Elephant Seal. A 22 ft (7 m) individual was reported by Scammon in 1874. Smithonian National Museum of Natural History ^ Novak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9 ^ Thornton SJ, Hochachka PW (2004). "Oxygen and the diving seal" (PDF). Undersea Hyperb. Med. 31 (1): 81–95. PMID 15233163.  lastauthoramp=yes ^ Stewart BS, Yochem PK, Huber HR, DeLong RL, Jameson RJ, Sydeman WJ, Allen SG, Le Boeuf BJ (1994) "History and present status of the Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
population". In: Le Boeuf BJ, Laws RM (eds) Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 29–48, ISBN 0520083644. ^ a b c U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal
Mammal
Stock Assessments: 2007 (NMFS-SWFSC-414). (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-09-15. ^ Sarah G. Allen, Susan C. Peaslee, Harriet R. Huber (1989). "Colonization by Northern Elephant Seals of the Point Reyes
Point Reyes
Peninsula, California". Marine Mammal
Mammal
Science. 5 (3): :298–302. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1989.tb00342.x. Retrieved December 28, 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Hodder J, Brown RF, Cziesla C (1998). "The northern elephant seal in Oregon: A pupping range extension and onshore occurrence". Marine Mammal
Mammal
Science. 14: 873–881. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00772.x.  ^ Elephant Seal birth of baby ninene. Racerocks.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Le Boeuf, B.; D. Crocker; D. Costa; S. Blackwell; P. Webb (2000). "Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals". Ecological Monographs. 70 (3): 353–382. doi:10.1890/0012-9615(2000)070[0353:feones]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 2657207.  ^ a b Condit, R. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (1984). "Feeding Habits and Feeding Grounds of the Northern Elephant Seal". J. Mammal. 65 (2): 281–290. doi:10.2307/1381167.  ^ http://www.fpir.noaa.gov/Library/PRD/ESA%20Consultation/Marianas_Species_List_Jan_2015.pdf ^ http://niijima.jp/mt/archives/2011/03/post_326.html ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014. . retrieved on 14-05-2015 ^ Kahoku Shimpō, 2017, 砂浜にゴロン キタゾウアザラシ保護 日本海側で初 ^ Kuznetsov V.B. (2004). "Fluctuations of dolphins' abundance in northern and northeastern parts of the Black Sea according to polling data (1995–2003)". Marine Mammals of the Holarctic (PDF).  ^ Северный морской слон Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866 ^ Morejohn, G.V. & Beltz, D.M. (1970). "Contents of the stomach of an elephant seal". Journal of Mammalogy. 51 (1): 173–174. doi:10.2307/1378554.  ^ Le Beouf, Burney J.; Richard M. Laws (1994). Elephant Seals: Population ecology, behavior, and physiology. University of California Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0-520-08364-6.  ^ Outdoor. GrindTV. Retrieved on 2014-03-18. ^ White Sharks – Carcharodon carcharias. Pelagic Shark Research Foundation. ^ a b c d Riedman, M.L. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (1982). "Mother-pup separation and adoption in northern elephant seals". Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 11 (3): 203–213. doi:10.1007/BF00300063. JSTOR 4599535.  ^ a b c d Le Boeuf BJ (1972). "Sexual behavior in the Northern Elephant seal
Elephant seal
Mirounga angustirostris". Behaviour. 41 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1163/156853972X00167. JSTOR 4533425. PMID 5062032.  ^ a b c Le Boeuf BJ (1974). "Male-male competition and reproductive success in elephant seals". Am. Zool. 14: 163–176. doi:10.1093/icb/14.1.163.  ^ a b c Le Boeuf BJ; Whiting, R. J.; Gantt, R. F. (1972). "Perinatal behavior of northern elephant seal females and their young". Behaviour. 43 (1): 121–156. doi:10.1163/156853973x00508. JSTOR 4533472. PMID 4656181.  ^ a b Christenson, T. E. & Le Boeuf, B. J. (1978). "Aggression in the Female Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris". Behaviour. 64 (1/2): 158–172. doi:10.1163/156853978X00495. JSTOR 4533866.  ^ a b c Steward, B. S.; Huber, H. R. (1993). "Mirounga angustirostris" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 449: 1–10. doi:10.2307/3504174. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2014.  ^ Scammon, Charles Melville (2007). The marine mammals of the northwestern coast of North America: together with an account of the American whale-fishery. Heyday Books. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-59714-061-4. Retrieved 5 September 2011.  ^ Busch, Briton Cooper (1987). The War Against the Seals: A History of the North American Seal Fishery. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-7735-0610-7.  ^ Hoelzel, A. R.; Fleischer, R. C.; Campagna, C.; Le Boeuf, B. J. & Alvord, G. (2002). "Impact of a population bottleneck on symmetry and genetic diversity in the northern elephant seal". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 15 (4): 567–575. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00419.x.  ^ Weber, D. S.; Stewart, B. S.; Garza, J. C. & Lehman, N. (2000). "An empirical genetic assessment of the severity of the northern elephant seal population bottleneck". Current Biology. 10 (20): 1287–1290. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00759-4. PMID 11069110.  ^ Le Boeuf, Burney J.; Kaza, Stephanie, eds. (1981). "Ch. 7 "Mammals"". The Natural History of Ano Nuevo. Boxwood Press. ISBN 0910286779. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mirounga angustirostris.

Marine Mammal
Mammal
Center – Northern elephant seal SCS: Northern elephant seal Elephant Seal Research Group Elephant seals – Earthguide Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the Northern elephant Seal

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q626023 ARKive: mirounga-angustirostris EoL: 13994123 Fossilworks: 80792 GBIF: 2434813 iNaturalist: 41728 ITIS: 180672 IUCN: 13581 MSW: 14001048 NCBI:

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