North Malabar refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest
India covering the state of Kerala's present day
Kasaragod and Kannur
Mananthavady taluk of
Wayanad District, the taluks of
Vatakara in the
Kozhikode District of
Kerala and the
entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry.
The greater part of
North Malabar (except Mahé) remained as one of
the two administrative divisions of the
Malabar District (an
administrative district of British
India under the Madras Presidency)
until 1947 and later became part of India's
Madras State until 1956.
Mahé remained under French jurisdiction until 13 June 1954. On
1 November 1956, the state of
Kerala was formed by the States
Reorganisation Act, which merged the
Malabar District with
Cochin apart from the four southern taluks, which were
merged with Tamil Nadu, and the
Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara
North Malabar begins at
Korapuzha in the south and ends at
Manjeshwaram in the north of
Kerala and traditionally comprises the
erstwhile princely principalities and fiefdoms of Kolathu Nadu,
Kadatha Nadu and southern part of Tulu Nadu.
During the ancient and early medieval periods,
North Malabar retained
its distinct political identity. At no time did the
Chera dynasty (c.
3rd century BC – 12th century AD) impose full control over the
area, which today retains many distinct cultural features.
1 Culture, geography and people
1.2 Social, cultural and historical features
2 Calendar system
4 Historic immigrations into North Malabar
4.1 Tulu Brahmin immigration
4.2 Nasrani immigration
4.2.1 Immigration of
4.3 Immigration of teachers
5 Historic emigrations to Southern Kerala
5.1 Dispersement of the erstwhile ruling elite
5.2 Adoptions by the erstwhile ruling elite
5.3 Economic migration in democratic India
6 Folk art
6.2 Thottam Pattu
6.4 Vadakkan Pattukal
6.5 Thidambu Nritham
Mappila (Muslim) folklore
7 Notable individuals
8 See also
Culture, geography and people
The socio-cultural background and geography of this area has many
distinctions compared to the rest of Kerala. The
population consists of native Hindus, native Mappila-Muslims, native
Jains and migrant-
Christian communities and is characterized by
distinct socio-cultural customs and behavior. The people of North
Malabar have striven to preserve their distinct and unique identity
and heritage since ancient times, through colonial times into modern
political India. Until the early twentieth century there were cultural
taboos among various communities from North Malabar, which forbade
their women marrying anyone from the southern territories. Even
in modern times it is not uncommon to see "alliances from Malabar
region preferred" in newspaper matrimonial announcements placed by
North Malabar families, irrespective of their ethno-religious
North Malabar has remained the source of an
erstwhile aristocracy for many of the southern territories of Kerala
through displacement and adoptions including the
Family. Northern Malabar identity and pride is often possessively
guarded by its natives of all ethnic and religious backgrounds.
Chalad Chalil Bhagavathi Temple
Theyyam - The ancient ritual art of North Malabar
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam is a 27-day yearly pilgrimage
commemorating the mythology of Daksha Yaga, which attracts thousands
Hindu pilgrims from the Malabar region.
Social, cultural and historical features
A Madappura (stand alone Kovil) where
Theyyam rituals are performed
seasonally. All the Muthappan Madappuras are built in similar style.
These structures are found mainly in the North
Malabar region of
In the pre-democratic era, Marumakkathayam-matriliniality was widely
prevalent among the natives of
North Malabar and included both the
Nambudiri communities of Payyanur, in addition to other
traditional matrilinial communities such as the Nayars and Thiyyas.
The practice of matriliniality was distinctly different and was
predominantly virilocal with married couples residing with or near the
husband's parents. Unlike other parts of erstwhile matrilinial-Kerala,
polyandry was a strict taboo in
North Malabar and exceptional customs
such as Putravakaasham (purse/estate grants to children of male
members) were occasionally allowed.
Landlords in Malabar during colonial and pre-colonial times were the
largest landlords of
Kerala and during this time political authority
remained decentralized in contrast to that of the southern
principalities. The royal position of Kolathiri, although immensely
respected, was politically titular. In North Malabar, the Kolathiri
Kings had the ritualistic status of
Perumaal such that their official
designates or sthanis retained their jurisdiction all over Kerala
except for the Rajarajashwara Temple at Taliparamba. In addition, the
North Malabar claim and assert superior ritual-rank clan
by clan over their equivalent clans from the southern principalities.
The major festival observed by Hindus in this region is
than Onam, which remains the major celebration for Hindus in the
remainder of Kerala. In North Malabar,
Vishu is celebrated as New
Year. Because, the
Medam - which is parallel to
first Tamil month
Chithirai - is the first month of the year for
natives of North Malabar. The
Vishu festival is spread over two days
and comprises the Cheriya or small
Vishu and the Valiya, or main
Vishu. Unlike in the rest of
Kerala it is not uncommon to see Hindu
natives of this region cook and eat non-vegetarian food during their
Onam and sometimes even in marriage
People from all religions participate in major festivals at temples,
mosques and churches. Some examples include:
Nadapuram Mosque, Mahe
Church, Moonnu Pettumma Palli
Theyyam ritual art.
Unlike Travancore, but like in rest of Malabar and Cochin, natives of
North Malabar mix coconut paste with sambar, the most common dish of
North Malabar cuisine is noted for its variety of dishes including
chutneys, pancakes, steamed cakes and various dishes such as
kalathappam, kinnathappam, uruttu chammanthi, poduthol, pathiri,
chatti pathiri and moodakadamban. Bakery-cuisine is well developed in
the area and has led to large numbers of natives operating popular
bakeries in Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Mysore,
People from this area are characterized by a stronger sense of
socio-political aspirations often leading to large outbreaks of
political violence.
Textiles, beedi, hand-weaving, plywood and coir represent important
industries while cashew, cinnamon (
North Malabar is home to Asia's
largest cinnamon farm) and pepper are important cash crops.
North Malabar represents one of the earliest and largest pockets of
exposure to other cultures in
Kerala through Chalukyas, Hoysalas,
Tuluvas, Rashtrakutas, Kodavas, Tulus, Arabs, Persians, Portuguese,
Dutch, French, British, and through early employment and migrations in
government and military services from the time of its incorporation
into the Madras Presidency. Nevertheless, its people are
conservatively possessive of its identity preferring a "geographical
Nadapuram Masjid Pond - An indigenous designed pool
The version of the
Malayalam calendar or
Kollavarsham used in central
Kerala begins on August 25, 825 AD. The year commences
with Simha-raasi (Leo) and not in Mesha-raasi (Aries) as in other
Indian calendars. However, in
North Malabar and
Kolathunadu the start
Kollam era is reckoned from the month of Kanya-rasi (Virgo),
which begins on 25 September. This variation has two accounts
associated with it.
Kerolopathi, a traditional text dealing with the origins of Malabar,
attributes the introduction of the
Kollam era to Shankaracharya.
Translation of the phrase Aa chaa rya vaa ga bhed ya (meaning
Shankaracharya's word/law is unalterable) into numbers in the
Katapayadi notation produces 0 6 1 4 3 4 1 and these written backwards
give the age of the
Kali yuga in the first year of the
Kali, day 1,434,160, would work out to be September 25, 825 AD,
which corresponds to the beginning of the
Kollam era in North Malabar,
i.e. the first day of the month of Kanya-raasi (Virgo) .
There are several dialects of the
Malayalam language prevalent in
North Malabar. Loan words, excluding the huge number of words from
Sanskrit and Tamil, originated mostly due to centuries long
interactions between the native population of
North Malabar and the
horse and spice traders of the world. These included trading contacts
with Arabia, Persia, Israel, China, South Canara, Mysore,
European colonial powers for several centuries. Examples of these
Mappila Malayalam. However,
the majority of the young-adult Keralites from other provinces who are
ignorant of the rich melting-pot culture of Malabar dialects are
uncomfortable with these forms of Malayalam.
Some influences are enumerated
Shalom/salaam aayi meaning died (lit. entered the state of peace).
Bejaar meaning anxiety; matlab meaning consequence; barkat/varkkat
meaning value are few examples
Veeppa meaning “basket“; 'maesha' meaning “table“; jenela'
Cryptic Sanskrit tendencies
North Malabar fish curry is referred to as malsya-curry (from the
Sanskrit word matsya for fish) rather than southern usage of
meen-curry. Similarly, feeling hungry is paikkunnu rather than
southern usage of vishakkunnu. Other examples are annam instead of
choru (cooked rice), dhani instead of kaashukaaran (rich man), the
word amba (mother) for cow, gauli (lizard) etc.
Malik Deenar Mosque
The intricate work on a
North Malabar Hookah
Pazhassi Kudeeram in Mananthavadi
A Lotus Pond in Purameri
Temple in Blathur
Historic immigrations into North Malabar
The three waves of historically significant immigration were as
Tulu Brahmin immigration
In 1617, the
Kolathiri Raja Udayavarman, wished to attain the higher
status of kshatriya by undergoing the Hiranyagarbham ritual in honour
of Hiranyagarbha, the creator of the universe. Since the Nambudiri
Brahmins were not prepared for the ceremony, Udayavarman brought 237
Shivalli Brahmins from Gokarna in Coastal
settled them in the five counties of Cheruthazham, Kunniriyam,
Arathil, Kulappuram and Vararuchimangalam in North Malabar. The
Sree Raghavapuram temple (Hanuman Kavu) at Pilathara was assigned to
the 237 families for worship, and it became their village temple. The
93 Edukunchi families displaced as a result received the hereditary
trusteeship of the Sreekrishnapuram temple in Cheruthazham, 62
Gunavantham families that of Arathil Sreebhadrapuram temple and the 82
Vilakkoor families that of Udayapurath Haripuram temple. These 237
families adopted the customs of local
Nambudiri Brahmins and came to
be referred to as Embranthiris.
Para-sailing in progress at
Payyambalam - A new initiative
Main article: Malabar Migration
Malabar Migration refers to the large-scale migration of Syrian
Christians (Nasranis) from the
Travancore region to the Malabar area
Kerala in the 20th century. The migration started in the
decades of the 20th century and continued well into the 1970s and
1980s. This migration had a significant demographic and social impact
as the Syrian
Christian population of Malabar increased 15-fold from
31,191 in 1931 to 442,510 in 1971.
Travancore had experienced a steep increase in population in
the early 20th century while pressure on arable land increased. At the
same time, people recognised the potential of the large uncultivated
lands in the northern regions called Malabar, which was then part of
Madras Presidency under British Rule. Migration initially started
in trickles with land bought from the local rulers. Huge tracts of
uncultivated forest and waste land were later converted into farms and
plantations. Against the odds, the community thrived, which attracted
more migrants. This migration reached its peak in the 1950s.[citation
These migrants came mostly from present day Kottayam, Idukki,
Kothamangalam with migrations happening across the
Malabar region (north Kerala) including into the following
districts of present-day
Kerala (some key migration centres are also
Kasargod -Malom, Chittarikkal
Kannur - Alakkode, Chemperi, Cherupuzha, Kudianmala, Iritty, Peravoor,
Calicut - Thiruvambady
Wayanad - Pulpally
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church gave significant support to the
migration by providing churches, discipline, schools, hospitals and
Overall, hundreds of thousands of people moved to North Kerala. The
Christian residents in these districts was small before
the migration but since 1950 this settler community has formed a
significant part of the population in the hill areas of these
Valavayal Post Office, Wayanad
North Malabar landlords were the largest
land-holders in Kerala, but the introduction of the
Reforms Bill in 1957 resulted in their panic selling of farm and
forest land. This was followed by immigration of Christians from
Knanaya into the
North Malabar Region in search of virgin land to
cultivate and to seek relief from the poverty and financial strain
caused by the Second World War. Under the direction of Prof. V.J.
Joseph Kandoth and Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil, the
Kottayam bought 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) of land in the
Kasargod area in 1942. The new venture was announced in all the
parishes of southern Kerala. Applications were invited and each family
was allotted 11.5 acres (47,000 m2) of land 1943. The emigrants
from all southern
Kerala parishes reached
Cochin by boat and from
there travelled by train to
Shornur and Kanhangad. A team of priests,
especially of the O.S.H. Society and laymen were sent ahead to prepare
the ground and to receive them on their arrival. The name of the local
area was changed from Echikkol to Rajapuram. In the same way, the
diocese organized another settlement at Madampam near Kannur. The
Diocese bought 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land and 100 families
migrated to the new area on 3 May 1943. The settlement was called
Alexnagar after Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil. Madathumala in
Kasargod District at its eastern border with the
Karnataka state was
the venue of a third settlement of 45 families. The land was purchased
on 26 September 1969 and the
Ranipuram settlement inaugurated on
2 February 1970 dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Although there were
initial difficulties due to wild animals,
prospered and today there is also a Government tourist center at
Ranipuram. The Diocese of
Kottayam made also arrangements with the
Latin Ordinaries to have pastoral ministry and liturgical celebrations
according to their own
Syro-Malabar Rite. Presently, one third of the
Knanaya Catholic population is in the Malabar area.
A Tea Estate in Mananthavady
In addition, taking advantage of the selling spree of landlords of
Malabar in general and more particularly the larger landlords of North
Malabar, several other
Christian families immigrated into
Malabar to pursue agriculture. These migrations peaked during 1960-71.
Immigration of teachers
The number of large land owning private-Tharavad-owned schools in
North Malabar expanded in the first half of the twentieth century
partly due to the availability of government grant-in-aid for such
enterprises from 1939 onwards. Furthermore, corporate expansion of
land owning Tharavads and a decrease in European engineered
proletysing of the depressed classes also contributed to the growth
pattern. These schools often had teaching staff from educated
families. In democratic
Kerala however, many of these schools
evolved as public and government enterprises, which led to the
recruitment of teachers from the southern provinces and the subsequent
immigration of teaching staff of all ethno-religious backgrounds, many
of whom preferred to settle in the area permanently.
Historic emigrations to Southern Kerala
Historically significant emigration from
North Malabar occurred in
Dispersement of the erstwhile ruling elite
From 1766 to 1792, during the era of
Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan,
multiple military invasions, plunder and systematic forcible religious
conversions took place in both North and South
Fearing forcible conversion, a significant number of
and Brahmins from Malabar chose to take refuge in the erstwhile
Kingdom of Travancore, as under the
Treaty of Mangalore
an alliance with the English East
India Company according to which
Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to
declaration of war against the English". Thus at various times between
1766 and 1792, all female members and many male members of the
different royal families of North and South Malabar: Chirackal,
Parappanad, and Calicut, and chieftains' families: Punnathoor,
Nilambur, Kavalapara and
Azhvanchery Thamprakkal (titular head of all
Namboothiri Brahmins), sought asylum in
Travancore and temporarily
settled in different parts of the kingdom. Even after the fall of Tipu
Sultan's regime in Srirangapatnam, some of the Malabar nobility,
wholly or partly, preferred to remain in
Travancore because of fear of
atrocities if they returned home. The 17 prominent aristocratic
lineages of southern
Kerala that claim their origin from Malabar
through displacement during this period are:
Muzhappilangad Beach - The only drive-in-beach in Kerala
Adoptions by the erstwhile ruling elite
Kolathiri rulers of
North Malabar had been a constant source of
heirs for the
Travancore royal family by permitting some of its
matrilineal branches of members to make settlements outside Malabar
and be adopted. The first adoption took place around 1315 whereby the
two princesses of the
Kolathiri family were installed as Senior and
Junior Rānis of Attingal, with the titles of Āttingal Mootha
Thampurān and Āttingal Elaya Thampurān respectively. Adoptions into
Travancore Royal Family followed in 1684, 1688, 1718, 1748 and
1788 until the 19th century. The celebrated Mārthanda Varma the Great
was a result of the 1688 adoption and his successor Dharmarājā, who
fought and defeated
Tipu Sultan of Mysore, was the result of the 1718
adoption. The weak
Balarama Varma who ruled after Dharmarājā in the
early 19th century belonged to the 1748 line. The noted Maharanis
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi and
Gowri Parvati Bayi
Gowri Parvati Bayi belonged to the 1788 line as
did the Maharajahs Swāthi Thirunāl, Uthram Thirunāl, Āyilyam
Thirunāl, Visākham Thirunāl and Moolam Thirunāl.
Economic migration in democratic India
In 1956, the State of
Kerala was formed along linguistic lines,
merging the Travancore,
Cochin and Malabar regions. The first Kerala
Legislative Assembly was formed on 1 March 1957 and the following
50 years saw migration of lawyers, politicians, businessmen and
government officials from
North Malabar to the southern cities of
Cochin and Trivandrum. However many of these
families still retain their links to their native area through
marriage association, partial retention of natal property and often a
North Malabar self-identity.
North Malabar has a rich history of folk-art, culture and tradition.
The government of
Kerala has encouraged promotion of these through the
Kerala Folklore Akademi at Kannur. Among the notable examples are:
Theyyam, an ancient ritual performance art of the region in which a
man is dressed symbolically as god. In the Kadathanadan area, it is
known as kaliyattam. There are around 400 types of Theyyam, which are
conducted on a stage and use elaborate costumes and body-painting.
Each type has a distinguishing head-dress and costume made from
natural materials, such as coconut leaves and bark. Musical
accompaniments are provided by the chenda, elathalam and kuzhal
Thottam Pattu is ballad sung just before performance of the Theyyam
Kalaripayattu is a martial art that originated in
North Malabar and
was developed between the 9th and 12th centuries.
Vadakkan Pattukal are ballads that extol the adventures of the
brave men and women of North Malabar. Set against a feudal medieval
background, the stories celebrate the valour and skills of their
characters. The ballads reflect the peak of
Kerala folk-poetry and are
associated with Kadathanadu. The movie Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha
capitalised on the popularity of these stories.
Thidambu Nritham (dance with the replica of the deity) is a ritual
dance performed in temples. It is mainly performed by Nambudiri
Brahmins and occasionally by other Brahmin communities.
Poorakkali is a traditional art form performed by a group of men who
dance and chant holy verses from the
Ramayana or Bhagavata. It is
performed during the nine-day
Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples.
Trikaripur and nearby places like Vengara, Ramanthali,
Karivellur, are well known for this art form.
Kolkali is an art form involving both men and women and is unique to
the area. It is the only folk art that is performed by both Hindus and
Muslims, although there are slight differences in how the two do it.
Muslims perform it as a form of entertainment during social gatherings
and marriages, whereas the Hindus perform it at temple festivals. It
involves rapid limb movements and simultaneous chanting of folksong,
with the performers moving in pairs, hitting their batons (koles)
against each other in a methodical way in tune with folksongs. It is
played according to Vaithari or Thalam by the Gurukkal (Teacher).
Kolkali group will contain between sixteen and twenty
members. One among them will sing the folksong and it will be chorused
by rest. Harmonizing with generational changes,
Kolkali like all other
folk-art of North Malabar, has also changed its look and style over
time. The noted
Kolkali groups are found in the
Mappila (Muslim) folklore
Mappila folklore has deep roots in the region. The major
North Malabar are :
After Malappuram, almost all the well known practitioners of the
Mappila arts are from North Malabar.
Chandragiri Puzha - The northern end of this region
Main article: List of people from North Malabar
Kerala Varma Pazhassi (c. 1753 - c. 1805) popularly known as the Lion
of Kerala, he was a prince from the royal dynasty of Kottayam
(Malabar) which now belongs to the
Kannur District of
Kerala State. He
waged war against
Mysore and the British for 27 years.
K. Kelappan - was the founder President of the
Nair Service Society
who later became the principal of a school run by the society. He
fought for social reforms on the one hand and against the British on
the other. He was a great revolutionary, social reformer and crusader
for justice to the backward classes. He was called
P. T. Usha- The first Indian sprinter to reach the Olympics. Winner of
several gold medals in the Asian Games.
Lt Gen Satish Nambiar- recipient of a
Vir Chakra and Force Commander
E. K. Nayanar
E. K. Nayanar - (December 1918 - May 2004) born in Kalliasseri, Kannur
was a prominent Indian political leader of the Communist Party of
India (Marxist). He held the post of Chief Minister of
times. He was the longest-serving Chief Minister of Kerala, serving a
total of 4009 days.
K. Karunakaran - (July 1918 - December 2010) was an Indian politician
from Chirakkal in the
Kannur District. Like Nayanar, he also held the
post of Chief Minister of
Kerala three times, and was the second
longest-serving Chief Minister of Kerala.
Pinarayi Vijayan - veteran Communist leader, former State secretary of
Communist Party of
India (Marxist) and current Chief Minister of
Vijay K. Nambiar - Former ambassador to
China and Pakistan and former
Chef de Cabinet (Chief of Staff) under UN Secretary-General Ban
Gireesh Puthenchery - Well known lyricist and screenwriter in the
Malayalam film industry.
T. V. Chandran
T. V. Chandran - Well known director in the
Malayalam film industry.
Nair - Banker.
Vineeth - born on 23 August 1969, a South Indian film actor and
M. N. Nambiar
M. N. Nambiar - (1919—2008) film actor in Tamil cinema who spent
more than 50 years in the film industry.
Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar - (1861–1914) was a
essay writer, critic and short story writer born into the chieftain
family of "Vengayil", Chirakkal
Taluk and was a close friend of Dr.
Hermann Gundert and William Logan, researchers on the history,
language, culture of Kerala.
Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar - Minister of
Pazhassi Raja who was active
in resistance to Mysorean and British invaders.
Sreenivasan - Noted
Malayalam actor and director.
Samvrutha Sunil - Noted
Malayalam film heroine.
Kavya Madhavan - Popular
Malayalam film actress.
O. M. Nambiar - Renowned as an Indian athletics coach.
M Kunjikannan - Kunjikannan Master, journalist, Gandhian, educational
and social activist.
Kodiyeri Balakrishnan -
Home Minister in the V.S. Achuthanandan
ministry from 2006 to 2011, and current State secretary of Communist
Kanayi Kunhiraman - Sculptor.
M. Mukundan - Novelist and diplomat.
K. Raghavan - Veteran
Malayalam music director.
Abu Salim (actor)
Abu Salim (actor) - Popular film actor and Mr
India Title winner in
1984 and 1992.
C. P. Krishnan
Nair - Internationally known businessman from the Leela
Group of Hotels.
Lingua Malabar Tamul
North Malabar Gramin Bank
Places adjacent to North Malabar
^ Census of India, 2001. Census Data Online, Population.
^ Eleanor Kathleen Gough (1900), Nayar: North Kerala, University of
California Press, (Berkeley, Los Angeles)
^ Eric J. Miller (1954), Caste and Territory in Malabar, American
^ Praveena Kodoth (1998), Women and Property Rights: A Study of Land
Relations and Personal Law in Malabar, 1880–1940’ Unpublished
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Hyderabad
^ Ravindran Gopinath, 'Garden and Paddy Fields: Historical
Implications of Agricultural Production Regimes in Colonial Malabar'
in Mushirul Hasan and Narayani Gupta (eds.)
^ India's Colonial Encounters: Essays in Memory of Eric Stokes, Delhi:
Monohar Publishers, 1993
^ M. Jayarajan, Sacred Groves of North Malabar, Discussion Paper No.
92 Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ , Praveena Kodoth (2002), FRAMING CUSTOM, DIRECTING PRACTICES:
AUTHORITY, PROPERTY AND MATRILINY UNDER COLONIAL LAW IN NINETEENTH
CENTURY MALABAR 
^ Fawcett (1901), Nayars of Malabar, AES Reprint 1985
^  T.K.G. Panikkar (1900), Malabar and its Folk, AES Reprint 1995
^ The Marumakkattayam And Aliyasantana System - Author - Manita Doshi
^ Srishida's CookBook: -Malabar Sambar(Veg)
^ Malabar Sambar recipe – All recipes India
^ K.V Sarma (1996),
Kollam era, Indian Journal of History of Science,
31 (1)"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16
March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
^ Chakrakshaalanapuram Brahmaswam Sabhaayogam Manual
^ Fr. Jacob Vellian, Knanite Community, History and Culture
^ Kumbattu Varkey Joseph, Migration and economic development of Kerala
Kerala Development Report by Government of
India Planning Commission
^ Malabar Manual by William Logan (Printed and published by Charitram
Publications under the editorship of Dr. C.K, Kareem, Trivandrum)
^ Voyage to
East Indies by Fra Bartolomaeo (Portuguese Traveller and
^ Historical Sketches by Col. Wilks, Vol. II.
^ A Journey from Madras through the counties of Mysore, Canara and
Malabar by Dr. Francis Buchanan Hamilton, Vol. II.
Mysore History by Lewis Rice.
^ Selected Letters of
Tipu Sultan to various Functionaries by William
Kirkpatrick, published in London, 1811.
^ History of
Kerala by A. Sreedhara Menon.
^ History of
Cochin State by K.P. Padmanabha Menon, Mathrubhumi
Cochin State Manual by C. Achuta Menon.
^ State Manual of
Travancore by T.K. Velu Pillai.
^ Freedom Struggle in
Sardar K.M. Panicker.
^ Sakthan Thampuran by P. Raman Menon, Mathrubhoomi Publication, 1989.
^ Life of
Raja Kesavadas by V.R. Parameswaran Pillai, N.B.S.
Publications, Kottayam, 1973.
^ Chronicles and Reports originating from Trippunithura, Calicut,
Palghat and other seats of
Kerala Royal families and from Temples of
Trichur and Carmichael
Christian Mission, Varappuzha.
^ Bhasha Poshini of Chingam 10, 1099 (August 1923), Article on Tipu
Sardar K.M. Panicker.
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Travancore History by P. Sankrunni Menon.
Tipu Sultan X-rayed by Dr. I.M. Muthanna, Usha Press,
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Parameswara Iyer, Vadakkumkoor Raja Raja Varma, and Shri Govinda
^ Zamorins in
Kerala by K.V. Krishna Iyer.
Tipu Sultan by B.N. Jog.
State of Kerala
Flora and Fauna
Venad Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon)
State of Puducherry
Pondicherry Engineering College
National Institute of Technology, Puducherry
History of Pondicherry
Places of interest
Manakula Vinayagar Temple
Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Sacred Heart Basilica
Pondicherry Cricket Association
Indira Gandhi Sports Stadium
Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium
YSR Indoor Stadium
North Malabar Region
Main Towns and Cities
Places of interest in North Malabar
Velliyamkallu: Associated with the valiant Kunhali Marakkar at
Sand Banks: Where the Kotakal river reaches the sea at Vatakara
Silent Beach: South of Sand Banks is Silent Beach at Vatakara
Mahe Beach Mahé
Mayyazhi Puzhayoram Mahé
Pookkottu Thadakam (Lake) Mananthavady
Tellichery Fort Thalassery
Muzhappilangadu Drive-in Beach on
Payyambalam Beach Kannur
St. Angelo Fort Kannur
Meenkunnu Beach Kannur
Pazhassi Dam Kannur
The thuruths (small islands in the river) of Cherukunnu
The small hills of Cherukunnu
Azheekkal ferry and beach Azhikode
Ezhimala beach Payyannur
Paithal Mala Thaliparamba
Snake Park Parassinikkadavu
Vismaya, the water theme park Parassinikkadavu
Valiyaparamba island Trikaripur
Bekal Fort Kasaragod
Chandragiri Fort Kasaragod
Ananthapuram Lake Kasaragod
Kanwatheertha Beach Resort Kasaragod
Cities and towns in
Cities and towns
Places of worship, Educational institutions
Cities and towns in
Kannan Devan Hills
Chovvanur burial cave
Battle of Kulachal
Battle of Quilon
Left Democratic Front
United Democratic Front
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve
Eravikulam National Park
Flora and fauna
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Saint Thomas Christians
Jainism in Kerala
colleges and universities
Dance / Drama / Cinema
Cinema of Kerala
Beaches in Kerala
Islands of Kollam
Estuaries of Paravur
Visitor attractions in Thrissur
Tourism in Thiruvananthapuram