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North Malabar
North Malabar
refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India
India
covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod
Kasaragod
and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady
Mananthavady
taluk of Wayanad
Wayanad
District, the taluks of Koyilandy
Koyilandy
and Vatakara
Vatakara
in the Kozhikode District
Kozhikode District
of Kerala
Kerala
and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry. The greater part of North Malabar
North Malabar
(except Mahé) remained as one of the two administrative divisions of the Malabar District
Malabar District
(an administrative district of British India
India
under the Madras Presidency) until 1947 and later became part of India's Madras State
Madras State
until 1956. Mahé remained under French jurisdiction until 13 June 1954. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala
Kerala
was formed by the States Reorganisation Act, which merged the Malabar District
Malabar District
with Travancore- Cochin
Cochin
apart from the four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu, and the Kasaragod taluk
Kasaragod taluk
of South Kanara District. North Malabar
North Malabar
begins at Korapuzha
Korapuzha
in the south and ends at Manjeshwaram
Manjeshwaram
in the north of Kerala
Kerala
and traditionally comprises the erstwhile princely principalities and fiefdoms of Kolathu Nadu, Kadatha Nadu and southern part of Tulu Nadu. During the ancient and early medieval periods, North Malabar
North Malabar
retained its distinct political identity. At no time did the Chera dynasty
Chera dynasty
(c. 3rd century BC – 12th century AD) impose full control over the area, which today retains many distinct cultural features.

Contents

1 Culture, geography and people

1.1 Kottiyoor
Kottiyoor
Utsavam 1.2 Social, cultural and historical features

2 Calendar system 3 Dialects 4 Historic immigrations into North Malabar

4.1 Tulu Brahmin immigration 4.2 Nasrani immigration

4.2.1 Immigration of Knanaya
Knanaya
Christians

4.3 Immigration of teachers

5 Historic emigrations to Southern Kerala

5.1 Dispersement of the erstwhile ruling elite 5.2 Adoptions by the erstwhile ruling elite 5.3 Economic migration in democratic India

6 Folk art

6.1 Theyyam 6.2 Thottam Pattu 6.3 Kalaripayattu 6.4 Vadakkan Pattukal 6.5 Thidambu Nritham 6.6 Poorakkali 6.7 Kolkali 6.8 Mappila
Mappila
(Muslim) folklore

7 Notable individuals 8 See also 9 References

Culture, geography and people[edit] The socio-cultural background and geography of this area has many distinctions compared to the rest of Kerala.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The population consists of native Hindus, native Mappila-Muslims, native Jains and migrant- Christian
Christian
communities and is characterized by distinct socio-cultural customs and behavior. The people of North Malabar have striven to preserve their distinct and unique identity and heritage since ancient times, through colonial times into modern political India. Until the early twentieth century there were cultural taboos among various communities from North Malabar, which forbade their women marrying anyone from the southern territories.[9][10] Even in modern times it is not uncommon to see "alliances from Malabar region preferred" in newspaper matrimonial announcements placed by native North Malabar
North Malabar
families, irrespective of their ethno-religious background. Traditionally North Malabar
North Malabar
has remained the source of an erstwhile aristocracy for many of the southern territories of Kerala through displacement and adoptions including the Travancore
Travancore
Royal Family. Northern Malabar identity and pride is often possessively guarded by its natives of all ethnic and religious backgrounds.

Chalad Chalil Bhagavathi Temple

Theyyam
Theyyam
- The ancient ritual art of North Malabar

Kottiyoor
Kottiyoor
Utsavam[edit] Main article: Kottiyoor
Kottiyoor
Vysakha Mahotsavam Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam
is a 27-day yearly pilgrimage commemorating the mythology of Daksha Yaga, which attracts thousands of Hindu
Hindu
pilgrims from the Malabar region. Social, cultural and historical features[edit]

A Madappura (stand alone Kovil) where Theyyam
Theyyam
rituals are performed seasonally. All the Muthappan Madappuras are built in similar style. These structures are found mainly in the North Malabar region
Malabar region
of Kerala

In the pre-democratic era, Marumakkathayam-matriliniality was widely prevalent among the natives of North Malabar
North Malabar
and included both the Muslim and Nambudiri
Nambudiri
communities of Payyanur, in addition to other traditional matrilinial communities such as the Nayars and Thiyyas. The practice of matriliniality was distinctly different and was predominantly virilocal with married couples residing with or near the husband's parents. Unlike other parts of erstwhile matrilinial-Kerala, polyandry was a strict taboo in North Malabar
North Malabar
and exceptional customs such as Putravakaasham (purse/estate grants to children of male members) were occasionally allowed.[11][12] Landlords in Malabar during colonial and pre-colonial times were the largest landlords of Kerala
Kerala
and during this time political authority remained decentralized in contrast to that of the southern principalities. The royal position of Kolathiri, although immensely respected, was politically titular. In North Malabar, the Kolathiri Kings had the ritualistic status of Perumaal
Perumaal
such that their official designates or sthanis retained their jurisdiction all over Kerala except for the Rajarajashwara Temple at Taliparamba. In addition, the lineages in North Malabar
North Malabar
claim and assert superior ritual-rank clan by clan over their equivalent clans from the southern principalities. The major festival observed by Hindus in this region is Vishu
Vishu
rather than Onam, which remains the major celebration for Hindus in the remainder of Kerala. In North Malabar, Vishu
Vishu
is celebrated as New Year. Because, the Kollavarsham month Medam - which is parallel to first Tamil month Chithirai - is the first month of the year for natives of North Malabar. The Vishu
Vishu
festival is spread over two days and comprises the Cheriya or small Vishu
Vishu
and the Valiya, or main Vishu. Unlike in the rest of Kerala
Kerala
it is not uncommon to see Hindu natives of this region cook and eat non-vegetarian food during their festivals including Vishu
Vishu
and Onam
Onam
and sometimes even in marriage households. People from all religions participate in major festivals at temples, mosques and churches. Some examples include: Nadapuram
Nadapuram
Mosque, Mahe Church, Moonnu Pettumma Palli Pappinisseri
Pappinisseri
and Theyyam
Theyyam
ritual art. Unlike Travancore, but like in rest of Malabar and Cochin, natives of North Malabar
North Malabar
mix coconut paste with sambar, the most common dish of South India.[13][14][15] North Malabar
North Malabar
cuisine is noted for its variety of dishes including chutneys, pancakes, steamed cakes and various dishes such as kalathappam, kinnathappam, uruttu chammanthi, poduthol, pathiri, chatti pathiri and moodakadamban. Bakery-cuisine is well developed in the area and has led to large numbers of natives operating popular bakeries in Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Mysore, Pune
Pune
and Southern Kerala. People from this area are characterized by a stronger sense of socio-political aspirations often leading to large outbreaks of political violence.[citation needed] Textiles, beedi, hand-weaving, plywood and coir represent important industries while cashew, cinnamon ( North Malabar
North Malabar
is home to Asia's largest cinnamon farm) and pepper are important cash crops. North Malabar
North Malabar
represents one of the earliest and largest pockets of exposure to other cultures in Kerala
Kerala
through Chalukyas, Hoysalas, Tuluvas, Rashtrakutas, Kodavas, Tulus, Arabs, Persians, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British, and through early employment and migrations in government and military services from the time of its incorporation into the Madras Presidency. Nevertheless, its people are conservatively possessive of its identity preferring a "geographical endogamy" culture.

Nadapuram
Nadapuram
Masjid Pond - An indigenous designed pool

Calendar system[edit] The version of the Malayalam calendar or Kollavarsham used in central and south Kerala
Kerala
begins on August 25, 825 AD. The year commences with Simha-raasi (Leo) and not in Mesha-raasi (Aries) as in other Indian calendars. However, in North Malabar
North Malabar
and Kolathunadu
Kolathunadu
the start of the Kollam era is reckoned from the month of Kanya-rasi (Virgo), which begins on 25 September. This variation has two accounts associated with it.[16] Kerolopathi, a traditional text dealing with the origins of Malabar, attributes the introduction of the Kollam era to Shankaracharya. Translation of the phrase Aa chaa rya vaa ga bhed ya (meaning Shankaracharya's word/law is unalterable) into numbers in the Katapayadi
Katapayadi
notation produces 0 6 1 4 3 4 1 and these written backwards give the age of the Kali yuga
Kali yuga
in the first year of the Kollam
Kollam
era. Kali, day 1,434,160, would work out to be September 25, 825 AD, which corresponds to the beginning of the Kollam era in North Malabar, i.e. the first day of the month of Kanya-raasi (Virgo) . Dialects[edit] There are several dialects of the Malayalam language
Malayalam language
prevalent in North Malabar. Loan words, excluding the huge number of words from Sanskrit and Tamil, originated mostly due to centuries long interactions between the native population of North Malabar
North Malabar
and the horse and spice traders of the world. These included trading contacts with Arabia, Persia, Israel, China, South Canara, Mysore, Kodagu
Kodagu
and European colonial powers for several centuries. Examples of these dialects include Kasaragod
Kasaragod
Malayalam
Malayalam
and Mappila
Mappila
Malayalam. However, the majority of the young-adult Keralites from other provinces who are ignorant of the rich melting-pot culture of Malabar dialects are uncomfortable with these forms of Malayalam.

Some influences are enumerated

Loaned from Usages

Hebrew Shalom/salaam aayi meaning died (lit. entered the state of peace).

Arabic Bejaar meaning anxiety; matlab meaning consequence; barkat/varkkat meaning value are few examples

Portuguese Veeppa meaning “basket“; 'maesha' meaning “table“; jenela' meaning “window“

Cryptic Sanskrit tendencies In North Malabar
North Malabar
fish curry is referred to as malsya-curry (from the Sanskrit word matsya for fish) rather than southern usage of meen-curry. Similarly, feeling hungry is paikkunnu rather than southern usage of vishakkunnu. Other examples are annam instead of choru (cooked rice), dhani instead of kaashukaaran (rich man), the word amba (mother) for cow, gauli (lizard) etc.

Malik Deenar Mosque

The intricate work on a North Malabar
North Malabar
Hookah

Pazhassi Kudeeram in Mananthavadi

Madhur Temple

A Lotus Pond in Purameri

Temple in Blathur

Historic immigrations into North Malabar[edit] The three waves of historically significant immigration were as follows. Tulu Brahmin immigration[edit] In 1617, the Kolathiri Raja Udayavarman, wished to attain the higher status of kshatriya by undergoing the Hiranyagarbham ritual in honour of Hiranyagarbha, the creator of the universe. Since the Nambudiri Brahmins were not prepared for the ceremony, Udayavarman brought 237 families of Shivalli Brahmins
Shivalli Brahmins
from Gokarna in Coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
and settled them in the five counties of Cheruthazham, Kunniriyam, Arathil, Kulappuram and Vararuchimangalam in North Malabar.[17] The Sree Raghavapuram temple (Hanuman Kavu) at Pilathara was assigned to the 237 families for worship, and it became their village temple. The 93 Edukunchi families displaced as a result received the hereditary trusteeship of the Sreekrishnapuram temple in Cheruthazham, 62 Gunavantham families that of Arathil Sreebhadrapuram temple and the 82 Vilakkoor families that of Udayapurath Haripuram temple. These 237 families adopted the customs of local Nambudiri Brahmins
Nambudiri Brahmins
and came to be referred to as Embranthiris.

Para-sailing in progress at Payyambalam
Payyambalam
- A new initiative

Nasrani immigration[edit] Main article: Malabar Migration The Malabar Migration refers to the large-scale migration of Syrian Christians (Nasranis) from the Travancore
Travancore
region to the Malabar area of northern Kerala
Kerala
in the 20th century. The migration started in the decades of the 20th century and continued well into the 1970s and 1980s. This migration had a significant demographic and social impact as the Syrian Christian
Christian
population of Malabar increased 15-fold from 31,191 in 1931 to 442,510 in 1971. Central Travancore
Travancore
had experienced a steep increase in population in the early 20th century while pressure on arable land increased. At the same time, people recognised the potential of the large uncultivated lands in the northern regions called Malabar, which was then part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
under British Rule. Migration initially started in trickles with land bought from the local rulers. Huge tracts of uncultivated forest and waste land were later converted into farms and plantations. Against the odds, the community thrived, which attracted more migrants. This migration reached its peak in the 1950s.[citation needed] These migrants came mostly from present day Kottayam, Idukki, Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
and Kothamangalam
Kothamangalam
with migrations happening across the entire Malabar region
Malabar region
(north Kerala) including into the following districts of present-day Kerala
Kerala
(some key migration centres are also mentioned):

Kasargod -Malom, Chittarikkal Kannur
Kannur
- Alakkode, Chemperi, Cherupuzha, Kudianmala, Iritty, Peravoor, Chempanthotty Calicut - Thiruvambady Wayanad
Wayanad
- Pulpally

The Syro-Malabar
Syro-Malabar
Catholic Church gave significant support to the migration by providing churches, discipline, schools, hospitals and other infrastructure. Overall, hundreds of thousands of people moved to North Kerala. The percentage of Christian
Christian
residents in these districts was small before the migration but since 1950 this settler community has formed a significant part of the population in the hill areas of these districts. Immigration of Knanaya
Knanaya
Christians[edit]

Valavayal Post Office, Wayanad

Historically, the North Malabar
North Malabar
landlords were the largest land-holders in Kerala, but the introduction of the Kerala
Kerala
Land Reforms Bill in 1957 resulted in their panic selling of farm and forest land. This was followed by immigration of Christians from Knanaya
Knanaya
into the North Malabar
North Malabar
Region in search of virgin land to cultivate and to seek relief from the poverty and financial strain caused by the Second World War. Under the direction of Prof. V.J. Joseph Kandoth and Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil,[18][19] the Diocese of Kottayam
Kottayam
bought 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) of land in the Kasargod area in 1942. The new venture was announced in all the parishes of southern Kerala. Applications were invited and each family was allotted 11.5 acres (47,000 m2) of land 1943. The emigrants from all southern Kerala
Kerala
parishes reached Cochin
Cochin
by boat and from there travelled by train to Shornur
Shornur
and Kanhangad. A team of priests, especially of the O.S.H. Society and laymen were sent ahead to prepare the ground and to receive them on their arrival. The name of the local area was changed from Echikkol to Rajapuram. In the same way, the diocese organized another settlement at Madampam near Kannur. The Diocese bought 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land and 100 families migrated to the new area on 3 May 1943. The settlement was called Alexnagar after Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil. Madathumala in Kasargod District
Kasargod District
at its eastern border with the Karnataka
Karnataka
state was the venue of a third settlement of 45 families. The land was purchased on 26 September 1969 and the Ranipuram
Ranipuram
settlement inaugurated on 2 February 1970 dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Although there were initial difficulties due to wild animals, Ranipuram
Ranipuram
gradually prospered and today there is also a Government tourist center at Ranipuram. The Diocese of Kottayam
Kottayam
made also arrangements with the Latin Ordinaries to have pastoral ministry and liturgical celebrations according to their own Syro-Malabar
Syro-Malabar
Rite. Presently, one third of the Knanaya
Knanaya
Catholic population is in the Malabar area.

A Tea Estate in Mananthavady

In addition, taking advantage of the selling spree of landlords of Malabar in general and more particularly the larger landlords of North Malabar, several other Travancore
Travancore
Christian
Christian
families immigrated into Malabar to pursue agriculture. These migrations peaked during 1960-71. Immigration of teachers[edit] The number of large land owning private-Tharavad-owned schools in North Malabar
North Malabar
expanded in the first half of the twentieth century partly due to the availability of government grant-in-aid for such enterprises from 1939 onwards. Furthermore, corporate expansion of land owning Tharavads and a decrease in European engineered proletysing of the depressed classes also contributed to the growth pattern. These schools often had teaching staff from educated families.[20] In democratic Kerala
Kerala
however, many of these schools evolved as public and government enterprises, which led to the recruitment of teachers from the southern provinces and the subsequent immigration of teaching staff of all ethno-religious backgrounds, many of whom preferred to settle in the area permanently. Historic emigrations to Southern Kerala[edit] Historically significant emigration from North Malabar
North Malabar
occurred in three phases. Dispersement of the erstwhile ruling elite[edit] From 1766 to 1792, during the era of Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan, multiple military invasions, plunder and systematic forcible religious conversions took place in both North and South Malabar.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Fearing forcible conversion, a significant number of Nair
Nair
Chieftains and Brahmins from Malabar chose to take refuge in the erstwhile Kingdom of Travancore, as under the Treaty of Mangalore Travancore
Travancore
had an alliance with the English East India
India
Company according to which "aggression against Travancore
Travancore
would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English". Thus at various times between 1766 and 1792, all female members and many male members of the different royal families of North and South Malabar: Chirackal, Parappanad, and Calicut, and chieftains' families: Punnathoor, Nilambur, Kavalapara and Azhvanchery Thamprakkal (titular head of all Namboothiri Brahmins), sought asylum in Travancore
Travancore
and temporarily settled in different parts of the kingdom. Even after the fall of Tipu Sultan's regime in Srirangapatnam, some of the Malabar nobility, wholly or partly, preferred to remain in Travancore
Travancore
because of fear of atrocities if they returned home. The 17 prominent aristocratic lineages of southern Kerala
Kerala
that claim their origin from Malabar through displacement during this period are:

Neerazhi Kovilakam Gramathil Kottaram Paliyakkara Nedumparampu Chempra Madham Ananthapuram Kottaram Ezhimatoor Palace Aranmula
Aranmula
Kottaram Varanathu Kovilakam Mavelikkara Ennakkadu Murikkoyikkal Palace Mariappilly Koratti Swaroopam Kaippuzha Kovilakam Lakshmipuram Palace Kottapuram.

Muzhappilangad
Muzhappilangad
Beach - The only drive-in-beach in Kerala

Adoptions by the erstwhile ruling elite[edit] The Kolathiri rulers of North Malabar
North Malabar
had been a constant source of heirs for the Travancore
Travancore
royal family by permitting some of its matrilineal branches of members to make settlements outside Malabar and be adopted. The first adoption took place around 1315 whereby the two princesses of the Kolathiri family were installed as Senior and Junior Rānis of Attingal, with the titles of Āttingal Mootha Thampurān and Āttingal Elaya Thampurān respectively. Adoptions into the Travancore
Travancore
Royal Family followed in 1684, 1688, 1718, 1748 and 1788 until the 19th century. The celebrated Mārthanda Varma the Great was a result of the 1688 adoption and his successor Dharmarājā, who fought and defeated Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
of Mysore, was the result of the 1718 adoption. The weak Balarama Varma
Balarama Varma
who ruled after Dharmarājā in the early 19th century belonged to the 1748 line. The noted Maharanis Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
and Gowri Parvati Bayi
Gowri Parvati Bayi
belonged to the 1788 line as did the Maharajahs Swāthi Thirunāl, Uthram Thirunāl, Āyilyam Thirunāl, Visākham Thirunāl and Moolam Thirunāl. Economic migration in democratic India[edit] In 1956, the State of Kerala
Kerala
was formed along linguistic lines, merging the Travancore, Cochin
Cochin
and Malabar regions. The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 1 March 1957 and the following 50 years saw migration of lawyers, politicians, businessmen and government officials from North Malabar
North Malabar
to the southern cities of Kerala
Kerala
especially Cochin
Cochin
and Trivandrum. However many of these families still retain their links to their native area through marriage association, partial retention of natal property and often a characteristic sacerdotal North Malabar
North Malabar
self-identity. Folk art[edit] North Malabar
North Malabar
has a rich history of folk-art, culture and tradition. The government of Kerala
Kerala
has encouraged promotion of these through the Kerala
Kerala
Folklore Akademi at Kannur. Among the notable examples are: Theyyam[edit]

Theyyam, an ancient ritual performance art of the region in which a man is dressed symbolically as god. In the Kadathanadan area, it is known as kaliyattam. There are around 400 types of Theyyam, which are conducted on a stage and use elaborate costumes and body-painting. Each type has a distinguishing head-dress and costume made from natural materials, such as coconut leaves and bark. Musical accompaniments are provided by the chenda, elathalam and kuzhal (horn). Thottam Pattu[edit] Thottam Pattu is ballad sung just before performance of the Theyyam ritual. Kalaripayattu[edit] Kalaripayattu
Kalaripayattu
is a martial art that originated in North Malabar
North Malabar
and was developed between the 9th and 12th centuries. Vadakkan Pattukal[edit] The Vadakkan Pattukal are ballads that extol the adventures of the brave men and women of North Malabar. Set against a feudal medieval background, the stories celebrate the valour and skills of their characters. The ballads reflect the peak of Kerala
Kerala
folk-poetry and are associated with Kadathanadu. The movie Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha capitalised on the popularity of these stories. Thidambu Nritham[edit] Thidambu Nritham
Thidambu Nritham
(dance with the replica of the deity) is a ritual dance performed in temples. It is mainly performed by Nambudiri Brahmins and occasionally by other Brahmin communities. Poorakkali[edit] Poorakkali
Poorakkali
is a traditional art form performed by a group of men who dance and chant holy verses from the Ramayana
Ramayana
or Bhagavata. It is performed during the nine-day Pooram
Pooram
festival in Bhagavathy temples. Payyannur, Trikaripur
Trikaripur
and nearby places like Vengara, Ramanthali, Karivellur, are well known for this art form. Kolkali[edit] Kolkali
Kolkali
is an art form involving both men and women and is unique to the area. It is the only folk art that is performed by both Hindus and Muslims, although there are slight differences in how the two do it. Muslims perform it as a form of entertainment during social gatherings and marriages, whereas the Hindus perform it at temple festivals. It involves rapid limb movements and simultaneous chanting of folksong, with the performers moving in pairs, hitting their batons (koles) against each other in a methodical way in tune with folksongs. It is played according to Vaithari or Thalam by the Gurukkal (Teacher). The typical Kolkali
Kolkali
group will contain between sixteen and twenty members. One among them will sing the folksong and it will be chorused by rest. Harmonizing with generational changes, Kolkali
Kolkali
like all other folk-art of North Malabar, has also changed its look and style over time. The noted Kolkali
Kolkali
groups are found in the Kasaragod
Kasaragod
District. Mappila
Mappila
(Muslim) folklore[edit] Mappila
Mappila
folklore has deep roots in the region. The major Mappila
Mappila
arts of North Malabar
North Malabar
are :

Oppana Duff Muttu Mappila
Mappila
Paattu

After Malappuram, almost all the well known practitioners of the Mappila
Mappila
arts are from North Malabar.

Chandragiri Puzha - The northern end of this region

Notable individuals[edit] Main article: List of people from North Malabar

Kerala
Kerala
Varma Pazhassi (c. 1753 - c. 1805) popularly known as the Lion of Kerala, he was a prince from the royal dynasty of Kottayam (Malabar) which now belongs to the Kannur District
Kannur District
of Kerala
Kerala
State. He waged war against Mysore
Mysore
and the British for 27 years. K. Kelappan - was the founder President of the Nair
Nair
Service Society who later became the principal of a school run by the society. He fought for social reforms on the one hand and against the British on the other. He was a great revolutionary, social reformer and crusader for justice to the backward classes. He was called Kerala
Kerala
Gandhi. P. T. Usha- The first Indian sprinter to reach the Olympics. Winner of several gold medals in the Asian Games. Lt Gen Satish Nambiar- recipient of a Vir Chakra
Vir Chakra
and Force Commander of UNPROFOR. E. K. Nayanar
E. K. Nayanar
- (December 1918 - May 2004) born in Kalliasseri, Kannur was a prominent Indian political leader of the Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist). He held the post of Chief Minister of Kerala
Kerala
three times. He was the longest-serving Chief Minister of Kerala, serving a total of 4009 days. K. Karunakaran - (July 1918 - December 2010) was an Indian politician from Chirakkal in the Kannur
Kannur
District. Like Nayanar, he also held the post of Chief Minister of Kerala
Kerala
three times, and was the second longest-serving Chief Minister of Kerala. Pinarayi Vijayan
Pinarayi Vijayan
- veteran Communist leader, former State secretary of Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist) and current Chief Minister of Kerala. Vijay K. Nambiar - Former ambassador to China
China
and Pakistan and former Chef de Cabinet (Chief of Staff) under UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. Gireesh Puthenchery
Gireesh Puthenchery
- Well known lyricist and screenwriter in the Malayalam
Malayalam
film industry. T. V. Chandran
T. V. Chandran
- Well known director in the Malayalam
Malayalam
film industry. Mavila Vishwanathan Nair
Nair
- Banker. Vineeth
Vineeth
- born on 23 August 1969, a South Indian film actor and classical dancer. M. N. Nambiar
M. N. Nambiar
- (1919—2008) film actor in Tamil cinema who spent more than 50 years in the film industry. Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar - (1861–1914) was a Malayali
Malayali
journalist, essay writer, critic and short story writer born into the chieftain family of "Vengayil", Chirakkal Taluk and was a close friend of Dr. Hermann Gundert
Hermann Gundert
and William Logan, researchers on the history, language, culture of Kerala. Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar - Minister of Pazhassi Raja
Pazhassi Raja
who was active in resistance to Mysorean and British invaders. Sreenivasan
Sreenivasan
- Noted Malayalam
Malayalam
actor and director. Samvrutha Sunil
Samvrutha Sunil
- Noted Malayalam
Malayalam
film heroine. Kavya Madhavan
Kavya Madhavan
- Popular Malayalam
Malayalam
film actress. O. M. Nambiar - Renowned as an Indian athletics coach. M Kunjikannan - Kunjikannan Master, journalist, Gandhian, educational and social activist. Kodiyeri Balakrishnan
Kodiyeri Balakrishnan
- Home Minister
Home Minister
in the V.S. Achuthanandan ministry from 2006 to 2011, and current State secretary of Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist). Kanayi Kunhiraman
Kanayi Kunhiraman
- Sculptor. M. Mukundan
M. Mukundan
- Novelist and diplomat. K. Raghavan
K. Raghavan
- Veteran Malayalam
Malayalam
music director. Abu Salim (actor)
Abu Salim (actor)
- Popular film actor and Mr India
India
Title winner in 1984 and 1992. C. P. Krishnan Nair
Nair
- Internationally known businessman from the Leela Group of Hotels.

See also[edit]

Lingua Malabar Tamul Kolathiri North Malabar
North Malabar
Gramin Bank

Places adjacent to North Malabar

Mangalore

Arabian Sea

North Malabar

Coorg

Calicut

References[edit]

^ Census of India, 2001. Census Data Online, Population. ^ Eleanor Kathleen Gough (1900), Nayar: North Kerala, University of California Press, (Berkeley, Los Angeles) ^ Eric J. Miller (1954), Caste and Territory in Malabar, American Anthropological Association ^ Praveena Kodoth (1998), Women and Property Rights: A Study of Land Relations and Personal Law in Malabar, 1880–1940’ Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Hyderabad ^ Ravindran Gopinath, 'Garden and Paddy Fields: Historical Implications of Agricultural Production Regimes in Colonial Malabar' in Mushirul Hasan and Narayani Gupta (eds.) ^ India's Colonial Encounters: Essays in Memory of Eric Stokes, Delhi: Monohar Publishers, 1993 ^ M. Jayarajan, Sacred Groves of North Malabar, Discussion Paper No. 92 Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ , Praveena Kodoth (2002), FRAMING CUSTOM, DIRECTING PRACTICES: AUTHORITY, PROPERTY AND MATRILINY UNDER COLONIAL LAW IN NINETEENTH CENTURY MALABAR [1] ^ Fawcett (1901), Nayars of Malabar, AES Reprint 1985 ^ [2] T.K.G. Panikkar (1900), Malabar and its Folk, AES Reprint 1995 ^ The Marumakkattayam And Aliyasantana System - Author - Manita Doshi ^ [3] ^ Srishida's CookBook: -Malabar Sambar(Veg) ^ Malabar Sambar recipe – All recipes India ^ [] ^ K.V Sarma (1996), Kollam
Kollam
era, Indian Journal of History of Science, 31 (1)"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2010.  ^ Chakrakshaalanapuram Brahmaswam Sabhaayogam Manual ^ Fr. Jacob Vellian, Knanite Community, History and Culture ^ Kumbattu Varkey Joseph, Migration and economic development of Kerala ^ Kerala
Kerala
Development Report by Government of India
India
Planning Commission ^ Malabar Manual by William Logan (Printed and published by Charitram Publications under the editorship of Dr. C.K, Kareem, Trivandrum) ^ Voyage to East Indies
East Indies
by Fra Bartolomaeo (Portuguese Traveller and Historian) ^ Historical Sketches by Col. Wilks, Vol. II. ^ A Journey from Madras through the counties of Mysore, Canara and Malabar by Dr. Francis Buchanan Hamilton, Vol. II. ^ Mysore
Mysore
History by Lewis Rice. ^ Selected Letters of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
to various Functionaries by William Kirkpatrick, published in London, 1811. ^ History of Kerala
Kerala
by A. Sreedhara Menon. ^ History of Cochin
Cochin
State by K.P. Padmanabha Menon, Mathrubhumi Publication, 1989. ^ Cochin
Cochin
State Manual by C. Achuta Menon. ^ State Manual of Travancore
Travancore
by T.K. Velu Pillai. ^ Freedom Struggle in Kerala
Kerala
by Sardar
Sardar
K.M. Panicker. ^ Sakthan Thampuran by P. Raman Menon, Mathrubhoomi Publication, 1989. ^ Life of Raja Kesavadas
Raja Kesavadas
by V.R. Parameswaran Pillai, N.B.S. Publications, Kottayam, 1973. ^ Chronicles and Reports originating from Trippunithura, Calicut, Palghat and other seats of Kerala
Kerala
Royal families and from Temples of Trichur
Trichur
and Carmichael Christian
Christian
Mission, Varappuzha. ^ Bhasha Poshini of Chingam 10, 1099 (August 1923), Article on Tipu Sultan by Sardar
Sardar
K.M. Panicker. ^ Malabar Kalapam of 1921 by K. Madhavan Nair. ^ Travancore
Travancore
History by P. Sankrunni Menon. ^ Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
X-rayed by Dr. I.M. Muthanna, Usha Press, Mysore
Mysore
1980. ^ Articles, literary works etc. of Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, Vadakkumkoor Raja Raja Varma, and Shri Govinda Pillai. ^ Zamorins in Kerala
Kerala
by K.V. Krishna Iyer. ^ Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
by B.N. Jog.

v t e

State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Symbols

Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen

Topics

Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports

Districts

Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad
Wayanad
KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14

Taluks

Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur

Municipalities

Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions

Malabar

North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

State of Puducherry

Capital: Pondicherry

Districts

Pondicherry Karaikal Mahé Yanam

Municipalities

Karaikal Mahé Ozhukarai Pondicherry Yanam

Languages

French Tamil Malayalam Telugu

Education

Pondicherry University Pondicherry Engineering College JIPMER National Institute of Technology, Puducherry

History

History of Pondicherry

Places of interest

Beach Manakula Vinayagar Temple Matrimandir Sri Aurobindo Ashram Sacred Heart Basilica

Transport

Rail

Puducherry Karaikal Mahe

Air

Puducherry
Puducherry
Airport Karaikal
Karaikal
Airport

Sports

Yanam Tigers Pondicherry Cricket Association Indira Gandhi Sports Stadium Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium YSR Indoor Stadium

North Malabar

v t e

North Malabar
North Malabar
Region

Districts

Kozhikode
Kozhikode
( Vatakara
Vatakara
and Koyilandy
Koyilandy
Taluks) Wayanad
Wayanad
( Mananthavady
Mananthavady
Taluk) Mahe Kannur Kasaragod

Main Towns and Cities

Kannur Thalassery Kozhikode Vatakara Kasaragod Mahe Koyilandy Payyannur Kanhangad Nileshwaram Thaliparamba Kuthuparamba Mattannur Mananthavady Perambra Kuttiyadi Peringome Nadapuram Payyoli Iritty Azhiyur Orkkateri Meppayur Vellikulangara Edakkad New Mahe Pinarayi Mambaram Panoor Vellamunda Thirunelli Edavaka Thavinjal Panamaram Irikkur Kottayam Anjarakkandy Pazhayangadi Trikarpur Manjeswaram Pappinisseri Kalliasseri Cherukunnu Kannapuram Morazha Aroli Pattuvam Sreekandapuram Alakode Cherupuzha Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cheruvathur Mattool

v t e

Places of interest in North Malabar

Velliyamkallu: Associated with the valiant Kunhali Marakkar at Vatakara Sand Banks: Where the Kotakal river reaches the sea at Vatakara Silent Beach: South of Sand Banks is Silent Beach at Vatakara Azhiyoor Vatakara Palloor Mahé Panthakkal Mahé Poozhithala Mahé Mahe Beach Mahé Mayyazhi Puzhayoram Mahé Pakshi Pathalam Thirunelli
Thirunelli
Mananthavady Pookkottu Thadakam (Lake) Mananthavady Tellichery Fort Thalassery Muzhappilangadu Drive-in Beach on Thalassery
Thalassery
- Kannur
Kannur
Road Payyambalam
Payyambalam
Beach Kannur St. Angelo Fort Kannur Meenkunnu Beach Kannur Valapattanam Kannur Pazhassi Dam Kannur The thuruths (small islands in the river) of Cherukunnu The small hills of Cherukunnu Azheekkal ferry and beach Azhikode Ezhimala beach Payyannur Kotti Payyannur Ayyankunnu
Ayyankunnu
Iritty Paithal Mala Thaliparamba Snake Park Parassinikkadavu Vismaya, the water theme park Parassinikkadavu Valiyaparamba island Trikaripur Ranipuram
Ranipuram
Kanhangad Bekal
Bekal
Fort Kasaragod Chandragiri Fort Kasaragod Ananthapuram Lake Kasaragod Kanwatheertha Beach Resort Kasaragod

v t e

Cities and towns in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
district

Kozhikode

Beypore Balussery Chorode Edacheri Chathamangalam Chathangottunada Cheruvannur Elathur Eramala Feroke Karaparamba Kadalundi Kappad Karuvanthuruthy Koduvally Quilandy Kozhikode Kunnamangalam Kuttiyadi Maniyur Mavoor Meppayur Mukkam Nadapuram Njeliyanparambu Olavanna Orkkatteri Pantheeramkavu Payyoli Perambra Purameri Ramanattukara Thamarassery Thiruvambadi Vatakara Villiappally

v t e

Wayanad
Wayanad
district

Cities and towns

Sulthan Bathery Mananthavady Kalpetta Meenangadi Padinharethara Panamaram Pulpally Vythiri

Sub-districts, panchayats and villages

Kalpetta/Vythiri

Achooranam Chundale Kalpetta Kaniyambetta Kavumannam Kottappadi Kottathara Kunnathidavaka Kuppadithara Muppainadu Muttil North Muttil South Padijarethara Pozhuthana Thariode Thrikkaipetta Vellarimala Vengapally

Mananthavady

Anjukunnu Edavaka Kanjirangadu Mananthavady Nalloornadu Panamaram Payyampally Periya Porunnannur Thavinjal Thirunelly Thrissilery Valad Vellamunda Cherukattoor Thondernadu

Sulthan Bathery

Ambalavayal Cheeral Irulam Krishnagiri Kuppadi Nadavayal Nenmeni Noolpuzha Padichira Poothadi Pulpally Purakkadi Sulthan Bathery Kidanganad Thomattuchal

v t e

Kannur
Kannur
district

Corporation

Kannur

Municipalities

Anthoor Iritty Koothuparamba Mattannur Panoor Payyannur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Thaliparamba

Talukas and villages

Thaliparmba

Ramanthali Payyannur Korome Vellur Karivellur Peralam Kankole Alappadamba Eramam Kuttoor Vellora Peringome Perinthatta Vayakkara Cherupuzha Pulingome Thirumeni Udayagiri Thimiri Alakode Vellad Naduvul Eruvassi Payyavoor Sreekandapuram Nediyanga Chengalayi Chuzhali Irikkur Malappattam Chapparapadavu Kooveri Kurumathur Panniyoor Pariyaram Kuttiyeri Taliparamba Anthoor Morazha Pattuvam Mayyil Kayaralam Kolacherry Cheleri Kuttiyattoor Maniyoor

Kannur

Panapuzha Kadannappally Cheruthazham Kunhimangalam Madayi Ezhome Mattool Cherukunnu Kannapuram Kaliiasseri Pappinisseri Azhikode North Azhikode South Narath Kannadiparamba Kattampally Chirakkal Valapattam Puzhathi Pallikkunnu Kannur
Kannur
I Kannur
Kannur
II Elayavoor Chelora Valiyannur Edakkad Munderi Kanhirode Anjarakandi Chembilode Iriveri Peralasseri Mavilayi Makreri Kadambur Muzhappilangad

Thalassery

Thalassery Thiruvangad Kodiyeri New Mahe Chokli Eranholi Kadirur Dharmadam Pinarayi Eruvatty Panniyannur Kariyad Peringathur Peringalam Panoor Mokery Thripangothur Kunnothuparamba Puthur Kolavallur Kottayam Kuthuparamba Pattiam Cheruvanchery Mangattidam Kandankunnu Chittariparamba Mananthery Kannavam Vengad Paduvilayi Pathiriyad Koodali Pattanur Keezhallur Malur Shivapuram Tholambra Kolayad Vekkalam

Iritty

Kottiyoor Kelakam Kanichar Peravoor Manathana Vellarvalli Aralam Ayyamkunnu Payam Villamana Muzhakkunnu Chavasseri Iritty Keezhur Thillankeri Mattannur Pazhassi Kolari Padiyoor Kalliad Ulikkal Nuchiyad Vayathur

See also Places of worship, Educational institutions

v t e

Cities and towns in Kasaragod
Kasaragod
district

Kasaragod

Manjeshwar Uppala Kumbala Perla Kasaragod Karadka Bekal Udma Kanhangad Hosdurg Nileshwar Cheruvathur Trikaripur Parappa Panathur Karindalam

v t e

Travancore
Travancore
region

Districts

Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
(Part) Thiruvananthapuram Kollam Pathanamthitta Alappuzha Kottayam Idukki Ernakulam (Part)

Towns and Cities

Nagarcoil Kanyakumari Thovala Suchindram Manavalakurichy Kaliyakkavilai Mandaikadu Marthandam Neyyoor Thiruvithancode Kolachal Thiruvananthapuram Parassala Neyyattinkara Nedumangadu Venjaramoodu Aryanad Vembayam Chirayinkeezhu Attingal Varkala Avanavancherry Kallambalam Kilimanoor Kottarakara Neduvathoor Ayoor Anchal Edamulackal Chadayamangalam Chathannoor Kalluvathukkal Kottiyam Kollam Paravur Parippally Munroethuruth Mayyanad Punalur Pathanapuram Manchalloor Pidavoor Kottarakkara Adoor Konni Pathanamthitta Kozhencherry Aranmula Kumbanad Ranni Vadasserikkara Mallapally Tiruvalla Parumala Mannar Edathua Chengannur Mavelikkara Padanilam Nilakkal Chettikulangara Kayamkulam Haripad Ambalappuzha Alappuzha Mankombu Mararikulam Cherthala Aroor Changanacherry Vazhoor Karukachal Kottayam Kumarakam Pambadi Ettumanoor Vaikom Kaduthuruthy Thalayolaparambu Kuravilangad Palai Uzhavoor Poonjar Erattupetta Kanjirappally Ponkunnam Erumely Mundakayam Vagamon Peermade Kumily Kattappana Adimali Vechoor North Paravur Alengad Angamaly Kalady Aluva Perumbavoor Muvattupuzha Kothamangalam Arakuzha Koothattukulam Piravom Kolenchery Kizhakkambalam Idukki Thodupuzha Painavu Munnar Devikulam Kannan Devan Hills Marayur Adimali Udumbanchola Nedumkandam Kattappana Rajakkad

v t e

Kerala
Kerala
topics

History

Sangam period Edakkal Caves Ariyannur Umbrellas Kudakkallu Parambu Chovvanur burial cave Chera Venad
Venad
Swaroopam Kerala
Kerala
school Battle of Kulachal Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars Battle of Quilon Vaikom
Vaikom
Satyagraham Perumpadapu Swaroopam Malabar Migration

Government Politics

Agencies Chief Ministers Governors Legislative Assembly Panchayat elections Saptakakshi Munnani Aikya Munnani Left Democratic Front United Democratic Front Politicians

Geography

Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Ashtamudi Lake Backwaters Districts Eravikulam National Park Flora and fauna Malabar Coast Marayoor Nelliampathi
Nelliampathi
Mountains Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Hills Palakkad
Palakkad
Gap Protected areas Vembanad Lake

Demographics Economy Religion

Malayalis Namboothiris Ambalavasis Samanthas Nairs Saint Thomas Christians Kerala
Kerala
Iyers Ezhavas Cochin
Cochin
Jews Jainism in Kerala Pulayar Dravidians Mappilas Adivasis Scheduled Tribes Kerala
Kerala
model Tourism Education

colleges and universities

Culture

Arts Architecture Cuisine Kalarippayattu Literature Sarpam Thullal Triumvirate poets Vallamkali

Dance / Drama / Cinema

Kathakali Kolkali Koodiyattam Mohiniyattam Margamkali Ottamthullal Theyyam Cinema of Kerala

Festivals

Vishu Onam Pooram

Languages

Malayalam Malayalam
Malayalam
calendar Mappila
Mappila
dialect Suriyani Malayalam Judeo-Malayalam Irula language

Music

Chenda
Chenda
(Thayambaka) Kolkali Panchari melam Panchavadyam Sopanam

Organisations/Agencies

NSS SNDP

Tourism

Alappuzha Athirappilly Falls Beaches in Kerala Bekal Kerala
Kerala
Backwaters Kollam Islands of Kollam Kovalam Munnar Estuaries of Paravur Visitor attractions in Thrissur Tourism in Thiruvananthapuram Vallamkali Wa

.