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KOREAN PEOPLE\'S ARMY

CHOSŏN\\'GŭL 조선인민군

HANCHA 朝鮮人民軍

REVISED ROMANIZATION Joseon Inmingun

MCCUNE–REISCHAUER Chosŏn Inmingun

NORTH KOREA

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Constitution

* Juche
Juche
(state ideology) * Songun ("military-first" policy) * Eternal leaders of Juche
Juche
Korea Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il

Workers\' Party

* Chairman : Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un

* Congress (7th )

* Charter

* Central Committee (7th )

* Politburo

* Standing Committee * Executive Policy Bureau * Central Military
Military
Commission

Chairman: Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
* Organization and Guidance Department * Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League

State Affairs Commission

* Chairman Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
* Korean People's Army
Army
Supreme Commander : Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un

Government

* Cabinet Premier : Pak Pong-ju * Judiciary Supreme Court * Legislature President : Kim Yong-nam
Kim Yong-nam
Presidium

Elections

* Recent elections

* Parliamentary: 2003 * 2009 * 2014

* Local: 2007 * 2011 * 2015

Administrative divisions

* FIRST-LEVEL Provinces Special
Special
cities * SECOND-LEVEL * THIRD-LEVEL Eup (city) Dong (neighborhood) Ri (village) Rodonjagu (workers' district)

Foreign relations

* Minister of Foreign Affairs

* Diplomatic missions

* of North Korea
North Korea
* to North Korea
North Korea

* Passport Visa requirements * Korean conflict
Korean conflict
* Korean reunification
Korean reunification

Related topics

* Censorship * Human rights * Kim dynasty * Propaganda * Illicit activities

Law (Enforcement • Security Ministry )

* Other countries * Atlas

* v * t * e

The KOREAN PEOPLE\'S ARMY (KPA; Chosŏn\'gŭl : 조선인민군; MR : Chosŏn inmin'gun) is an institution of the Workers\' Party of Korea , and constitutes the de facto military force of North Korea
North Korea
. Under the Songun policy, it is the central institution of North Korean society. Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People\'s Army
Army
and Chairman of the Central Military
Military
Commission . The KPA consists of five branches: Ground Force , the Navy , the Air Force , the Strategic Rocket Forces , and the Special
Special
Operation Force . The Worker-Peasant Red Guards also come under control of the KPA.

The KPA faces its primary adversaries, the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and United States
United States
Forces Korea , across the Korean Demilitarized Zone , as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953. As of 2016 , with 5,889,000 paramilitary personnel, it is the largest paramilitary organization on Earth . This number represents 25% of the North Korean population.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Conflicts and events

* 2 Organization

* 2.1 Commission and leadership

* 2.2 Conscription
Conscription
and terms of service

* 2.2.1 Paramilitary
Paramilitary
organizations

* 2.3 Budget and commercial interests

* 3 Service branches

* 3.1 People\'s Ground Force * 3.2 People\'s Navy * 3.3 People\'s Army
Army
Air Force and Air Defence Forces * 3.4 People\'s Strategic Rocket Forces * 3.5 Special
Special
Forces (11th Sniper Brigade) * 3.6 Worker-Peasant Red Guard Militia

* 4 Capabilities

* 5 Military
Military
equipment

* 5.1 Weapons

* 5.2 Chemical weapons

* 5.2.1 Nuclear capabilities * 5.2.2 Nuclear tests * 5.2.3 Other

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

A monument in Pyongyang, depicting North Korean airmen and a MiG fighter.

North Korea
North Korea
officially dates the foundation of the KPA back to the establishment of Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
's anti-Japanese guerrilla army. In 1978, " Military
Military
Foundation Day" was changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of this army in 1932.

In 1939, the Korean Volunteer Army
Army
(KVA), was formed in Yan\'an , China. The two individuals responsible for the army were Kim Tu-bong and Mu Chong. At the same time, a school was established near Yan'an for training military and political leaders for a future independent Korea. By 1945, the KVA had grown to approximately 1,000 men, mostly Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms and ammunition. After the defeat of the Japanese, the KVA accompanied the Chinese communist forces into eastern Jilin
Jilin
, intending to gain recruits from ethnic Koreans in China
Koreans in China
, particularly from Yanbian
Yanbian
, and then enter Korea. By September 1945., the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposal.

Just after World War II
World War II
and during the Soviet Union's occupation of the part of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang
Pyongyang
issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on 12 October 1945. Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, and the force was created on 21 October 1945.

The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, and the formation of the unit was announced on 11 January 1946. That unit was activated on 15 August of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces.

Military
Military
institutes such as the Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Academy (became No. 2 KPA Officers School in Jan. 1949) and the Central Constabulary Academy (became KPA Military
Military
Academy in Dec. 1948) soon followed for education of political and military officers for the new armed forces.

After the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean People's Army
Army
General Headquarters. The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, badges, and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters.

The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of People's Defense, was created as part of the Interim People's Committee on 4 February 1948. The formal creation of the Korean People's Army
Army
was announced on four days later on 8 February, the day after the Fourth Plenary Session of the People’s Assembly approved the plan to separate the roles of the military and those of the police, seven months before the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 9 September 1948. In addition, the Ministry of State for the People's Armed Forces was established, which controlled a central guard battalion, two divisions, and an independent mixed and combined arms brigade.

CONFLICTS AND EVENTS

The Memorial of Soldiers at the Mansudae Grand Monument

Before the outbreak of the Korean War, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
equipped the KPA with modern tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms (at the time, the South Korean Army
Army
had nothing remotely comparable either in numbers of troops or equipment). During the opening phases of the Korean War
Korean War
in 1950, the KPA quickly drove South Korean forces south and captured Seoul
Seoul
, only to lose 70,000 of their 100,000-strong army in the autumn after U.S. amphibious landings at the Battle of Incheon
Battle of Incheon
and a subsequent drive to the Yalu River
Yalu River
. On 4 November, China openly staged a military intervention. On 7 December, Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
was deprived of the right of command of KPA by China. The KPA subsequently played a secondary minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict. By the time of the Armistice in 1953, the KPA had sustained 290,000 casualties and lost 90,000 men as POWs.

In 1953, the Military
Military
Armistice Commission (MAC) was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice. The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), originally made up of delegations from Poland , Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Hungary on the Communist side, and Sweden and Switzerland
Switzerland
on the United Nations
United Nations
side, monitored the activities of the MAC.

Soviet thinking on the strategic scale was replaced since December 1962 with a people\'s war concept. The Soviet idea of direct warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy. Along with the mechanization of some infantry units, more emphasis was put on light weapons, high-angle indirect fire, night fighting, and sea denial.

ORGANIZATION

North Korean soldier, 2005.

COMMISSION AND LEADERSHIP

The primary path for command and control of the KPA extends through the State Affairs Commission which was led by its chairman Kim Jong-il until 2011, to the Ministry of People\'s Armed Forces and its General Staff Department. From there on, command and control flows to the various bureaus and operational units. A secondary path, to ensure political control of the military establishment, extends through the Workers\' Party of Korea 's Central Military
Military
Commission of the Workers\' Party of Korea .

Since 1990, numerous and dramatic transformations within the DPRK have led to the current command and control structure. The details of the majority of these changes are simply unknown to the world. What little is known indicates that many changes were the natural result of the deaths of the aging leadership including Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
(July 1994), Minister of People's Armed Forces O Chin-u (February 1995) and Minister of People's Armed Forces Choi Kwang (February 1997).

The vast majority of changes were undertaken to secure the power and position of Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
. Formerly the State Affairs Commission, from its founding in 1972 (originally the National Defence Commission ), was part of the Central People's Committee while the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, from 1982 onward, was under direct presidential control. At the Eighteenth session of the sixth Central People's Committee, held on 23 May 1990, the SAC became established as its own independent commission, rising to the same status as the CPC (now the Cabinet of North Korea
North Korea
) and not subordinated to it, as was the case before. Concurrent with this, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
was appointed first vice-chairman of the State Affairs Commission. The following year, on 24 December 1991, Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
was appointed Supreme Commander of the Korean People\'s Army
Army
. Four months later, on 20 April 1992, Kim Jong-il was awarded the rank of Marshal and his father, in virtue of being the KPA's founding commander in chief, became Grand Marshal as a result and one year later he became the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission, by now under Supreme People's Assembly control under the then 1992 constitution as amended.

Almost all officers of the KPA have begun their military careers as privates; only very few people are admitted to a military academy without prior service. The results is an egalitarian military system where officers are familiar with the life of a military private and "military nobility" is all but nonexistent.

Within the KPA, between December 1991 and December 1995, nearly 800 high officers (out of approximately 1,200) received promotions and preferential assignments. Three days after Kim Jong-il
Kim Jong-il
became Marshal, eight generals were appointed to the rank of Vice-Marshal. In April 1997, on the 85th anniversary of Kim Il-sung\'s birthday , Kim Jong-il promoted 127 general and admiral grade officers. The following April he ordered the promotions of another 22 generals and flag officers. Along with these changes many KPA officers were appointed to influential positions within the Korean Workers' Party. These promotions continue today, simultaneous with the celebration of Kim Il-sung's birthday and the KPA anniversary celebrations every April and since recently in July to honor the end of the Korean War. Under Kim Jong-il's leadership, political officers dispatched from the party monitored every move of a general’s daily life, according to analysts similar to the work of Soviet political commissars during the early and middle years of the military establishment.

Today the KPA exercises full control of both the Politburo and the Central Military
Military
Commission of the WPK, the KPA General Political and General Staff Departments and the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, all having KPA representatives with a minimum general officer rank. Following changes made during the 4th session of the 13th Supreme People’s Assembly on 29 June 2016, the State Affairs Commission has overseen the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces as part of its systemic responsibilities. All members of the State Affairs Commission have membership status (regular or alternate) on the WPK Political Bureau.

CONSCRIPTION AND TERMS OF SERVICE

Korean People's Army
Army
soldiers

North Korea
North Korea
has universal conscription for males and selective conscription for females with many pre- and post-service requirements. Article 86 of the North Korean Constitution states: "National defence is the supreme duty and honour of citizens. Citizens shall defend the country and serve in the armed forces as required by law."

KPA soldiers serve 3 years of military service in the KPA, which also runs its own factories, farms and trading arms.

Paramilitary
Paramilitary
Organizations

The Young Red Guards are the youth cadet corps of the KPA for secondary level and university level students. Every Saturday, they hold mandatory 4-hour military training drills, and have training activities on and off campus to prepare them for military service when they turn 18 or after graduation, as well as for contingency measures in peacetime.

Under the Ministry of People\'s Security and the wartime control of the Ministry of People\'s Armed Forces , and formerly the Korean People's Security Forces, the Korean People\'s Internal Security Forces forms the national gendarmerie and civil defense force of the KPA. The KPISF has its units in various fields like civil defense, traffic management, civil disturbance control, and local security. It has its own special forces units. The service shares the ranks of the KPA (with the exception of Marshals) but wears different uniforms.

BUDGET AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

The KPA's annual budget is approximately US$6 billion. The U.S. Institute for Science and International Security reports that the DPRK may possess fissile material for around two to nine nuclear warheads . The North Korean Songun (" Military
Military
First") policy elevates the KPA to the primary position in the government and society. Korean People's Army
Army
vehicles on parade

According to North Korea\'s state news agency , military expenditures for 2010 made up 15.8 percent of the state budget. Most analyses of North Korea’s defense sector, however, estimate that defense spending constitutes between one-quarter and one-third of all government spending. As of 2003, according to the International Institute of Strategic Studies, North Korea’s defense budget consumed some 25 percent of central government spending. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, according to figures released by the Polish Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, between 32 and 38 percent of central government expenditures went towards defense. Vice Marshal Jo Myong-rok meets Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
at the White House, October 2000

North Korea
North Korea
sells missiles and military equipment to many countries worldwide. In April 2009, the United Nations
United Nations
named the Korea Mining and Development Trading Corporation (KOMID) as North Korea's primary arms dealer and main exporter of equipment related to ballistic missiles and conventional weapons. It also named Korea Ryonbong as a supporter of North Korea's military related sales.

Historically, North Korea
North Korea
has assisted a vast number of revolutionary, insurgent and terrorist groups in more than 62 countries. A cumulative total of more than 5,000 foreign personnel have been trained in North Korea, and over 7,000 military advisers, primarily from the Reconnaissance Bureau , have been dispatched to some forty-seven countries. Some of the organisations which received North Korean aid include the Polisario Front
Polisario Front
, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna , the Communist Party of Thailand
Communist Party of Thailand
, the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
. The Zimbabwean Fifth Brigade received its initial training from KPA instructors. North Korean troops allegedly saw combat during the Libyan–Egyptian War
Libyan–Egyptian War
and the Angolan Civil War
Angolan Civil War
. Up to 200 KPAF pilots took part in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, scoring several kills against US aircraft. Two KPA anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent to North Vietnam
North Vietnam
as well.

North Korean instructors trained Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters in guerrilla warfare tactics around 2004, prior to the Second Lebanon War
Second Lebanon War
. During the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
, Arabic-speaking KPA officers may have assisted the Syrian Arab Army
Army
in military operations planning and have supervised artillery bombardments in the Aleppo
Aleppo
area.

SERVICE BRANCHES

PEOPLE\'S GROUND FORCE

Koksan , one of North Korea's principal heavy artillery pieces. This example was captured in Iraq. DPRK soldiers standing at the JSA between the blue buildings. Main article: Korean People\'s Army
Army
Ground Force

The Korean People's Army Ground Force (KPAGF) is the main branch of the Korean People's Army
Army
responsible for land-based military operations. It is the de facto army of North Korea
North Korea
.

PEOPLE\'S NAVY

Main article: Korean People\'s Navy

The Korean People's Navy
Korean People's Navy
is organized into two fleets which are not able to support each other. The East Fleet is headquartered at T\'oejo-dong and the West Fleet at Nampho
Nampho
. A number of training, shipbuilding and maintenance units and a naval air wing report directly to Naval Command Headquarters at Pyongyang
Pyongyang
. The majority of the navy's ships are assigned to the East Fleet. Due to the short range of most ships, the two fleets are not known to have ever conducted joint operations or shared vessels.

PEOPLE\'S ARMY AIR FORCE AND AIR DEFENCE FORCES

A former Indonesian Lim-5
Lim-5
on display in the United States
United States
in North Korean markings Main article: Korean People\'s Army
Army
Air Force

The KPAF is also responsible for North Korea's air defence forces through the use of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air (SAM) missiles. While much of the equipment is outdated, the high saturation of multilayered, overlapping, mutually supporting air defence sites provides a formidable challenge to enemy air attacks.

PEOPLE\'S STRATEGIC ROCKET FORCES

Main article: Strategic Rocket Forces (North Korea)

The Korean People's Strategic Rocket Forces is a major division of the KPA that controls the DPRK's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles. It is mainly equipped with surface-to-surface missiles of Soviet and Chinese design, as well as locally developed long-range missiles.

SPECIAL FORCES (11TH SNIPER BRIGADE)

The special forces of the Korean People's Army
Army
are asymmetric forces with a total troop size of 200,000. Since the Korean War
Korean War
(North Korea: the Korean War
Korean War
of Liberation), it has continued to play a role of concentrating infiltration of troops into the territory of the Republic of South Korea
South Korea
and detonating major facilities.

WORKER-PEASANT RED GUARD MILITIA

Main article: Worker-Peasant Red Guards

The Red Guards (1997 complement 3.5 million) is the DPRK equivalent of an Army
Army
Reserve (US)/Home Guard (UK)/National Guard (US)/Territorial Army
Army
(UK). As a part of the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, its service flag enjoys the same status as that of the other services. With units organized from University level down to the village level made of part-time national servicemen and women from all walks of life, it provides the Korean People's Army
Army
with a ready-available pool of trained reinforcements during both peacetime and wartime deployments. As part of its responsibilities as a national militia, the WPRG also reports to the Workers' Party of Korea's Military
Military
Affairs Department (until 2010 it reported also to the Civil Defense Department).

CAPABILITIES

Semi-submersible infiltration craft used by North Korean Special Forces

After the Korean War, North Korea
North Korea
maintained a powerful, but smaller military force than that of South Korea. In 1967 the KPA forces of about 345,000 were much smaller than the South Korean ground forces of about 585,000. North Korea's relative isolation and economic plight starting from the 1980s has now tipped the balance of military power into the hands of the better-equipped South Korean military. In response to this predicament, North Korea
North Korea
relies on asymmetric warfare techniques and unconventional weaponry to achieve parity against high-tech enemy forces. North Korea
North Korea
is reported to have developed a wide range of technologies towards this end, such as stealth paint to conceal ground targets, midget submarines and human torpedoes , blinding laser weapons , and probably has a chemical weapons program and is likely to possess a stockpile of chemical weapons. The Korean People's Army
Army
operates ZM-87 anti-personnel lasers, which are banned under the United Nations
United Nations
Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons .

Since the 1980s, North Korea
North Korea
has also been actively developing its own cyber warfare capabilities. As of 2014, the secretive Bureau 121 - the elite North Korean cyber warfare unit - comprises approximately 1,800 highly trained hackers. In December 2014, the Bureau was accused of hacking Sony and making threats, leading to the cancellation of The Interview , a comedy based on the assassination of Kim Jong-un. The Korean People's Army
Army
has also made advances in electronic warfare by developing GPS
GPS
jammers. Current models include vehicle-mounted jammers with a range of 50 kilometres (31 mi)-100 kilometres (62 mi). Jammers with a range of more than 100 km are being developed, along with electromagnetic pulse bombs . The Korean People's Army
Army
has also made attempts to jam South Korean military satellites. North Korea does not have satellites capable of obtaining satellite imagery useful for military purposes, and appears to use imagery from foreign commercial platforms.

Despite the general fuel and ammunition shortages for training, it is estimated that the wartime strategic reserves of food for the army are sufficient to feed the regular troops for 500 days, while fuel and ammunition - amounting to 1.5 million and 1.7 million tonnes respectively - are sufficient to wage a full-scale war for 100 days.

The KPA does not operate aircraft carriers , but has other means of power projection . Korean People's Air Force Il-76MD aircraft provide a strategic airlift capacity of 6,000 troops, while the Navy's sea lift capacity amounts to 15,000 troops. The Strategic Rocket Forces operate more than 1,000 ballistic missiles according to South Korean officials in 2010, although the U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Defense
reported in 2012 that North Korea
North Korea
has fewer than 200 missile launchers. North Korea acquired 12 Foxtrot class and Golf-II class missile submarines as scrap in 1993. Some analysts suggest that these have either been refurbished with the help of Russian experts or their launch tubes have been reverse-engineered and externally fitted to regular submarines or cargo ships. However GlobalSecurity reports that the submarines were rust-eaten hulks with the launch tubes inactivated under Russian observation before delivery, and the U.S. Department of Defense does not list them as active.

A photograph of Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
receiving a briefing from his top generals on 29 March 2013 showed a list that purported to show that the military had a minimum of 40 submarines, 13 landing ships, 6 minesweepers, 27 support vessels and 1,852 aircraft.

The Korean People's Army
Army
operates a very large amount of equipment, including 4,100 tanks , 2,100 APCs , 8,500 field artillery pieces, 5,100 multiple rocket launchers , 11,000 air defense guns and some 10,000 MANPADS
MANPADS
and anti-tank guided missiles in the Ground force; about 500 vessels in the Navy and 730 combat aircraft in the Air Force, of which 478 are fighters and 180 are bombers. North Korea also has the largest special forces in the world, as well as the largest submarine fleet. The equipment is a mixture of World War II vintage vehicles and small arms, widely proliferated Cold War technology, and more modern Soviet or locally produced weapons.

North Korea
North Korea
possesses a vast array of long range artillery in shelters just north of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. It has been a long-standing cause for concern that a preemptive strike or retaliatory strike on Seoul
Seoul
using this arsenal of artillery north of the Demilitarized Zone would lead to a massive loss of life in Seoul. Estimates on how many people would die in an attack on Seoul
Seoul
vary. When the Clinton administration mobilized forces over the reactor at Yongbyon in 1994, planners concluded that retaliation by North Korea against Seoul
Seoul
could kill 40,000 people. Other estimates projects hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of fatalities if North Korea uses chemical munitions.

MILITARY EQUIPMENT

WEAPONS

The KPA possess a variety of Chinese and Soviet sourced equipment and weaponry, as well as locally produced versions and improvements of the former. Soldiers are mostly armed with indigenous Kalashnikov-type rifles as the standard issue weapon. Front line troops are issued the Type 88 , while the older Type 58 assault rifle and Type 68A/B have been shifted to rear echelon or home guard units. A rifle of unknown nomenclature was seen during the 2017 'Day of the Sun' military parade, appearing to consist of a grenade launcher and a standard assault rifle, similar to the U.S OICW
OICW
or South Korean Sborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* North Korea
North Korea
portal

* Korean conflict
Korean conflict
* Republic of Korea Armed Forces * Songun

NOTES

* ^ https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/Military_and_Security_Developments_Involving_the_Democratic_Peoples_Republic_of_Korea_2015.PDF * ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies
(2010-02-03). Hackett, James, ed. The Military
Military
Balance 2010. London
London
: Routledge
Routledge
. ISBN 1-85743-557-5 . * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-10. World Wide Military
Military
Expenditures * ^ Pike, John. " Military
Military
Spending". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.

* ^ " North Korea
North Korea
in financial trouble after blowing $100 million on tributes to dead leader Kim Jong-il". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ " North Korea
North Korea
Exports $100 Million a Year in Arms, UN Report Says". Bloomberg. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. * ^ UNFPA (1 October 2009). 한반도 인구 7천400만명 시대 임박 (IN KOREAN). UNITED NATIONS. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 24 MAY 2013. RETRIEVED 21 NOVEMBER 2012. * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-19. * ^ See "Puk chuyo’gi’nyŏm’il 5-10 nyŏnmada taegyumo yŏlpyŏngsik" ( North Korea
North Korea
Holds Large Military
Military
Parades for Anniversaries Every 5-10 years), Chosŏn Ilbo, 25 April 2007; Chang Jun-ik, "Pukhan Inmingundaesa" (History of the North Korean Military), Seoul, Sŏmundang, 1991, pp. 19-88; Kim Kwang-su, "Chosŏninmingun’ŭi ch’angsŏlgwa palchŏn, 1945~1990" (Foundation and Development of the Korean People’s Army, 1945~1990), Chapter Two in Kyŏngnam University North Korean Studies Graduate School, Pukhan’gunsamunje’ŭi chaejomyŏng (The Military
Military
of North Korea: A New Look), Seoul, Hanul Academy, 2006, pp. 63-78. * ^ Elleman, Bruce. Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Routledge
Routledge
(2014). pp. 116-117 * ^ A B C D Scobell, Andrew; Sandford, John M. (April 2007). "North Korea\'s Military
Military
Threat" (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014. * ^ James M. Minnich, The North Korean People’s Army, p. 36 * ^ Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, MAO: The Unknown Story. * ^ "The Evolution of North Korean Military
Military
Thought". North Korea Country Study. Library of Congress Country Studies . 1993. * ^ United States
United States
Department of Defense Virtual Information Center, North Korea
North Korea
Primer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. accessed 27 June 2011 * ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor (6 June 2016). "The good things in North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ A B Sang-hun, Choe (24 December 2011). " Kim Jong-un
Kim Jong-un
Hailed as Supreme Commander of North Korea\'s Military". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2017 – via NYTimes.com. * ^ "Chapter V, Article 86". Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People\'s Republic of Korea (PDF). Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2014. p. 18. ISBN 978-9946-0-1099-1 . Archived from the original on 8 June 2016 Amended and supplemented on April 1, Juche
Juche
102 (2013), at the Seventh Session of the Twelfth Supreme People's Assembly. * ^ ISIS Fast Facts on North Korea
North Korea
Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.; accessed 21 April 2009 * ^ "Report on Implementation of 2009 Budget and 2010 Budget". Korean Central News Agency
Korean Central News Agency
. 9 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. * ^ Military
Military
Balance, 2004-2005, pp. 353-357. * ^ Scobell, Going Out of Business, p. 14, Table 2, p. 17. * ^ A B C Bradley Martin, Bradley Martin (25 March 2013). "The Regime That Will Not Die: The North Korean Hybrid Threat". International Affairs Review. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ "UN Listing of KOMID and Ryonbong" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ "Relations with the Third World". North Korea
North Korea
Country Study. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
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* This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army
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document "North Korea\'s Military
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Threat".

REFERENCES

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