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Previously used:

Alderney, Herm England
England
(see Norman England) Ireland
Ireland
(see: Norman Ireland) Canada
Canada
(formerly used to a certain degree in Eastern Canada
Canada
and Quebec) Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
(used in a limited degree) Principality of Antioch

Region Normandy
Normandy
and the Channel Islands

Native speakers

Unknown due to conflicting definitions (2017)

Auregnais: 0 (extinct)[1] Guernésiais: ~1,300 (has government support) Jèrriais: ~4,000 (has government support)[1] Sercquiais: <20 in 1998 (highly endangered)[1] Augeron: <100 (highly endangered) Cauchois: ~50,000 (has local support) Cotentinais: ~50,000 (has local support)

Language family

Indo-European

Italic

Romance

Western

Gallo-Romance

Oïl

Norman

Dialects

Auregnais Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Augeron Cauchois Cotentinais

Writing system

Latin (French orthography)

Language codes

ISO 639-3 nrf (partial: Guernésiais
Guernésiais
& Jèrriais)

Glottolog norm1245  Norman[2]

Linguasphere 51-AAA-hc & 51-AAA-hd

Areas where the Norman language
Norman language
is strongest include Jersey, Guernsey, the Cotentin and the Pays de Caux.

Norman (Normaund, French: Normand, Guernésiais: Normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) is a French dialect
French dialect
which can be classified as one of the Oïl languages along with Picard and Walloon. The name Norman-French is sometimes used to describe not only the Norman language, but also the administrative languages of Anglo-Norman and Law French
Law French
used in England. For the most part, the written forms of Norman and modern French are mutually intelligible.

Contents

1 Geographical distribution 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External links

Geographical distribution[edit] Norman is spoken in mainland Normandy
Normandy
in France
France
- where it has no official status, but is classed as a regional language. It is taught in a few colleges near Cherbourg-Octeville. In the Channel Islands, the Norman language
Norman language
has developed separately, but not in isolation, to form:

Jèrriais
Jèrriais
(in Jersey) Guernésiais
Guernésiais
or Dgèrnésiais or Guernsey
Guernsey
French (in Guernsey) Sercquiais (or Sarkese, in Sark)

The British and Irish governments recognize Jèrriais
Jèrriais
and Guernésiais as regional languages within the framework of the British–Irish Council. Sercquiais is in fact a descendant of the 16th-century Jèrriais
Jèrriais
used by the original colonists from Jersey
Jersey
who settled the then uninhabited island. The last first-language speakers of Auregnais, the dialect of Norman spoken on Alderney, died during the 20th century, although some rememberers still exist. The dialect of Herm
Herm
also lapsed, at an unknown date. An isogloss termed the "Joret line" (ligne Joret) separates the northern and southern dialects of the Norman language
Norman language
(the line runs from Granville, Manche
Granville, Manche
to the French-speaking Belgian border in the province of Hainaut and Thiérache). Dialectal differences also distinguish western and eastern dialects.[citation needed] Three different standardized spellings are used: continental Norman, Jèrriais, and Dgèrnésiais. These represent the different developments and particular literary histories of the varieties of Norman. Norman may therefore be described as a pluricentric language. The Anglo-Norman dialect of Norman served as a language of administration in England
England
following the Norman conquest of England
England
in 1066. This left a legacy of Law French
Law French
in the language of English courts (though it was also influenced by Parisian French). In Ireland, Norman remained strongest in the area of south-east Ireland, where the Hiberno-Normans
Hiberno-Normans
invaded in 1169. Norman remains in (limited) use for some very formal legal purposes in the UK, such as when the monarch gives royal assent to an Act of Parliament using the phrase, "La Reyne (le Roy) le veult" ("The Queen (the King) wills it"). The Norman conquest of southern Italy
Norman conquest of southern Italy
in the 11th and 12th centuries brought the language to Sicily
Sicily
and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, where it has left a few traces in the Sicilian language. See: Norman and French influence on Sicilian. Literature in Norman ranges from early Anglo-Norman literature through the 19th-century Norman literary renaissance to modern writers (see list of Norman-language writers). As of 2017[update] the Norman language
Norman language
remains strongest in the less accessible areas of the former Duchy of Normandy: the Channel Islands and the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
(Cotentinais) in the west, and the Pays de Caux (Cauchois dialect) in the east. Ease of access from Paris
Paris
and the popularity of the coastal resorts of central Normandy, such as Deauville, in the 19th century led to a significant loss of distinctive Norman culture in the central low-lying areas of Normandy. History[edit] Further information: Old Norman When Norse invaders from modern day Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
arrived in the then-province of Neustria
Neustria
and settled the land that became known as Normandy, these Germanic-speaking people came to live among a local Romance-speaking population. In time, the communities converged, so that Normandy
Normandy
continued to form the name of the region while the original Normans became assimilated by the Gallo-Romance people, adopting their speech. Later when conquering England, the Norman rulers in England
England
would eventually assimilate, thereby adopting the speech of the local English. However, in both cases, the élites contributed elements of their own language to the newly enriched languages that developed in the territories. In Normandy, the new Norman language
Norman language
inherited vocabulary from Old Norse. The influence on phonology is more disputed, although it is argued that the retention of aspirated /h/ and /k/ in Norman is due to Norse influence. Examples of Norman words of Norse origin:

English Norman Old Norse Scandinavian reflexes French

bait baite, bète, abète beita beita (Icelandic), beite (Norw.), bete (Swed.) appât

down dun, dum, dumet, deumet dúnn dúnn (Icelandic), dun (Swed., Norw., Dan.) duvet (from Norman)

earthnut, groundnut, pignut, peanut génotte, gernotte, jarnotte *jarðhnot jarðhneta (Ice.), jordnøtt (Norw.), jordnöt (Swed.), jordnød (Dan.) terre-noix

(black) currant gade, gadelle, gradelle, gradille gaddʀ (-) cassis, groseille

slide, slip griller, égriller, écriller *skriðla skrilla (Old Swed.), skriða (Icelandic), skride (Dan.) overskride (Norw.) glisser

islet hommet/houmet hólmʀ hólmur (Icelandic), holme (Swed.), holm (Norw., Dan.) îlot, rocher en mer

mound (cf. howe, high) hougue haugʀ haugur (Ice.), haug (Norw.), hög (Swe.), høj (Dan.) monticule

seagull mauve, mave, maôve mávaʀ (pl.) mávar (pl.) (Icelandic), måge (Dan.), måke/måse (Norw.), mås (Swed.) mouette, goëland

dune, sandy land mielle, mièle melʀ mjele (Norw.), mjälla (Swed.), mile (Dan.) dune, terrain sableux

beach grass, dune grass milgreu, melgreu *melgrös, pl. of *melgras melgras (Icelandic) oyat

damp (cf. muggy), humid mucre mykr (cf. English muck) myk (Norw.) humide

ness (headland or cliff, cf. Sheerness, etc.) nez nes nes (Norw., Icelandic), næs (Dan.), näs (Swed.) cap, pointe de côte

wicket (borrowed from Norman) viquet, (-vic, -vy, -vouy in place-names) vík vík (Icelandic), vik (Norw., Swed.), vig (Dan.) guichet (borrowed from Norman)

In some cases, Norse words adopted in Norman have been borrowed into French – and more recently some of the English words used in French can be traced back to Norman origins.

A bar named in Norman

Following the Norman conquest of England
England
in 1066, the Norman language spoken by the new rulers of England
England
left traces of specifically Norman words that can be distinguished from the equivalent lexical items in French:

English Norman French

fashion < faichon = façon

cabbage < caboche = chou (cf. caboche)

castle < castel (borrowed from Occitan) = château, castelet

cauldron < caudron = chaudron

causeway < caucie (now cauchie)[3] = chaussée

catch < cachier (now cachi)[4] = chasser

cater < acater = acheter

cherry (ies) < cherise (chrise, chise ) = cerise

mug < mogue/moque[5] = mug, boc

poor < paur = pauvre

wait < waitier (Old Norman) = gaitier (mod. guetter )

war < werre (Old Norman) = guerre

warrior < werreur (Old Norman) = guerrier

wicket < viquet = guichet (cf. piquet)

Other borrowings, such as captain, kennel, cattle and canvas, exemplify how Norman retained Latin /k/ that was not retained in French. Norman immigrants to North America
North America
also introduced some "Normanisms" to Quebec French and the French language
French language
in Canada
Canada
generally. Joual, a working class sociolect of Quebec, in particular exhibits a Norman influence. Some expressions that are currently in use in Canada
Canada
are:

abrier = y faut s'abrier, y fait frète!; French abriter asteure = French maintenant. Adaptation from modern English (at this hour) meaning; now, English maintenant, French. "a cette heure" pronounced "asteure" barrure = French barre ber = French berceau bers = French ridelles d'un chariot bleuet = French myrtille champelure variant form of Norman campleuse = French robinet croche = French tordu garnotte = French terre-noix gourgannes = French fêves de marais gourgane = French bajoue de porc fumée gricher for Norman grigner = French grimacer *grafigner for [gratter légèrement et sans cesse] *graffigner for [égratigner] greyer or greiller for [préparer] ichite or icite for [ici] itou for [aussi] jouquer or juquer for [jucher]* mitan for [milieu] marcou for [chat mâle (angevin, gallo, également)] marganner for [déganer] maganer for [maltraiter ou malmener] pigoche for [cheville] pognie for [poignée] pomonique for [pulmonique] racoin for [recoin] ramarrer for [rattacher] ramucrir, for [devenir humide] (see above mucre) mucrerancer for [avoir la respiration gênée et bruyante, lever, pousser avec un levier] ressoudre for [réveiller, activer], sacraer for [sacrer (arrête de sacrer!)] v'lin for [venin] vlimeux for [velimeux] v'lo for [voilà] y for [il, ils, elles (qu'est-ce qu'y fait ?)] zius for [yeux].[6]

See also[edit]

Norman edition of, the free encyclopedia

Norman toponymy Joret line

References[edit]

^ a b c BBC Voices - Jerriais ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Norman". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Causeway" ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Catch" ^ The Oxford English Dictionary. entry on "Mug¹" states that the origin of this word is uncertain—it may have been a borrowing from Norman, or it may have come from another source, and been reinforced through Norman. ^ Jean-Eugène Decorde (1852). Dictionnaire du patois du pays de Bray. 

Sources[edit]

Essai de grammaire de la langue normande, UPN, 1995. ISBN 2-9509074-0-7. V'n-ous d'aveu mei? UPN, 1984. La Normandie dialectale, 1999, ISBN 2-84133-076-1 Alain Marie, Les auteurs patoisants du Calvados, 2005. ISBN 2-84706-178-9. Roger Jean Lebarbenchon, Les Falaises de la Hague, 1991. ISBN 2-9505884-0-9. Jean-Louis Vaneille, Les patoisants bas-normands, n.d., Saint-Lô. André Dupont, Dictionnaire des patoisants du Cotentin, Société d'archéologie de la Manche, Saint-Lô, 1992. Geraint Jennings and Yan Marquis, "The Toad and the Donkey: an anthology of Norman literature from the Channel Islands", 2011, ISBN 978-1-903427-61-3

External links[edit]

 "Norman French". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Norman language

Channel Island dialects

Auregnais (Alderney) Guernésiais/Dgèrnésiais (Guernsey) Jèrriais
Jèrriais
(Jersey) Sercquiais/Sèrtchais (Sark)

Continental dialects

Augeron
Augeron
(Pays d'Auge) Cauchois (Pays de Caux) Cotentinais
Cotentinais
(Cotentin)

Historic and legal

Anglo-Norman Jersey
Jersey
Legal French (highly influenced by Jèrriais) Law French Old Norman

Literature

List of Norman language
Norman language
writers Jèrriais
Jèrriais
literature Anglo-Norman literature

v t e

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Romance languages
(Classification)

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Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

v t e

 Languages of Sicily

Official language

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Contemporary languages

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