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Noise
Noise
is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint, noise is indistinguishable from sound, as both are vibrations through a medium, such as air or water. The difference arises when the brain receives and perceives a sound.[1][2] In experimental sciences, noise can refer to any random fluctuations of data that hinders perception of an expected signal.[3][4] Acoustic noise is any sound in the acoustic domain, either deliberate (e.g., music or speech) or unintended. In contrast, noise in electronics may not be audible to the human ear and may require instruments for detection.[5] In audio engineering, noise can refer to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as a hiss. This signal noise is commonly measured using A-weighting[6] or ITU-R 468 weighting.[7]

Contents

1 Measurement 2 Recording and reproduction 3 White noise 4 Environmental noise 5 Regulation of noise

5.1 United States

5.1.1 Noise
Noise
in the workplace

5.2 Europe

6 Health effects from noise

6.1 Prevention

7 Literary views 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Measurement[edit]

NTi Audio sound level meter measuring noise amplitude in decibels

Sound
Sound
is measured[8] based on the amplitude and frequency of a sound wave. Amplitude
Amplitude
measures how forceful the wave is. The energy in a sound wave is measured in decibels (dB), the measure of loudness, or intensity of a sound; this measurement describes the amplitude of a sound wave. Decibels (dB) are expressed in a logarithmic scale. On the other hand, pitch describes the frequency of a sound and is measured in hertz (Hz).[9] A-weighting
A-weighting
is applied to a sound spectrum to represent the sound that humans are capable of hearing at each frequency. Sound
Sound
pressure is thus expressed in terms of dBA. 0 dBA is the softest level that a person can hear. Normal speaking voices are around 65 dBA. A rock concert can be about 120 dBA. Recording and reproduction[edit] In audio, recording, and broadcast systems, audio noise refers to the residual low-level sound (four major types: hiss, rumble, crackle, and hum) that is heard in quiet periods of program. This variation from the expected pure sound or silence can be caused by the audio recording equipment, the instrument, or ambient noise in the recording room.[10] In audio engineering it can refer either to the acoustic noise from loudspeakers or to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as 'hiss'. This signal noise is commonly measured using A-weighting
A-weighting
or ITU-R 468 weighting Noise
Noise
is often generated deliberately and used as a test signal for audio recording and reproduction equipment. White noise[edit] Main article: White noise

White Noise

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White noise
White noise
is energy randomly spread across a wide frequency band containing all notes from high to low. It is called "white" noise as it is analogous to "white" light which contains all the colors of the visible spectrum.[11] Environmental noise[edit] Main article: Environmental noise Environmental noise
Environmental noise
is the accumulation of all noise present in a specified environment. The principal sources of environmental noise are surface motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and industrial sources.[12] These noise sources expose millions of people to noise pollution that creates not only annoyance, but also significant health consequences such as elevated incidence of hearing loss and cardiovascular disease.[13] There are a variety of mitigation strategies and controls available to reduce sound levels including source intensity reduction, land-use planning strategies, noise barriers and sound baffles, time of day use regimens, vehicle operational controls and architectural acoustics design measures. Regulation of noise[edit] Main article: Noise
Noise
regulation Certain geographic areas or specific occupations may be at a higher risk of being exposed to constantly high levels of noise; in order to prevent negative health outcomes, regulations may be set. Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. Environmental noise
Environmental noise
is governed by laws and standards which set maximum recommended levels of noise for specific land uses, such as residential areas, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or schools. These standards usually specify measurement using a weighting filter, most often A-weighting.[14][15] United States[edit] In 1972, the Noise Control Act was passed to promote a healthy living environment for all Americans, where noise does not pose a threat to human health. This policy's main objectives were: (1) establish coordination of research in the area of noise control, (2) establish federal standards on noise emission for commercial products, and (3) promote public awareness about noise emission and reduction.[16][17] The Quiet Communities Act of 1978 promotes noise control programs at the state and local level and developed a research program on noise control.[18] Both laws authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to study the effects of noise and evaluate regulations regarding noise control.[19] Noise
Noise
in the workplace[edit] In the US, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) provides recommendation on noise exposure in the workplace.[20][21] In 1972 (revised in 1998), NIOSH published a document outlining recommended standards relating to the occupational exposure to noise, with the purpose of reducing the risk of developing permanent hearing loss related to exposure at work.[22] This publication set the recommended exposure limit (REL) of noise in an occupation setting to 85 dBA for 8 hours. However, in 1973 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) maintained the requirement of an 8-hour average of 90 dBA. The following year, OSHA required employers to provide a hearing conservation program to workers exposed to 85 dBA average 8-hour workdays.[23] Europe[edit] The European Environment Agency
European Environment Agency
regulates noise control and surveillance within the European Union.[24] The Environmental Noise Directive was set to determine levels of noise exposure, increase public access to information regarding environmental noise, and reduce environmental noise.[25][26] Additionally, in the European Union, underwater noise is a pollutant according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).[27] The MSFD requires EU Member States to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status, meaning that the "introduction of energy, including underwater noise, is at levels that do not adversely affect the marine environment".[27] Health effects from noise[edit] Main articles: Health effects from noise
Health effects from noise
and Noise-induced hearing loss

Earplugs can be used to protect the user's ears from loud noises.

Exposure to noise is associated with several negative health outcomes. Depending on duration and level of exposure, noise may cause or increase the likelihood of hearing loss, high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, sleep disturbances, injuries, and even decreased school performance.[28] There are also causal relationships between noise and psychological effects such as annoyance, psychiatric disorders, and effects on psychosocial well-being.[29] Noise
Noise
exposure has increasingly been identified as a public health issue, especially in an occupational setting, as demonstrated with the creation of NIOSH's Noise
Noise
and Hearing
Hearing
Loss Prevention program.[30] Noise
Noise
has also proven to be an occupational hazard, as it is the most common work-related pollutant.[31] Noise-induced hearing loss, when associate with exposures from the workplace is also called occupational hearing loss. Prevention[edit] While noise-induced hearing loss is permanent, it is also very preventable.[32] Particularly in the workplace, regulations may exist depicting maximum allowed levels of noise. This can be especially important for professionals working in settings with consistent exposure to loud sounds, such as musicians, music teachers and sound engineers.[33] Examples of measures taken to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in the workplace include engineering noise control, the Buy-Quiet initiative, creation of the Safe-in- Sound
Sound
Award, and noise surveillance.[34][35][36] Literary views[edit] Roland Barthes
Roland Barthes
distinguishes between physiological noise, which is merely heard, and psychological noise, which is actively listened to. Physiological noise is felt subconsciously as the vibrations of the noise (sound) waves physically interact with the body while psychological noise is perceived as our conscious awareness shifts its attention to that noise.[37] Luigi Russolo, one of the first composers of noise music,[38] wrote the essay The Art of Noises. He argues that any kind of noise could be used as music, as audiences become more familiar with noises caused by technological advancements; noise has become so prominent that pure sound no longer exists.[39] Henry Cowell
Henry Cowell
claims that technological advancements have reduced unwanted noises from machines, but have not managed so far to completely eliminate them.[40] See also[edit]

Association of Noise
Noise
Consultants Background noise Impulse noise (audio) International Noise
Noise
Awareness Day Intonarumori Loud music Noise
Noise
and vibration on maritime vessels Noise
Noise
calculation Noise
Noise
control Noise
Noise
in music Noise
Noise
music Noise
Noise
pollution Noise
Noise
reduction Noise
Noise
(other) Silence Sound
Sound
level meter Soundscape The Hum

References[edit]

^ Elert, Glenn. "The Nature of Sound
Sound
– The Physics Hypertextbook". physics.info. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ "The Propagation of sound". pages.jh.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ "Definition of NOISE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ "noise: definition of noise in Oxford dictionary (American English) (US)". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ "What's The Difference Between Acoustical And Electrical Noise
Noise
In Components?". electronicdesign.com. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ Richard L. St. Pierre, Jr.; Daniel J. Maguire (July 2004), The Impact of A-weighting
A-weighting
Sound
Sound
Pressure Level Measurements during the Evaluation of Noise
Noise
Exposure (PDF), retrieved 2011-09-13  ^ "RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BS.468-4 – Measurement of audio-frequency noise voltage" (PDF). www.itu.int. International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 18 October 2016.  ^ Audio, NTi. "How to measure noise". nti-audio.com. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ "Measuring sound". Sciencelearn Hub. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ "Audio Noise-Hiss, Hum, Rumble & Crackle". AudioShapers. Retrieved 2016-06-23.  ^ Elliot, Barry J. (2002). Designing a Structured Cabling System to ISO 11801 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8247-4130-3.  ^ Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Matheson, Mark P. (2003-12-01). "Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health". British Medical Bulletin. 68 (1): 243–257. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldg033. ISSN 0007-1420. PMID 14757721.  ^ "EHP – Environmental Noise
Noise
Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response". ehp.niehs.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-07-02. Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ Bhatia, Rajiv (May 20, 2014). " Noise
Noise
Pollution: Managing the Challenge of Urban Sounds". Earth Journalism Network. Retrieved June 23, 2016.  ^ " Noise
Noise
Ordinance: Noise
Noise
Regulations from U.S. Cities". www.kineticsnoise.com. Retrieved 2016-06-23.  ^ EPA, OA, OP, ORPM, RMD, US. "Summary of the Noise
Noise
Control Act". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-16. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Noise Control Act of 1972, P.L. 92-574, 86 Stat. 1234, 42 U.S.C. § 4901 – 42 U.S.C. § 4918. ^ "Text of S. 3083 (95th): Quiet Communities Act (Passed Congress/Enrolled Bill version) – GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved 2016-06-16.  ^ EPA, OAR, OAA, IO, US. "Title IV – Noise
Noise
Pollution". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-16. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "CDC – Facts and Statistics: Noise
Noise
– NIOSH Workplace Safety & Health". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "CDC – NIOSH Science Blog – Understanding Noise
Noise
Exposure Limits: Occupational vs. General Environmental Noise". blogs.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "CDC – NIOSH Publications and Products – Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Noise
Noise
(73-11001)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "OSHA Technical Manual (OTM) Section III: Chapter 5 – Noise". www.osha.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "Noise: Policy Context". European Environmental Agency. June 3, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.  ^ "Directive – Noise
Noise
– Environment – European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-06-16.  ^ "Standard Summary Project Fiche: Implementation Capacity for Environmental Noise
Noise
Directive" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved June 16, 2016.  ^ a b "Our Oceans, Seas and Coasts". europa.eu.  ^ Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F (2000-03-01). " Noise
Noise
exposure and public health". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (Suppl 1): 123–131. doi:10.2307/3454637. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 1637786 . PMID 10698728.  ^ Passchier-Vermeer, Willy (March 1, 2000). " Noise
Noise
Exposure and Public Health". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (Suppl 1): 123–131. doi:10.2307/3454637. PMC 1637786 . PMID 10698728.  ^ "CDC – Noise
Noise
and Hearing
Hearing
Loss Prevention – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topi". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ Masterson, Elizabeth (2016-04-27). "Measuring the Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "Noise-induced Hearing
Hearing
Loss". National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). National Institute of Health. March 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2016.  ^ Kardous, Chuck; Morata, Thais; Themann, Christa; Spears, Patricia; Afanuh, Sue (2015-07-07). "Turn it Down: Reducing the Risk of Hearing Disorders Among Musicians". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ Murphy, William; Tak, SangWoo (2009-11-24). "Workplace Hearing Loss". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ "Buy Quiet". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-06-16.  ^ Hudson, Heidi; Hayden, Chuck (2011-11-04). "Buy Quiet". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ Barthes, Roland (1985). The Responsibility of Forms: Critical Essays on Music, Art and Representation. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 9780809080755.  ^ Chilvers, Ian; Glaves-Smith, John, eds. (2009). A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 619–620. ISBN 978-0-19-923965-8. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Russolo, Luigi (2004). "The art of noises: futurist manifesto". In Cox, Christoph; Warner, Daniel, eds. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum. pp. 10ff. ISBN 978-0-8264-1615-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Cowell, Henry (2004). "The joys of noise". In Cox, Christoph; Warner, Daniel, eds. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8264-1615-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

Further reading[edit]

Kosko, Bart (2006). Noise. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03495-9.  Schwartz, Hillel (2011). Making Noise: From Babel to the Big Bang & Beyond. New York: Zone Books. ISBN 978-1-935408-12-3. 

External links[edit]

Look up noise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sound

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noise.

Guidelines for Community Noise, World Health Organization, 1999 Audio Measuring Articles – Electronics Mohr on Receiver Noise: Characterization, Insights & Surprises Noise
Noise
voltage – Calculation and Measuring of Thermal Noise Noise
Noise
at work European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) Article " Noise
Noise
Control Techniques" Mountain & Plains ERC: A NIOSH Education and Research Center for Occupational & Environmental Health & Safety US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, – Noise European noise laws Addressing Wind Turbine Noise[permanent dead link] Noise
Noise
Pollution Clearing House Introduction to the fundamentals of acoustic engineering

v t e

Noise
Noise
(physics and telecommunications)

General

Acoustic quieting Distortion Noise
Noise
cancellation Noise
Noise
control Noise
Noise
measurement Noise
Noise
power Noise
Noise
reduction Noise
Noise
temperature Phase distortion

Noise
Noise
in...

Audio Buildings Electronics Environment Government regulation Human health Images Radio Rooms Ships Sound
Sound
masking Transportation Video

Class of noise

Additive white Gaussian noise
Additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) Atmospheric noise Background noise Brownian noise Burst noise Cosmic noise Flicker noise Gaussian noise Grey noise Jitter Johnson–Nyquist noise
Johnson–Nyquist noise
(thermal noise) Pink noise Quantization error
Quantization error
(or q. noise) Shot noise White noise Coherent noise

Value noise Gradient noise Worley noise

Engineering terms

Channel noise level Circuit noise level Effective input noise temperature Equivalent noise resistance Equivalent pulse code modulation noise Impulse noise (audio) Noise
Noise
figure Noise
Noise
floor Noise
Noise
shaping Noise
Noise
spectral density Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) Phase noise Pseudorandom noise Statistical noise

Ratios

Carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) Carrier-to-receiver noise density (C/kT) dBrnC Eb/N0
Eb/N0
(energy per bit to noise density) Es/N0 (energy per symbol to noise density) Modulation error ratio (MER) Signal, noise and distortion (SINAD) Signal-to-interference ratio (S/I) Signal-to-noise ratio
Signal-to-noise ratio
(S/N, SNR) Signal-to-noise ratio
Signal-to-noise ratio
(imaging) Signal to noise plus interference (SNIR) Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR) Contrast-to-noise ratio
Contrast-to-noise ratio
(CNR)

Related topics

List of noise topics Acoustics Colors of noise Interference (communication) Noise
Noise
generator Radio noise source Spectrum analyzer Thermal radiation

v t e

Timbre

Colors of noise Fundamental frequency Jivari Loudness Microinflection Noise Overtone Pitch Rustle noise Sawari Spectral envelope Sympathetic string Tonality Waveform

Authority control

GND: 41292

.