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Next to Normal
Next to Normal
(stylized as next to normal) is a 2008 American rock musical with book and lyrics by Brian Yorkey and music by Tom Kitt. The story centers around a mother who struggles with worsening bipolar disorder and the effects that her illness and its management have had on her family. The musical also addresses the issues of grief, suicide, drug abuse, ethics in modern psychiatry and the underbelly of suburban life. Next to Normal
Next to Normal
received several workshop performances before its Off-Broadway debut, winning the Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding New Score and receiving Drama Desk Awards nominations for Outstanding Actress (Alice Ripley) and Outstanding Score. After an Off-Broadway run, the show played at the Arena Stage
Arena Stage
in its temporary venue in Virginia
Virginia
from November 2008 to January 2009. The musical opened on Broadway in April 2009. It was nominated for eleven 2009 Tony Awards
2009 Tony Awards
and won three: Best Original Score, Best Orchestration and Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical for Alice Ripley. It also won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Drama, becoming the eighth musical in history to receive the honor. The previous musical to win the Pulitzer was Rent in 1996, which was also directed by Michael Greif. In awarding the prize to Kitt and Yorkey, the Pulitzer Board called the show "a powerful rock musical that grapples with mental illness in a suburban family and expands the scope of subject matter for musicals."[1] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
has been called one of the best musicals of the 21st century and its soundtrack one of the best original soundtracks in a musical due to its graceful handling of its dark, complex subject matter and its moving and brutally honest exploration into pain.[2][3][4] The first US national tour launched in November 2010, with Alice Ripley reprising her Broadway role; the tour concluded in July 2011. The Broadway production closed in January 2011 after more than 700 performances. There have been numerous international productions.

Contents

1 Synopsis

1.1 Act I 1.2 Act II

2 Characters 3 Musical numbers 4 Mental illness in Next to Normal

4.1 Bipolar I disorder 4.2 Treatment of bipolar disorder

5 Productions

5.1 Development 5.2 Off-Broadway and Virginia
Virginia
(2008–09) 5.3 Broadway (2009–11)

5.3.1 Twitter
Twitter
promotional campaign

5.4 First national tour (2010–11)

6 International

6.1 Scandinavia 6.2 Asia 6.3 Australia 6.4 South America 6.5 Europe

7 Casts 8 Literary references and allusions 9 Pulitzer Prize controversy 10 Major awards and nominations

10.1 Original Off-Broadway production 10.2 Original Virginia
Virginia
production 10.3 Original Broadway production

11 References 12 External links

Synopsis[edit] Act I[edit] Suburban mother Diana Goodman waits up late for her curfew-challenged son, and attempts to comfort her anxious and overachieving daughter, Natalie. In early morning, their son returns, and Dan, Diana's husband, rises to help prepare the family for the day ("Just Another Day"). Everything appears normal until Dan and Natalie realize that the sandwiches Diana is making are covering every surface in the kitchen. As Dan helps the disoriented Diana, the kids hurry off to school. Natalie escapes to the refuge of the piano practice room ("Everything Else") and is interrupted by Henry, a classmate who likes to listen to her play and who is clearly interested in her. Over the ensuing weeks Diana makes a series of visits to her doctor, while Dan waits in the car outside questioning how to cope with his own depression. Diana has suffered from bipolar disorder and psychosis for the past sixteen years. Her doctor continually adjusts her medications, with various side effects, until she says she doesn't feel anything, at which point he declares her "stable" ("Who's Crazy" / "My Psychopharmacologist and I"). Natalie and Henry grow closer until one day he professes his love for her ("Perfect for You") and they kiss for the first time. Diana, witnessing this, worries her best years may be behind her ("I Miss the Mountains"). With her son's encouragement, she flushes away her medication. A few weeks later, Dan looks forward to dinner with his family ("It's Gonna Be Good"), to which Henry has been invited, much to Natalie's dismay. He happily recounts how Diana has been energetic and in a great mood for the past weeks, but when Diana emerges with a cake singing "Happy Birthday" to her son, Dan and Natalie are devastated. Dan carefully reminds her that their son died sixteen years ago, when he was an infant ("He's Not Here"). Dan mentions a return to the doctor, but Diana refuses, saying Dan can't possibly hurt the way she does ("You Don't Know"). Dan tries to coax her into trusting him while their son tries to convince his mother to listen to him instead ("I Am the One"). In her room, Natalie vents her anger to Henry and then refuses Diana's halfhearted apology as her brother watches and taunts her ("Superboy and the Invisible Girl"). A few days later, Diana starts work with Doctor Madden, attempting a drug-free treatment. As her son tries to assert his presence ("I'm Alive"), Dan and Natalie doubt the sessions are helping. After an argument, Natalie begins experimenting with her mother's old prescription medications. Doctor Madden proposes hypnosis to help Diana discover the roots of her trauma. The therapy is emotionally draining and Dan worries that it is too much of a strain on her mental health, while Natalie bombs an important piano recital when she realizes her mother is not present ("Make Up Your Mind" / "Catch Me I'm Falling"). Finally, Diana agrees it's time to let her son go. Diana goes home to clean out her son's things, pausing to listen to a music box ("I Dreamed a Dance"). Her son dances with her and invites her to 'go away with him' ("There's a World"). She attempts suicide and is hospitalized. At the hospital, Diana lies sedated and restrained, with self-inflicted gashes to her wrists. Doctor Madden explains to Dan that ECT is the standard course of treatment for drug-resistant patients who are at a high risk of suicide. Dan goes home to clean up after Diana and barely avoids a breakdown ("I've Been"). The next day, Doctor Madden proposes the treatment to Diana, and she reacts angrily, comparing the treatment to the lobotomies performed in the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest ("Didn't I See This Movie?"). Dan arrives and manages to convince her that it may be their last hope ("A Light in the Dark"). Act II[edit] Diana receives a series of ECT treatments over two weeks.[5] Meanwhile, Natalie explores clubs and drugs, seemingly sharing a hallucination with her mother. ("Wish I Were Here"). Diana returns home from the hospital, but she has lost nineteen years of memory ("Song of Forgetting"). At school, Henry confronts Natalie about her avoiding him, and invites her to the spring formal dance ("Hey #1"). Dan and Diana visit Doctor Madden, who assures them some memory loss is normal ("Seconds and Years") and encourages Dan to use photos, mementos, and the like to help Diana recover. Dan gathers the family to do so ("Better Than Before"), with minor success. When Natalie pulls the music box from a pile of keepsakes, he whisks it away, leaving Diana puzzled. Her son appears, unseen ("Aftershocks"), while Diana tells Dan there's something she's desperate to remember that's just beyond her reach. When Henry arrives looking for Natalie, Diana pauses, studying his face and asking his age. He reminds her of someone. Unnerved, Henry hurries up to Natalie's room, to convince her to join him at the dance the next night ("Hey #2"). Diana returns to Doctor Madden ("You Don't Know" [Reprise]), and he asks Diana about memories of her son, not knowing that Dan has purposely avoided mentioning him. Doctor Madden suggests she further explore her history and talk more with her husband. Diana goes home and searches through the boxes of keepsakes, finding the music box. Dan tries to stop her, but the memories of their baby son rush back ("How Could I Ever Forget?"). Diana confesses remembering her son as a teenager. Dan also realizes that the sons death was the start to all their troubles. Diana demands to know his name, but Dan refuses and instead insists they need to return for more treatment ("It's Gonna Be Good" [Reprise]). Henry arrives to pick up Natalie, who has dressed for the dance, just in time for both of them to witness an agitated Dan grab the music box from Diana's hands and smash it to pieces on the floor. Diana confronts Dan, wondering why he perseveres after how much trouble she's given, while upstairs, Natalie asks Henry the same question ("Why Stay?"). Dan answers, echoed by Henry, both vowing to stay steadfast ("A Promise"). As both couples embrace, Diana and Dan's son reappears ("I'm Alive" [Reprise]), which sends Diana running to Doctor Madden. Diana asks Doctor Madden what can be done if the medicine won't work. She realizes that it is not her brain that's hurting, but her soul ("The Break"). Madden assures her relapse is common, and suggests more ECT ("Make Up Your Mind" / "Catch Me I'm Falling" [Reprise]). Diana refuses. Doctor Madden urges her to continue treatment for her chronic, deadly disease. She thanks him and leaves. Natalie, waiting outside, is distressed to learn her mother has stopped the treatment. Diana explains ("Maybe [Next to Normal]"), opening up to her daughter for the first time. She urges Natalie to go to the school dance, where Henry awaits to comfort and embrace her ("Hey #3" / "Perfect for You" [Reprise]). Diana tells Dan she is leaving him, explaining he can't always be there to catch her. She needs to take a risk and deal with things on her own ("So Anyway"). She goes and leaves their son with Dan. As Dan wonders how she could have left him after he stood by her for so long, their son approaches and tells Dan he's not going anywhere ("I Am the One" [Reprise]). Dan grows more distraught until at last he faces the boy and calls him by his name for the first time: Gabe. Natalie comes home to find her father sitting alone in the dark, in tears. She comforts him and turns on the lights in the room, before assuring him the two of them will figure things out ("Light"). Henry arrives to study. Natalie tells him Diana has gone to stay with her own parents. Dan visits Doctor Madden hoping to talk about Diana, but Madden instead offers him the name of another mental-health worker. Diana appears, alone and still hurting, but hopeful. Characters[edit] Note: These descriptions come from the Characters section in the script.

Diana: "Sexy. Sharp. Delusional bipolar depressive. Thirties or forties." Gabe: "Diana's son. Dashing. Gentile. Bright. Playful. Everything a mother would want. Almost eighteen." Dan: "Diana's husband. Handsome. Genuine. Constant. Tired. Thirties or forties." Natalie: "Diana's daughter. Sixteen and trying to be perfect. It's not going well." Henry: "Musician. Romantic. Stoner. Slacker. Philosopher king. Seventeen." Doctor Madden (Doctor Fine): "On the young side of ageless. Assured. A rock star."[6]

Musical numbers[edit] Note: The song titles are not listed in the program 2008 Off-Broadway

Act I

"Prelude" - Orchestra "Preprise - Let There Be Light" - Dan, Natalie, Diana "Just Another Day" - Diana, Natalie, Gabe, Dan "Perfect" - Natalie "More... And More... And More" - Diana, Natalie, Gabe, Henry, Doctor Madden "The Cavalry" - Dan "Who's Crazy"/ " My Psychopharmacologist and I" - Dan, Doctor Fine, Diana "Perfect For You" - Henry, Natalie "I Miss the Mountains" - Diana "It's Gonna Be Good" - Dan, Natalie, Henry, Diana "He's Not Here" - Dan "You Don't Know" - Diana "I Am the One" - Dan, Gabe, Diana "Superboy and the Invisible Girl" - Natalie, Diana, Gabe "Open Your Eyes" - Doctor Madden "I'm Alive" - Gabe "Make Up Your Mind"/ " Catch Me I'm Falling" - Doctor Madden, Diana, Dan, Natalie, Gabe, Henry "A Good Step" - Orchestra "I Dreamed a Dance" - Diana, Gabe "There's a World" - Gabe "In the Light" - Dan "E.C.T" - Orchestra "I've Been" - Dan, Gabe "Didn't I See This Movie?" - Diana "A Light in the Dark" - Dan, Diana "Feeling Electric" - Diana, Gabe, Dan, Doctor Madden, Natalie, Henry

Act II

"Growing Up Unstable" - Natalie "Song of Forgetting" - Dan, Diana, Natalie "Hey #1" - Henry, Natalie "Seconds and Years" - Doctor Madden, Dan, Diana "Getting Better" - Doctor Madden, Diana, Natalie "Better Than Before" - Doctor Madden, Dan, Natalie, Diana "Aftershocks" - Gabe "Hey #2" - Henry, Natalie "You Don't Know" (Reprise) - Diana, Doctor Madden "Music Box" - Gabe "How Could I Ever Forget?" - Diana, Dan "It's Gonna Be Good" (Reprise) - Dan, Diana "Why Stay?"/ "A Promise" - Diana, Natalie, Dan, Henry "I'm Alive" (Reprise) - Gabe "The Break" - Diana "Make Up Your Mind"/ "Catch Me I'm Falling" (Reprise) - Doctor Madden, Diana, Gabe "Everything" - Diana, Natalie "Hey #3”/ " Perfect For You" (Reprise) - Henry, Natalie "So Anyway" - Diana "I Am the One" (Reprise) - Dan, Gabe "Finale (Let There Be Light)" - Diana, Dan, Natalie, Gabe, Henry, Doctor Madden

2009 Broadway

Act I

"Prelude" - Orchestra "Just Another Day" - Diana, Natalie, Gabe, Dan "Everything Else" - Natalie "Who's Crazy" / "My Psychopharmacologist and I" - Dan, Doctor Fine, Diana "Perfect for You" - Henry, Natalie "I Miss the Mountains" - Diana "It's Gonna Be Good" - Dan, Natalie, Henry, Diana "He's Not Here" - Dan "You Don't Know" - Diana "I Am the One" - Dan, Gabe, Diana "Superboy and the Invisible Girl" - Natalie, Diana, Gabe "I'm Alive" - Gabe "Make Up Your Mind" / "Catch Me I'm Falling" - Doctor Madden, Diana, Dan, Natalie, Gabe, Henry "I Dreamed a Dance" - Diana, Gabe "There's a World" - Gabe "I've Been" - Dan, Gabe "Didn't I See This Movie?" - Diana "A Light in the Dark" - Dan, Diana

Act II

"Wish I Were Here" - Diana, Natalie "Song of Forgetting" - Dan, Diana, Natalie "Hey #1" - Henry, Natalie "Seconds and Years" - Doctor Madden, Dan, Diana "Better Than Before" - Doctor Madden, Dan, Natalie, Diana "Aftershocks" - Gabe "Hey #2" - Henry, Natalie "You Don't Know" (Reprise) - Diana, Doctor Madden "How Could I Ever Forget?" - Diana, Dan "It's Gonna Be Good" (Reprise) - Dan, Diana "Why Stay?" / "A Promise" - Diana, Natalie, Dan, Henry "I'm Alive" (Reprise) - Gabe "The Break" - Diana "Make Up Your Mind" / "Catch Me I'm Falling" (Reprise) - Doctor Madden, Diana, Gabe "Maybe (Next to Normal)" - Diana, Natalie "Hey #3" / "Perfect for You" (Reprise) - Henry, Natalie "So Anyway" - Diana "I Am the One" (Reprise) - Dan, Gabe "Light" - Diana, Dan, Natalie, Gabe, Henry, Doctor Madden

Mental illness in Next to Normal[edit]

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Bipolar I disorder[edit] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
follows one woman’s struggle with mental illness and the effect of the illness on her whole family. Diana is the focus of a complex exploration into the “monstrous mother” trope frequently drawn on within the cultural contexts of film, television and theatre. The writers illuminated the experience of those suffering from bi-polar disorder. The success of this is debatable- depending on what side you approach this issue from, it can further stigmatize the sufferers of this illness through the attempt to realistically portray it, or it can be a relatable and comforting expression of what it feels like to live with on a daily basis.[7] Kitt and Yorkey began writing the musical in 2002 and continued through 2008. There have since been changes in the mental health field with regards to the understanding and treatment of bipolar depressive disorder. In the show, according to Dr. Fine, Diana is said be a “bipolar depressive with delusional episodes”.[8] While at the time that would have been an accurate diagnosis, things have changed, rendering that diagnosis invalid. The American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a book that outlines all mental disorders and the symptoms necessary for their diagnosis. The APA continually edits this to accommodate new discoveries in the field. In recent years, one of these changes was the changing of classification for bipolar disorder (what was previously known as bipolar depressive disorder or manic-depressive disorder is now known as either bipolar I or bipolar II). Due to this change, Diana would no longer be diagnosed with what Dr. Madden called “bipolar depressive disorder with delusional episodes,” but rather bipolar I with psychotic features—bipolar I referring to her disease and psychotic features referring to added psychotic features she undergoes, such as the hallucination of her grown son Gabe. Bipolar I is a mood disorder that is characterized by alternating periods of depression with episodes of mania. The periods of depression are known as major depressive episodes. In simpler terms, mania, or a manic episode, is defined as a distinct period of time of an abnormally elevated mood that lasts for at least one week and is present for the majority of the day.[9] In Next to Normal, Diana is seen during a manic episode when she is awake most of the night and during “Just Another Day”, when she makes an absurd amount of sandwiches in order to "get ahead on lunches", and later during “It's Going to Be Good” when she goes off her medication.[8] Major depressive episodes are distinct periods of time in which a person suffers a bout of depression. These usually last at least two weeks and can cause the individual to have hypersomnia (sleeping too much), fatigue and loss of energy, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide. Those with the disorder often have periods of recovery between mood episodes. Additionally, the specifier “psychotic features” refers to psychotic symptoms—most often delusions and hallucinations—that are undergone in conjunction with the manic or major depressive episodes.[9] Bipolar I and II are difficult disorders to diagnose and are often undetected and misdiagnosed, therefore leaving the illness inadequately treated (Rivas-Vasquez et al., 2002).[10] The average onset of bipolar I is around 18 years of age, but it is largely based upon the individual’s development. Additionally, bipolar I is believed to have some biological/genetic origin. Treatment of bipolar disorder[edit] Bipolar I is a disease that has a profound effect on those diagnosed with the disease and their families. It is not a curable disease, and it is mostly treated through psychopharmacological, psychiatric, and biological means. First, and arguably most popular, are the psychopharmacological therapies, commonly known as drug therapies. This involves the use of antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant medications, which aim to stabilize the patient's mood. Such drugs include Lithium, Ativan, Valproate, and Valium. This form of treatment is one of the two forms of therapy most prominently seen throughout Next to Normal. Although in Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Diana takes a plethora of different drugs at once, doctors do not always recommend patients taking so many different medications at once. The song “My Psychopharmacologist and I” is Diana walking through her drug therapies, with Dr. Fine adjusting medications to ultimately stabilize her. This form of treatment is also often accompanied by side effects ranging from drowsiness to sexual dysfunction, which are all seen at many points throughout the show. Another form of treatment for bipolar I is psychotherapy. This is the type of therapy most often associated with mental illness, where patients talk to psychologists and aim to work through the psychological component of their disease. For bipolar I, patients work to maintain a healthy level of day-to-day functioning and learn to manage their manic and depressive symptoms. In Next to Normal
Next to Normal
this is seen through Diana’s sessions with Dr. Madden, her psychologist, where she talks through her struggle to cope with her loss of Gabe and memory. The third form of treatment is biological treatments, such as Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in which seizures are induced by sending an electric current through the brain. This is the second most central form of treatment seen throughout Next to Normal. Diana is convinced to undergo ECT and then loses her memory (including her memory of Gabe), which she slowly gains back. ECT is not, however, a first-round option when it comes to the treatment of bipolar disorder. In fact, ECT is often viewed as a last resort option for treatment, usually considered for manic patients who are incredibly ill and extremely treatment-resistant or whose symptoms include very serious suicidal or psychotic symptoms, or in pregnant women.[11] This practice holds true in Next to Normal
Next to Normal
where ECT is only brought up as a treatment option after Diana attempts suicide by cutting her wrists after being prompted by her hallucination of Gabe to kill herself to be with him (“I Dreamed a Dance”/”There’s a World”). It was only after Diana’s condition became resistant to drug therapy and she became severely suicidal that Dr. Madden suggested Dan talk to her about using ECT as a treatment option. Productions[edit] Development[edit] The musical began in 1998 as a 10-minute workshop sketch about a woman undergoing electroshock therapy, and its impact on her family, called Feeling Electric. Yorkey brought the idea to Kitt while both were at the BMI Lehman Engel Musical Theatre Workshop. Kitt wrote a rock score for the short piece, which was highly critical of the medical treatment. Both Yorkey and Kitt turned to other projects, but they "kept returning to Feeling Electric", eventually expanding it to a full-length musical.[12] This had a reading in 2002 at the Village Theatre in Issaquah, Washington, then at several venues in New York City,[12] with a cast that included Norbert Leo Butz
Norbert Leo Butz
as Dan, Sherie Rene Scott as Diana, Benjamin Schrader as Gabe, Anya Singleton as Natalie and Greg Naughton as Dr. Madden. A subsequent staged reading was held in late 2002 at the Musical Mondays Theater Lab in New York.[13] In 2005 it was workshopped again at Village Theatre starring Amy Spanger as Diana, Jason Collins as Dan, Mary Faber
Mary Faber
as Natalie and Deven May
Deven May
as Dr. Madden.[14] In September 2005, the musical ran at the New York Musical Theatre Festival, with Spanger as Diana, Joe Cassidy as Dan, Annaleigh Ashford
Annaleigh Ashford
as Natalie, Benjamin Schrader as Gabe and Anthony Rapp
Anthony Rapp
as Dr. Madden. This attracted the attention of producer David Stone.[15] Second Stage Theatre
Second Stage Theatre
then workshopped the piece in both 2006 and 2007, featuring Cassidy and then Greg Edelman as Dan, Alice Ripley
Alice Ripley
as Diana, Mary Faber
Mary Faber
and then Phoebe Strole as Natalie, Rapp as Dr. Madden/Dr. Fine and Skylar Astin as Henry.[citation needed] Meanwhile, at the urging of Stone and director Michael Greif, who had joined the team, the creators focused the show on the family's pain rather than on the critique of the medical establishment.[12] Off-Broadway and Virginia
Virginia
(2008–09)[edit] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
was first produced Off-Broadway at the Second Stage Theatre from January 16 through March 16, 2008, directed by Greif, with Anthony Rapp
Anthony Rapp
as assistant director and musical staging by Sergio Trujillo. The cast featured Ripley as Diana, Brian d'Arcy James
Brian d'Arcy James
as Dan, Aaron Tveit
Aaron Tveit
as Gabe, Jennifer Damiano as Natalie, Adam Chanler-Berat as Henry and Asa Somers as Dr. Madden/Dr. Fine. The surname of the family was changed from Brown to Goodman.[16] Although the show received mixed reviews,[17][18] at least one reviewer criticized it for pushing an irresponsible message about the treatment of bipolar disorder and for failing to strike the proper balance between pathos and comedy.[19] The critics found the show internally confused, and the team decided to make major changes in both the book and score, including eliminating the original title song, "Feeling Electric". They concentrated the story entirely on the emotions of Diana and her family as they confront bitter truths.[12] The re-written musical was given a regional theatre production at the Arena Stage
Arena Stage
(normally in Washington but operating in Virginia
Virginia
during a renovation of its main facility), from November 21, 2008 through January 18, 2009, under the direction of Greif. J. Robert Spencer took over the role of Dan while Louis Hobson
Louis Hobson
assumed the roles of Dr. Madden/Dr. Fine; the remaining Off-Broadway leads returned.[20] The production received rave reviews, with critics noticing that "comic songs and glitzy production numbers" had been replaced by songs that complemented the emotional content of the book.[21][22] Broadway (2009–11)[edit] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
began previews on Broadway at the Booth Theatre
Booth Theatre
on March 27, 2009, with an opening night of April 15. The entire cast from the Arena Stage
Arena Stage
production returned, once again under the direction of Greif. The musical was originally booked for the larger Longacre Theatre, but, according to producer David Stone, "When the Booth Theatre
Booth Theatre
became available... we knew it was the right space for Next to Normal".[23][24] Reviews were very favorable. Ben Brantley of The New York Times wrote that the Broadway production is "A brave, breathtaking musical. It is something much more than a feel-good musical: it is a feel-everything musical."[25] Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
called it "The best new musical of the season – by a mile."[26] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
was on the Ten Best of the Year list for 2009 of "Curtain Up".[27] The show set a new box office record at the Booth Theatre
Booth Theatre
for the week ending January 3, 2010, grossing $550,409 over nine performances. The previous record was held by the 2006 production of Brian Friel's Faith Healer, with a gross of $530,702.[28] One year later, Next to Normal broke that record again during its final week on Broadway (week ending January 16, 2011) grossing $552,563 over eight performances.[29] The producers recouped their initial investment of $4 million a few days after the production's one-year anniversary on Broadway.[30] At the end of its run, Next to Normal
Next to Normal
grossed $31,764,486, the most out of all the shows that have run at the Booth Theatre, earning double the amount of money as its closest competition, I'm Not Rappaport.[31] Cast replacements during the run included Marin Mazzie as Diana, Brian d'Arcy James[32] and later Jason Danieley as Dan, Kyle Dean Massey as Gabe and Meghann Fahy
Meghann Fahy
as Natalie.[33] John Kenrick wrote in November 2010 that the show "is glowing with breathtaking brilliance as it ends its Broadway run."[34] The Broadway production closed on January 16, 2011 after 21 previews and 733 regular performances.[35][36] Twitter
Twitter
promotional campaign[edit] In May 2009, about six weeks into the Broadway run, Next to Normal began publishing an adapted version of the script over Twitter, the social media network. Over 35 days, the serialized version of the show was published, a single line from a character at a time. The Twitter promotion ended the morning of June 7, 2009, the morning of the 2009 Tony Awards.[37] The initiative earned the musical the 2009 OMMA Award for Best in Show Situation Interactive.[38] First national tour (2010–11)[edit] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
began its first national tour of North America and Canada at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles, California on November 23, 2010. The tour played in 16 cities in the U.S., ending in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on July 30, 2011. Alice Ripley
Alice Ripley
reprised her role as Diana and was joined by Asa Somers as Dan, Emma Hunton as Natalie, Curt Hansen as Gabe, Preston K. Sadleir as Henry and Jeremy Kushnier as Dr. Madden/Dr. Fine.[39][40][41] International[edit] Note: The following are independent productions of the musical produced internationally and in most cases, in that native language. They also feature the original music, lyrics and book, but changes in other aspects including direction, set design, costume design and choreography. Scandinavia[edit] The European premiere and the first non-English language production opened in September 2010 at the Det Norske Teatret in Oslo, Norway under the direction of Svein Sturla Hungnes. The cast included Heidi Gjermundsen Broch as Diana and Charlotte Frogner
Charlotte Frogner
as Natalie[42] Broch received the 2011 Hedda Award (Norway's highest theatrical accolade) for her portrayal. This production was later re-staged for a Swedish premiere at the Wermland Opera[43] A Finnish production opened in December 2010 in Helsinki, Finland
Finland
at Studio Pasila, where it ran for one year.[44] A Swedish-language production opened in September 2012 at Wasa Teater in Vaasa, Finland. The cast included Anna-Maria Hallgarn as Diana.[45] Another Finnish-language production was staged at the Tampere Workers' Theatre
Tampere Workers' Theatre
from October 2012 through February 2013.[46] A Danish production ran from February 2012 until April 2012 at Nørrebro Teater in Copenhagen, Denmark.[47] A subsequent Swedish production also opened in September 2012 at the City Theatre of Stockholm, Sweden, with Lisa Nilsson
Lisa Nilsson
as Diana[citation needed] Asia[edit] The Asian premiere was staged at the Carlos P. Romulo Auditorium, RCBC Plaza, Makati, Philippines
Philippines
in March 2011 and again in October 2011. The cast included Markki Stroem as Henry.[48] Kolleen Park
Kolleen Park
played Diana in the 2011 Korean production[49] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
premiered in Singapore on September 5, 2013, at the Drama Centre Theatre. The cast included Sally Ann Triplett as Diana, Adrian Pang as Dan, and Nathan Hartono as Gabe.[50] Australia[edit] The Australian premiere of the musical by the Melbourne
Melbourne
Theatre Company was staged in Melbourne, Australia. Performances began on April 28, 2012, and ran through June 4 (extended from May 28). The cast included Kate Kendall
Kate Kendall
as Diana, Matt Hetherington as Dan and Bert LaBonte as Dr. Fine/Dr. Madden.[51] A production in Perth played at the Heath Ledger Theatre from November 5–19, 2015. Produced by Black Swan State Theatre Company, the cast included Rachael Beck
Rachael Beck
as Diana and Brendan Hanson as Dan.[52] South America[edit] A Spanish-language Peruvian
Peruvian
premiere of the musical played the Teatro Marsano, in Lima, Peru. The production ran from May to June 2011. The cast included Gisela Ponce de León
Gisela Ponce de León
as Natalie[53] The Argentinian adaptation, titled "Casi Normales", played Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
from January 3, 2012 to April 5, 2015. The cast included José Luis Bartolilla
José Luis Bartolilla
as Gabe.[citation needed] A Brazilian production opened in July 2012 at the Clara Nunes Theatre in Rio de Janeiro, under the title "Quase Normal", which translates Almost Normal.[54] Europe[edit] The Dutch premiere took place on January 16, 2012 at DeLaMar Theater in Amsterdam. The cast included Simone Kleinsma
Simone Kleinsma
as Diana.[55] A German-language production opened at the Stadttheater in Fürth, Bavaria, on October 11, 2013. Pia Douwes
Pia Douwes
starred in the role of Diana with Thomas Borchert as Dan.[citation needed] The Italian version of the show, produced by STM and directed by Marco Iacomelli, opened on March 7, 2015 at Teatro Coccia in Novara.[56] A Spanish-language production opened at Teatro Pérez Galdós in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, on September 14, 2017, with Nina starring as Diana.[57] In 2016, in Portugal, opened a Portuguese-speaking version, with the title "Quase Normal". Casts[edit] Note: Below are the principal casts of all official major productions of the musical.

Role Original Broadway Cast Original US Tour Cast

Diana Goodman Alice Ripley

Dan Goodman J. Robert Spencer Asa Somers

Natalie Goodman Jennifer Damiano Emma Hunton

Gabriel "Gabe" Goodman Aaron Tveit Curt Hansen

Henry Adam Chanler-Berat Preston K. Sadleir

Dr. Fine/Dr. Madden Louis Hobson Jeremy Kushnier

Notable Broadway replacements

Gabriel "Gabe" Goodman: Kyle Dean Massey Dan Goodman: Brian d'Arcy James, Jason Danieley Diana Goodman: Marin Mazzie Natalie Goodman: Meghann Fahy

Literary references and allusions[edit]

During Act I, Gabe reads a paperback copy of The Catcher in the Rye. Kyle Dean Massey said, "I read about a page a night." Salinger's novel about grieving a loss is read by the character who is the loss. In Catcher, Holden struggles with the loss of a brother, Allie, who died of leukemia. When sorting through a box of items from her son's room, Diana picks up a music box from the box to reveal a copy of Goodnight Moon underneath. Natalie carries a hardcover copy of Flowers for Algernon, which she is studying in school. Both the novel and "Next to Normal" deal with psychological experimentation. Diana alludes to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Sylvia Plath, and Frances Farmer
Frances Farmer
in the song "Didn't I See This Movie?". Diana also reads from Who's Afraid of Virginia
Virginia
Woolf?, a play by Edward Albee
Edward Albee
which deals with marital stress caused by issues similar to some in "Next to Normal". On her YouTube site, Alice Ripley
Alice Ripley
said that she uses Albee's play as a Bible, drawing inspiration for Diana.

Pulitzer Prize controversy[edit] Next to Normal
Next to Normal
won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Drama
Pulitzer Prize for Drama
although it was not on the shortlist of three candidates submitted to the twenty-member Pulitzer Prize board by the five-member Drama jury. Jury chairman and critic Charles McNulty publicly criticized the Board for overlooking those three plays, which were not running on Broadway at the time of the Award, in favor of one that was.[58][59][60] Major awards and nominations[edit] Original Off-Broadway production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result

2008 Drama League Awards Distinguished Production of a Musical Nominated

Distinguished Performance Award Brian d'Arcy James Nominated

Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actress in a Musical Alice Ripley Nominated

Outstanding Music Tom Kitt Nominated

Outer Critics Circle Awards Outstanding Actress in a Musical Alice Ripley Nominated

Outstanding New Off-Broadway Musical Nominated

Outstanding New Score Won

The Lucille Lortel Awards Outstanding Musical Nominated

Outstanding Featured Actor Aaron Tveit Nominated

Outstanding Lighting Design Kevin Adams Nominated

Original Virginia
Virginia
production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result

2009 Helen Hayes Awards Outstanding Non-Resident Production Won

Outstanding Lead Actress, Non-Resident Production Alice Ripley Won

Outstanding Lead Actor, Non-Resident Production J. Robert Spencer Nominated

Outstanding Supporting Performer, Non-Resident Production Jennifer Damiano Nominated

Aaron Tveit Won

Original Broadway production[edit]

Year Award Ceremony Category Nominee Result

2009 Tony Award Best Musical Nominated

Best Book of a Musical Brian Yorkey Nominated

Best Original Score Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey Won

Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical J. Robert Spencer Nominated

Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Alice Ripley Won

Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Jennifer Damiano Nominated

Best Direction of a Musical Michael Greif Nominated

Best Orchestrations Michael Starobin and Tom Kitt Won

Best Scenic Design Mark Wenland Nominated

Best Lighting Design Kevin Adams Nominated

Best Sound Design Brian Ronan Nominated

2010 Pulitzer Prize for Drama Won

References[edit]

^ Hetrick, Adam. " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Wins 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Drama" Archived April 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Playbill.com, April 12, 2010 ^ Peterson, Christopher. "The 50 Best Musicals of the 21st Century... So Far...", Onstageblog.com, February 9, 2016 ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Is Still The Best Musical Of The Last 15 Years". OnStage Blog. Retrieved July 1, 2017.  ^ "Top Ten Original Broadway Musical Soundtracks". emertainmentmonthly.com. Retrieved July 1, 2017.  ^ " 'Next to Normal' Synopsis" mtishows.com, accessed April 28, 2011 ^ Tom., Kitt, (2010). Next to normal. Yorkey, Brian., Rapp, Anthony. (1st ed ed.). New York: Theatre Communications Group. ISBN 9781559363709. OCLC 456179050. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Hersh, Julie. "Is 'Next to Normal' Normal?". www.psychologytoday.com. Retrieved May 22, 2017.  ^ a b Music by Tom Kitt, & Book and Lyrics by Brian Yorkey. (2009). Next to normal [Feeling Electric]. New York, NY: Musical Theatre International. ^ a b American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. ^ Rivas-Vasquez, R., Johnson, S., Rey, G., & Blais, M. (2002). "Current treatments for bipolar disorder: A review and update for psychologists." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(2), 212-233. ^ Hirschfeld, Robert, et al. Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorder Second Edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2002. Print. ^ a b c d Getlin, Josh. "The Ballad of Kitt &Yorkey", Columbia Magazine, Columbia University, Fall 2010, pp. 22–23 ^ Jones, Kenneth. "Feeling Electric, Butz and Larsen Sing Electro-Shock Therapy Musical Oct. 7" playbill.com, October 4, 2002 ^ Jones, Kenneth. "Musical Workshop of Feeling Electric, About a Frazzled Family, Stars a Bat Boy and a Lois Lane in Seattle", Playbill.com, June 21, 2005 ^ Jones, Kenneth. "Rapp & Spanger Help Spark Premiere of Feeling Electric Sept. 14-24 in NYMF", playbill.com, September 14, 2005 ^ Hernandez, Ernio. "New Musical Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Closes Off-Broadway March 16", playbill.com, March 16, 2008 ^ Dziemianowicz, Joe. "The high & low notes of a bipolar mom in next to normal", New York Daily News, February 14, 2008 ^ Brantley, Ben. "There, Amid the Music, a Mind Is on the Edge", The New York Times, February 14, 2008 ^ Caggiano, Chris. "Next to Normal: Shaky Show, Irresponsible Message", Everything I Know I Learned from Musicals site, February 24, 2008 ^ Gans, Andrew. "Chanler-Berat, Damiano, Hobson, Tveit Will Join Ripley and Spencer in Arena's Next to Normal", Playbill.com, October 10, 2008 ^ Marks, Peter. "Revised Musical Hits Home: Moving, Beautiful next to normal", Washington Post, December 12, 2008 ^ Blanchard, Jayne. "Next to Terrific at Arena", Washington Times, December 15, 2008 ^ Gans, Andrew. "Next to Normal, with Entire Arena Cast, to Play Broadway's Longacre", playbill.com, February 17, 2009 ^ Gans, Andrew. "next to normal Will Now Play the Booth Theatre", playbill.com, February 24, 2009 ^ Brantley, Ben. "Fragmented Psyches, Uncomfortable Emotions: Sing Out!", The New York Times, April 16, 2009 ^ "The Travers Take: next to normal Proves that Rock is Thriving on Broadway", rollingstone.com, April 16, 2009 ^ Sommer, Elyse and Saltzman, Simon. "The Best (and Worst) of the Year 2009 On and Off Broadway" curtainup.com, retrieved January 9, 2010 ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Breaks Box Office Record at the Booth Theatre", BroadwayWorld, 2010 ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Breaks Box Office Record at the Booth Theatre", BroadwayWorld, 2011 ^ Healy, Patrick. "Broadway’s Unlikely Hit Gives Hope to the Bold" New York Times, March 28, 2010 ^ "BOOTH Broadway Grosses". broadwayworld.com. Retrieved November 16, 2017.  ^ " Brian d'Arcy James
Brian d'Arcy James
Will Rejoin Normal Cast in May" playbill.com ^ Healy, Patrick. "New Casting Announced for Next to Normal. The New York Times, June 3, 2010 ^ Kenrick, John. Next to Normal. Musicals101.com, November 2010, accessed January 20, 2011 ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
to Close on Broadway January 16, 2011". BroadwayWorld, November 10, 2010 ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
to Close on Broadway Jan 16, 2011" Archived November 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Playbill ^ "It's Broadway Gone Viral, With a Musical Meted Out via Twitter", The New York Times, August
August
16, 2009. ^ [1] mediapost.com ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Somers, Hunton, Hansen, Sadleir and Kushnier to Join Ripley for Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Tour". Playbill.com, October 20, 2010 ^ Fullerton, Krissie. "Photo Call:A First Look at the 'Next to Normal' National Tour with Alice Ripley, Emma Hunton and More" Archived December 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. playbill.com, November 29, 2010 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ ", Det Norske Teatret ^ " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
- Wermland Opera". www.wermlandopera.com. Retrieved November 16, 2017.  ^ [2] Helsinki
Helsinki
City Theatre ^ http://www.wasateater.fi/information_plays.php?info_id=38 ^ "Tampereen Työväen Teatteri - NEXT TO NORMAL". Retrieved November 16, 2017.  ^ http://www.nbt.dk/da-DK/Forestillinger/Next+to+Normal.aspx ^ [3] Philippines
Philippines
Broadway World ^ http://www.nexttonormal.co.kr ^ Gioia, Michael (September 9, 2013), "Singapore Premiere of Next to Normal, Starring West End Actress Sally Ann Triplett, Begins Sept. 5", Playbill.com, retrieved April 17, 2017  ^ "Listing, 'Next to Normal'" Melbourne
Melbourne
Theatre Company, retrieved December 4, 2010 ^ Julia Hern (November 12, 2015). "Next To Normal Black Swan Theatre Company". Australian Stage. Australian Stage Online. Retrieved February 2, 2016.  ^ Obra musical de Broadway, "Casi normal" se estrena por primera vez en Lima
Lima
traducida al español ^ [4] Estamos Aqui Produções - Quase Normal http://estamosaquiproducoes.com.br/quasenormal.html ^ http://www.musicals.nl/nexttonormal ^ Italia, Next to Normal. " Next to Normal
Next to Normal
– Italia". www.nexttonormal.it. Retrieved April 18, 2017.  ^ "Casi normales despega en el Galdós en busca del éxito nacional", laprovincia.es, September 14, 2017 ^ [5] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times Archived April 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hetrick, Adam."Pulitzer Drama Juror David Rooney Weighs In On Next to Normal Win" playbill.com, April 13, 2010 ^ Simonson, Robert."Playbill.com's Theatre Week In Review, April 10-April 16: The Pulitzer Paradox" playbill.com, April 16, 2010

External links[edit]

Official Website Next to Normal
Next to Normal
at the Internet Broadway Database Next to Normal
Next to Normal
at the Music Theatre International website Twitter
Twitter
Performance Transcript Lortel Archives listing Interview with Brian Yorkey on MyNortwest.com NY Times Feature: An Out-of-Town Overhaul Helps Next to Normal
Next to Normal
Find Focus NY Times Feature: On Broadway, 'Next to Normal' Aims for Truth About Mental Illness Daily News Broadway review 2009 Entertainment Weekly Broadway review 2009 Associated Press Broadway review 2009 Washington Post Broadway Review 2009 NY Times off-Broadway review, February 2008 TheatreMania review, February 2008 [6] German Website Argentina
Argentina
Website Italian Website

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Original Score

1947-1975

Street Scene by Kurt Weill
Kurt Weill
(1947) Kiss Me, Kate
Kiss Me, Kate
by Cole Porter
Cole Porter
(1949) South Pacific by Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1950) Call Me Madam
Call Me Madam
by Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin
(1951) No Strings
No Strings
by Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1962) Oliver!
Oliver!
by Lionel Bart
Lionel Bart
(1963) Hello, Dolly! by Jerry Herman
Jerry Herman
(1964) Fiddler on the Roof
Fiddler on the Roof
by Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
(1965) Man of La Mancha
Man of La Mancha
by Mitch Leigh
Mitch Leigh
and Joe Darion (1966) Cabaret by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
(1967) Hallelujah, Baby!
Hallelujah, Baby!
by Jule Styne, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green
Adolph Green
(1968) Company by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1971) Follies
Follies
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1972) A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1973) Gigi by Frederick Loewe and Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
(1974) The Wiz
The Wiz
by Charlie Smalls
Charlie Smalls
(1975)

1976-2000

A Chorus Line
A Chorus Line
by Marvin Hamlisch
Marvin Hamlisch
and Edward Kleban (1976) Annie by Charles Strouse
Charles Strouse
and Martin Charnin (1977) On the Twentieth Century by Cy Coleman, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green (1978) Sweeney Todd
Sweeney Todd
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1979) Evita by Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
and Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1980) Woman of the Year by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
(1981) Nine by Maury Yeston (1982) Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
and T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
(1983) La Cage aux Folles by Jerry Herman
Jerry Herman
(1984) Big River by Roger Miller
Roger Miller
(1985) Drood
Drood
by Rupert Holmes (1986) Les Misérables by Claude-Michel Schönberg, Herbert Kretzmer, and Alain Boublil (1987) Into the Woods
Into the Woods
by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1988) City of Angels by Cy Coleman
Cy Coleman
and David Zippel (1990) The Will Rogers Follies
Follies
by Cy Coleman, Betty Comden, and Adolph Green (1991) Falsettos by William Finn
William Finn
(1992) Kiss of the Spider Woman by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
/ The Who's Tommy by Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
(1993) Passion by Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1994) Sunset Boulevard by Andrew Lloyd Webber, Don Black, and Christopher Hampton (1995) Rent by Jonathan Larson (1996) Titanic by Maury Yeston (1997) Ragtime by Stephen Flaherty and Lynn Ahrens (1998) Parade by Jason Robert Brown
Jason Robert Brown
(1999) Aida by Elton John
Elton John
and Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(2000)

2001-present

The Producers by Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2001) Urinetown
Urinetown
by Mark Hollmann and Greg Kotis (2002) Hairspray by Marc Shaiman
Marc Shaiman
and Scott Wittman (2003) Avenue Q
Avenue Q
by Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
and Jeff Marx
Jeff Marx
(2004) The Light in the Piazza by Adam Guettel
Adam Guettel
(2005) The Drowsy Chaperone
The Drowsy Chaperone
by Lisa Lambert and Greg Morrison (2006) Spring Awakening by Duncan Sheik
Duncan Sheik
and Steven Sater (2007) In the Heights
In the Heights
by Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2008) Next to Normal
Next to Normal
by Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey (2009) Memphis by David Bryan
David Bryan
and Joe DiPietro (2010) The Book of Mormon by Trey Parker, Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
(2011) Newsies by Alan Menken
Alan Menken
and Jack Feldman (2012) Kinky Boots by Cyndi Lauper
Cyndi Lauper
(2013) The Bridges of Madison County by Jason Robert Brown
Jason Robert Brown
(2014) Fun Home by Jeanine Tesori and Lisa Kron (2015) Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Dear Evan Hansen
Dear Evan Hansen
by Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2017)

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Drama

1918–1950

Why Marry? (1918) Beyond the Horizon (1920) Miss Lulu Bett (1921) Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1922) Icebound (1923) Hell-Bent Fer Heaven (1924) They Knew What They Wanted (1925) Craig's Wife
Craig's Wife
(1926) In Abraham's Bosom (1927) Strange Interlude
Strange Interlude
(1928) Street Scene (1929) The Green Pastures
The Green Pastures
(1930) Alison's House
Alison's House
(1931) Of Thee I Sing
Of Thee I Sing
(1932) Both Your Houses (1933) Men in White (1934) The Old Maid (1935) Idiot's Delight (1936) You Can't Take It with You (1937) Our Town
Our Town
(1938) Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1939) The Time of Your Life
The Time of Your Life
(1940) There Shall Be No Night (1941) The Skin of Our Teeth
The Skin of Our Teeth
(1943) Harvey (1945) State of the Union (1946) A Streetcar Named Desire (1948) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1949) South Pacific (1950)

1951–1975

The Shrike (1952) Picnic (1953) The Teahouse of the August
August
Moon (1954) Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
(1955) The Diary of Anne Frank (1956) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(1957) Look Homeward, Angel (1958) J.B. (1959) Fiorello!
Fiorello!
(1960) All the Way Home (1961) How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1962) The Subject Was Roses (1965) A Delicate Balance (1967) The Great White Hope
The Great White Hope
(1969) No Place to be Somebody (1970) The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds (1971) That Championship Season (1973) Seascape (1975)

1976–2000

A Chorus Line
A Chorus Line
(1976) The Shadow Box (1977) The Gin Game (1978) Buried Child
Buried Child
(1979) Talley's Folly
Talley's Folly
(1980) Crimes of the Heart (1981) A Soldier's Play (1982) 'night, Mother (1983) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(1984) Sunday in the Park with George
Sunday in the Park with George
(1985) Fences (1987) Driving Miss Daisy (1988) The Heidi Chronicles
The Heidi Chronicles
(1989) The Piano Lesson (1990) Lost in Yonkers
Lost in Yonkers
(1991) The Kentucky Cycle (1992) Angels in America: Millennium Approaches (1993) Three Tall Women (1994) The Young Man from Atlanta
The Young Man from Atlanta
(1995) Rent (1996) How I Learned to Drive (1998) Wit (1999) Dinner with Friends (2000)

2001–present

Proof (2001) Topdog/Underdog (2002) Anna in the Tropics (2003) I Am My Own Wife
I Am My Own Wife
(2004) Doubt: A Parable (2005) Rabbit Hole
Rabbit Hole
(2007) August: Osage County (2008) Ruined (2009) Next to Normal
Next to Normal
(2010) Clybourne Park (2011) Water by the Spoonful (2012) Disgraced
Disgraced
(2013) The Flick (2014) Between Riverside and Crazy (2015) Hamilton (

.