New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan. Located in northern Taiwan, the city includes a substantial stretch of the island's northern coastline and surrounds the Taipei Basin, making it the second largest special municipality by area, behind Kaohsiung. New Taipei City is bordered by Keelung to the northeast, Yilan County to the southeast, and Taoyuan to the southwest. It completely surrounds Taipei. Banqiao District is its municipal seat and biggest commercial area.
New Taipei City was known as Taipei County before its upgrade in 2010. After the county's population overtook that of Taipei City, it was decided that the county should be upgraded to city status but could not be renamed "Taipei City".
The name of the new entity (新北市; "new north city") was at first rendered in English as Xinbei via pinyin romanization, but both candidates for the city's first mayoral election opposed the name. Consequently, citing public opinion, the inaugural mayor, Eric Chu, requested and received approval from the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) to render the name in English as New Taipei City. This rendering became official on 31 December 2010.
Archaeological records had shown that New Taipei City had been inhabited since the Neolithic period, with artifacts dug in Bali District having shown remains as early as 7000 to 4700 BC. The region around New Taipei City area was once inhabited by Ketagalan plains aborigines, and evidence shows that the Atayal had inhabited Wulai District. The earliest recorded migration by people from mainland China dated back as early as 1620, when the local tribes were driven into the mountain areas. Over the years, many of the aborigines have assimilated into the general population.
During the Qing Dynasty rule of Taiwan, the Han Chinese people began to settle in the area now designated as New Taipei City in 1694 and the number of immigrants from mainland China had further increased. After decades of development and prosperity, Tamsui had become an international commercial port by 1850. British consulate and stores were established in the region, which helped promote the local tea business, resulting in massive tea leaf exports to Europe. In 1875, Shen Baozhen called for the establishment of Taipeh Prefecture. Fujian-Taiwan-Province was declared in 1887 and the present-day New Taipei City area fell under the jurisdiction of Taipeh Prefecture.
In 1895, Taiwan was ceded by Qing dynasty to Empire of Japan. During Japanese rule, New Taipei City area was administered under Taihoku Prefecture together with modern-day Taipei, Keelung and Yilan County. Discovery of gold and other mining minerals were unveiled at Keelung Mountain, triggering a mining boom in the region. In October 1896, the Japanese government divided the mining area around Keelung Mountain into two districts: an eastern district, designated as Kinkaseki, and a western district, designated as Kyūfun. Both districts are now parts of Ruifang District. They also issued regulations prohibiting local Taiwanese mining companies from doing mining activities, and gave the mining rights to Japanese companies.
After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China in October 1945, from 25 December of the same year, the present New Taipei City area was administered as a county called Taipei County of Taiwan Province with Banqiao City as the county seat. In July 1949, the size of Taipei County was reduced when Beitou and Shilin townships were put under the jurisdiction of the newly created Caoshan Administrative Bureau, which would later be renamed the Yangmingshan Administrative Bureau. On July 1, 1968, the size of Taipei County was further reduced by 205.16 km2 (79.21 sq mi) when Jingmei, Muzha, Nangang, and Neihu townships, along with Beitou and Shilin, were merged into Taipei City.
The county afterward had ten county-controlled cities (Banqiao, Luzhou, Sanchong, Shulin, Tucheng, Xizhi, Xindian, Xindian, Yonghe, Zhonghe); four urban townships (Tamsui, Ruifang, Sanxia, Yingge); and fifteen rural townships (Bali, Gongliao, Jinshan, Linkou, Pinglin, Pingxi, Sanzhi, Shenkeng, Shiding, Shimen, Shuangxi, Taishan, Wanli, Wugu, Wulai). It was further divided into 1,017 villages and 21,683 neighborhoods. In August 1992, due to the adjustment of the demarcation line between Taipei City and Taiwan Province in Neigou and Daking Stream, the area of Taipei County was decreased by 0.03 km2. On 25 December 2010, Taipei County was upgraded to a special municipality as New Taipei City consisting of 29 districts with Banqiao District as the municipal seat.
New Taipei City is located at the northern tip of Taiwan Island. It covers a vast territory with a varied topology, including mountains, hills, plains and basins. In the northern part lies 120 km of coastline with gorgeous shorelines and beaches. The Tamsui River is the main river flowing through New Taipei City. Other large tributaries are the Xindian, Keelung and Dahan rivers, sections of which constitute riverside parks. The tallest peak in the city is Mount Zhuzi, standing at 1,094 m and located in the Sanzhi District.
The climate of the city is characterized as a humid subtropical climate with seasonal monsoons with ample rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year. Seasonal variations of temperatures are noticeable although temperatures typically varies from warm to hot throughout the year, except when cold fronts strikes during the winter months when temperatures can sometimes dip below 10 °C (50 °F). January is typically the coolest month and July is usually the warmest.
|Climate data for Tamsui District, New Taipei City (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1942–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.4
|Average high °C (°F)||18.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||15.2
|Average low °C (°F)||12.4
|Record low °C (°F)||2.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||103.9
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||15.9||16.0||17.1||14.7||13.7||13.0||8.7||11.0||12.7||11.9||13.2||12.6||160.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||82.1||84.1||83.4||81.7||80.3||81.1||76.9||77.1||77.7||78.1||78.8||79.5||80.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||80.8||70.8||85.8||98.4||134.1||147.2||216.8||212.5||167.0||134.7||103.7||89.5||1,541.3|
|Source: Central Weather Bureau|
New Taipei City is a special municipality directly under the central government of the Republic of China. The New Taipei City Government is headed by an elected mayor and is headquartered at the New Taipei City Hall at Banqiao District. The current and first mayor of New Taipei City is Eric Chu of the Kuomintang.
New Taipei City controls 28 districts (區; qū) and 1 mountain indigenous district (山地原住民區; shāndì yuánzhùmín qū). The sub-city entities consists of 1,017 villages (里; lǐ), which in turn are divided into 21,683 neighborhoods (鄰; lín). The municipal seat is located at Banqiao District.
|Map of New Taipei|
|Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Pe̍h-ōe-jī||Population||Area (km2)|
|Luzhou||蘆洲區||Lúzhōu Qū||Lô͘-chiu Khu||200,055||8.321|
|Sanchong||三重區||Sānchóng Qū||Sam-tiông Khu (Saⁿ-tēng-po͘)||388,386||16.3170|
|Shulin||樹林區||Shùlín Qū||Chhiū-nâ Khu||184,329||33.1288|
|Sanxia||三峽區||Sānxiá Qū||Sam-kiap Khu||112,775||191.4508|
|Yingge||鶯歌區||Yīnggē Qū||Eng-ko Khu||87,931||21.1248|
|Tamsui||淡水區||Dànshuǐ Qū||Tām-chuí Khu||162,441||70.6565|
|Bali||八里區||Bālǐ Qū||Pat-lí Khu||37,711||39.4933|
|Jinshan||金山區||Jīnshān Qū||Kim-san Khu||22,273||49.2132|
|Sanzhi||三芝區||Sānzhī Qū||Sam-chi Khu||23,452||65.9909|
|Shimen||石門區||Shímén Qū||Chio̍h-mn̂g Khu||12,645||51.2645|
|Wanli||萬里區||Wànlǐ Qū||Bān-lí Khu||22,634||63.3766|
|Xindian||新店區||Xīndiàn Qū||Sin-tiàm Khu||300,283||120.2255|
|Pinglin||坪林區||Pínglín Qū||Pêⁿ-nâ Khu||6,503||170.8350|
|Shenkeng||深坑區||Shēnkēng Qū||Chhim-kheⁿ Khu||23,614||20.5787|
|Shiding||石碇區||Shídìng Qū||Chio̍h-tēng Khu||7,857||144.3498|
|Wulai*||烏來區||Wūlái Qū||U-lai Khu||6,182||321.1306|
|Xizhi||汐止區||Xìzhǐ Qū||Se̍k-chí Khu||196,150||71.2354|
|Ruifang||瑞芳區||Ruìfāng Qū||Sūi-hong Khu||40,922||70.7336|
|Gongliao||貢寮區||Gòngliáo Qū||Kòng-liâu Khu||12,858||99.9734|
|Pingxi||平溪區||Píngxī Qū||Pêng-khe Khu||4,872||71.3382|
|Shuangxi||雙溪區||Shuāngxī Qū||Siang-khe Khu||9,233||146.2484|
|Xinzhuang||新莊區||Xīnzhuāng Qū||Sin-chng Khu||413,443||19.7383|
|Linkou||林口區||Línkǒu Qū||Nâ-khàu Khu||100,554||54.1519|
|Taishan||泰山區||Tàishān Qū||Thài-san Khu||78,801||19.1603|
|Wugu||五股區||Wǔgǔ Qū||Gō͘-kó͘ Khu||82,983||34.8632|
|Banqiao||板橋區||Bǎnqiáo Qū||Pang-kiô Khu||554,008||23.1373|
|Tucheng||土城區||Tǔchéng Qū||Thô͘-siâⁿ Khu||238,646||29.5578|
|Yonghe||永和區||Yǒnghé Qū||Éng-hô Khu||225,353||5.7138|
|Zhonghe||中和區||Zhōnghé Qū||Tiong-hô Khu||414,356||20.1440|
* mountain indigenous district
Many agencies of the central government are located in New Taipei City due to its proximity to the capital Taipei City. The Council of Indigenous Peoples, Hakka Affairs Council and Ministry of Culture are headquartered in Xinzhuang District at the Xinzhuang Joint Office Tower. The Architecture and Building Research Institute, Aviation Safety Council and National Airborne Service Corps, National Fire Agency of the Ministry of the Interior and the National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction of the Ministry of Science and Technology are located in Xindian District. Financial Supervisory Commission is located at Banqiao District. The Atomic Energy Council is located at Yonghe District. The National Academy for Educational Research of the Ministry of Education is located at Sanxia District.
|Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.|
New Taipei City has an estimated population of around 3.9 million. Over 80% of New Taipei City's residents live in the 10 districts that were formerly county-controlled cities (Banqiao, Luzhou, Sanchong, Shulin, Tucheng, Xizhi, Xindian, Xinzhuang, Yonghe and Zhonghe), which account for one-sixth of the area. 28.80% of the residents moved into the area from Taipei City.[clarification needed] Around 70% of the population living in New Taipei City come from different parts of Taiwan, and there are around  foreigners residing in the city, making New Taipei City the third largest municipality in Taiwan in terms of foreign resident population.
The city is home to 952 registered temples and 120 churches, including 160 Buddhist-Taoist temples and more than 3,000 Taoist shrines. The city also houses five major Buddhist monasteries, such as the Dharma Drum Mountain in Jinshan District and Ling-jiou Mountain Monastery in Gongliao District. On average, there are two worship places in every square kilometer around the city. Xizhi District and Sanxia District have the highest number of registered temples, while Wulai District has the fewest. New Taipei City houses the Museum of World Religions in Yonghe District.
Due to its strategic location, New Taipei City is the second major city of business industries after Taipei, with over 250,000 privately owned companies and 20,000 factories scattered around five industrial parks with a total capital of NT$1.8 trillion. There are also many high technology industry, service industry and tourism industry, contributing a significant amount of GDP to Taiwan. The five major industries in the city are information technology (IT), telecommunications, digital contents, biotechnology and precision instruments. The city is among the top three cities in the global market in terms of IT product production volume, securing more than 50% of the global market share for products such as motherboards, notebooks, LCD monitors and CRT monitors.
New Taipei City is also filled with many cultural and creative industries, such as pottery in Yingge District, Liuli industry in Tamsui District, drum industry in Xinzhuang District, dye industry in Sanxia District, noble metal processing industry in Ruifang District, sky lantern industry in Pingxi District etc. The Taiwan Film Culture Center is planned to be built in Xinzhuang District for the key resource of the development of film industries in Taiwan. The Knowledge Industry Park is also planned to be built in the same district to encourage the clustering and expansion of digital content companies and will help turn the city into a virtual digital entertainment park.
The Port of Taipei located in Bali District has the capability of fitting container ships weighing up to 80,000 tons and transporting more than 2 millions of TEU annually. The Tamsui Fisherman's Wharf in Tamsui District serves as the main port for fishing boats, as well as for sightseeing and leisure.
Education in New Taipei City is government by the Education Department of New Taipei City Government. The city population is highly educated, with over 38% of the people received higher education.
The city houses many government and private universities, such as Aletheia University, Chihlee University of Technology, Fu Jen Catholic University, Hsing Wu University, Huafan University, Jinwen University of Science and Technology, Ming Chi University of Technology, National Open University, National Taipei University, National Taiwan University of Arts, St. John's University, Tamkang University etc.
New Taipei City houses two of Taiwan's current active nuclear power plants, which are the Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant in Wanli District and Jinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Shimen District, Taiwan's first nuclear power plant. The planned fourth nuclear power plant, Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant, located at Gongliao District has currently been halted due to public opposition. Other power generations in the city are the Linkou Coal-Fired Power Plant in Linkou District and Feitsui Hydroelectric Power Plant in Shiding District.
New Taipei City has been developed towards a Green Future City. The city provides Carbon Reduction Clinic for houses and businesses with general consultation and on-site inspections for greener equipment, in which it is helped by the low-carbon community subsidies. The city also implements the Assist Industries with Cleaner Production Plan to help businesses adapt to the efforts toward becoming green industries. The city government also actively promoting green energy industries and smart electric vehicles.
In January 2016, New Taipei City was the top in terms of electricity saving in Taiwan, in which electricity consumption for the period April–November 2015 was cut down by 1.24%.
New Taipei City has a wide range of historical, natural and cultural attractions for tourists. Tourism-related industries in the city are governed by the Tourism and Travel Department of New Taipei City Government.
Historical attractions include Bitoujiao Lighthouse, Chin Pao San, Fort Santo Domingo, Hobe Fort, Ōgon Shrine, Tamsui Old Street, Lin Family Mansion and Garden, Fugueijiao Lighthouse, Cape San Diego Lighthouse and Qing dynasty remnants in Tamsui and the old mining towns of Jiufen, Jinguashi and Jingtong in the east. Sanxia houses the historic Minquan Street.
There are numerous notable museums and galleries, such as Drop of Water Memorial Hall, Gold Museum, Jing-Mei Human Rights Memorial and Cultural Park, Jingtong Mining Industry Museum, Ju Ming Museum, Li Mei-shu Memorial Gallery, Li Tien-lu Hand Puppet Historical Museum, Museum of World Religions, New Taipei City Hakka Museum, New Taipei City Yingge Ceramics Museum, Pinglin Tea Museum, Sanxia History Museum, Shisanhang Museum of Archaeology, Taiwan Coal Mine Museum, Taiwan Nougat Museum, Tamkang University Maritime Museum, Tamsui Art Gallery, Teng Feng Fish Ball Museum, Wulai Atayal Museum, Wulai Tram Museum and Xinzhuang Culture and Arts Center.
Natural attractions include the Wulai and Shifen waterfalls, Bitan, Wulai hot springs, Stone Sculpture Park, Cape San Diego, Twin Candlestick Islets, Xinhai Constructed Wetland, hoodoo geological formations at the Yehliu seacoast, and hiking in Mount Guanyin, Wulai, Pingxi and the northeast coast. Tamsui Fisherman's Wharf along the Tamsui River is a popular place for leisure and sightseeing. Popular beaches include Fulong, Yanliao and Baisha Bay.
New Taipei City regularly hosts around 5,000 annual art, music and cultural festivals, such as the Hohaiyan Rock Festival in Gongliao District. The Lantern Festival is held regularly in the city particularly in Pingxi District, where sky lanterns are made throughout the year for people to buy. Guests can also learn how to make their own lanterns, paint their hopes, dreams and wishes on them, then release them to the sky in the hopes that their prayers will be answered.
Other festivals include the Yeliu Religious Festival, Cherry Blossom Season, Ching Shui Tsu Shih Rituals, Mazu Cultural Festival, Zhonghe Water Festival, Green Bamboo Shoot Festival, Tung Blossom Festival, Fulong Sand Sculpture Festival, Shimen International Kite Festival, Taishan Lion Dance Culture Festival, Color Play Asia etc.
The Taipei Metro serves the area through the Tamsui Line in Tamsui, the Zhonghe Line in Yonghe and Zhonghe, the Luzhou Line in Sanchong and Luzhou, the Xinzhuang Line in Xinzhuang, Sanchong, and Taishan, the Xindian Line in Xindian, and the Bannan Line from Banqiao on out.
The Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport Access MRT System links Sanchong, Xinzhuang, Taishan and Linkou.