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NEW GERMAN CINEMA (German : Neuer Deutscher Film) is a period in German cinema which lasted from the late 1960s into the 1980s. It saw the emergence of a new generation of directors. Working with low budgets, and influenced by the French New Wave , such directors as Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
, Werner Herzog , Alexander Kluge , Harun Farocki , Volker Schlöndorff , Helma Sanders-Brahms , Hans-Jürgen Syberberg , Margarethe von Trotta and Wim Wenders made names for themselves and produced a number of 'small' motion pictures that caught the attention of art house audiences, and enabled these directors (particularly Wenders and Schlöndorff) to create better-financed productions which were backed by the big US studios . However, most of the films were commercial failures and, by 1977, 80% of a budget for a typical German film was ensured by a subsidy.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins of New German Cinema * 2 List of New German movies * 3 References * 4 Further reading

ORIGINS OF NEW GERMAN CINEMA

As a reaction to the artistic and economic stagnation of German cinema, a group of young filmmakers issued the Oberhausen Manifesto on 28 February 1962. This call to arms, which included Alexander Kluge , Edgar Reitz , Peter Schamoni , Haro Senft and Franz-Josef Spieker among its signatories, provocatively declared "Der alte Film ist tot. Wir glauben an den neuen" ("The old cinema is dead. We believe in the new cinema"). Other younger filmmakers allied themselves to this Oberhausen group, among them Volker Schlöndorff , Werner Herzog , Jean-Marie Straub , Wim Wenders , Hans-Jürgen Syberberg and Rainer Werner Fassbinder in their rejection of the existing German film industry and their determination to build a new industry founded on artistic excellence rather than commercial dictates.

Despite the foundation of the Kuratorium Junger Deutscher Film (Young German Film Committee) in 1965, set up under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to support new German films financially, the directors of this New German Cinema, who rejected co-operation with the existing film industry, were consequently often dependent on money from television. Young filmmakers had the opportunity to test their mettle in such programmes as the stand-alone drama and documentary series Das kleine Fernsehspiel (de) (The Little TV Play) or the television films of the crime series Tatort . However, the broadcasters sought TV premieres for the films which they had supported financially, with theatrical showings only occurring later. As a consequence, such films tended to be unsuccessful at the cinema box-office.

This situation changed after 1974 when the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen (Film and Television Accord) was agreed between the Federal Republic's main broadcasters, ARD and ZDF , and the German Federal Film Board (de) (a government body created in 1968 to support film-making in Germany). This accord, which has been repeatedly extended up to the present day, provides for the television companies to make available an annual sum to support the production of films which are suitable for both theatrical distribution and television presentation. (The amount of money provided by the public broadcasters has varied between € 4.5 and 12.94 million per year). Under the terms of the accord, films produced using these funds can only be screened on television 24 months after their theatrical release. They may appear on video or DVD no sooner than six months after cinema release. As a result of the funds provided by the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen, German films, particularly those of the New German Cinema, gained a much greater opportunity to enjoy box-office success before they played on television (Blaney 1992:204).

The artistically ambitious and socially critical films of the New German Cinema strove to delineate themselves from what had gone before and the works of auteur filmmakers such as Kluge and Fassbinder are examples of this, although Fassbinder in his use of stars from German cinema history also sought a reconciliation between the new cinema and the old. In addition, a distinction is sometimes drawn between the avantgarde "Young German Cinema" of the 1960s and the more accessible "New German Cinema" of the 1970s. For their influences the new generation of filmmakers looked to Italian Neorealism , the French Nouvelle Vague and the British New Wave but combined this eclectically with references to the well-established genres of Hollywood cinema. The new movement saw German cinema return to international critical significance for the first time since the end of the Weimar Republic. Films such as Kluge's Abschied von gestern (Yesterday Girl, 1966), Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), Fassbinder's Fear Eats the Soul (1974) and The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979), and Wenders' Paris, Texas (1984) found international acclaim and critical approval. Often the work of these auteurs was first recognised abroad rather than in Germany itself. The work of post-war Germany's leading novelists Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass provided source material for the adaptations The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (1975) (by Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta ) and The Tin Drum (1979) (by Schlöndorff alone) respectively, the latter becoming the first German film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film . Although overlooked in early scholarship on New German Cinema, female directors were an important part of it, which encompassed the works of directors such as Danièle Huillet , Helma Sanders-Brahms , Helke Sander , and von Trotta.

LIST OF NEW GERMAN MOVIES

* Yesterday Girl (1966) * Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968) * Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972) * Fear Eats the Soul (1974) * The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (1975) * The Tin Drum (1979) * Nosferatu the Vampyre
Nosferatu the Vampyre
(1979) * The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979)

REFERENCES

* ^ http://michaelfussell.tripod.com/new.html * ^ Information on the Filmförderungsanstalt (FFA) - German Federal Film Board

FURTHER READING

* Flinn, Caryl (2004). The New German Cinema: Music, History, and the Matter of Style. Berkeley: University of California Press. * Fussell, Michael. "New German Cinema". Section of a larger work by Fussell.

* v * t * e

New Wave in cinema

BY COUNTRY

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * Britain * Czechoslovakia * France * Hong Kong * India (Malayalam ) * Iran * Japan * Kazakhstan * Mexico * Nigeria * Romania * Taiwan * United States * West Germany

* v * t * e

Film genres

BY STYLE

* Action

* Arthouse * Heroic bloodshed * Hong Kong action

* Adventure

* Survival

* Art * Biographical * Christian

* Comedy

* Black * Commedia all\'italiana * Commedia sexy all\'italiana * Bromantic * Dramedy * Gross out * Horror * Parody * Mo lei tau * Thriller * Remarriage * Romantic * Sex * Screwball * Silent * Slapstick

* Documentary

* Animated * Docudrama * Mockumentary * Mondo * Pseudo * Semi * Travel

* Drama

* Dramedy * Historical * Legal

* Melodrama

* Korean

* Erotic

* Commedia sexy all\'italiana * Pink * Sexploitation * Thriller

* Educational * Social guidance

* Epic

* Sword-and-sandal

* Experimental

* Exploitation

* See: Exploitation film template

* Fantasy

* Comic * Contemporary * Dark * Fairy tale * Fantastique * High * Historical * Magic realism * Science

* Film noir

* Bad girl * Neo-noir * Occult detective * Pulp noir * Tech noir

* Gothic

* Romance * Southern * Space * Suburban * Urban

* Horror

* Body * Cannibal * Comedy * Eco * Fantastique * Found footage * German underground * Ghost * Giallo * Japanese * Korean * Mumblegore * Natural * New French Extremity * Occult detective * Psycho-biddy * Psychological * Religious * Science Fiction * Slasher * Splatter * Satanic

* Mumblecore

* Mumblegore

* Musical

* Backstage * Jukebox * Musicarello * Operetta * Sceneggiata
Sceneggiata

* Mystery

* Giallo * Occult detective

* Pornographic * Propaganda * Reality

* Romantic

* Comedy

* Bromantic

* Gothic * Paranormal * Thriller

* Science fiction

* Comic * Cyberpunk * Fantastique * Fantasy * Gothic * Horror * Military * Mundane * New Wave * Parallel universe * Planetary romance * Space opera * Steampunk * Western

* Thriller

* Comedy * Conspiracy * Erotic * Financial * Giallo * Legal * New French Extremity * Political * Psychological * Romantic * Techno

* Transgressive

* Cinema of Transgression * New French Extremity

* Trick

BY THEME

* Animals * Beach party * Blaxploitation * Body swap * Bourekas

* Buddy

* Buddy cop * Female

* Cannibal * Chicano * Colonial * Coming-of-age * Concert

* Crime

* Gentleman thief * Gong\'an * Heist * Hood * Gangster * Mafia * Mafia comedy * Poliziotteschi * Yakuza * Gokudō

* Dance

* Disaster

* Apocalyptic

* Drug

* Psychedelic * Stoner

* Dystopian * Economic * Ethnographic * Extraterrestrial * Food and drink * Funny animal * Gendai-geki * Ghost * Goona-goona epic

* Gothic

* Romance * Southern * Space * Suburban * Urban

* Hentai * Homeland * Jidaigeki * LGBT * Luchador

* Martial arts

* Bruceploitation * Chopsocky * Girls with guns * Gun fu * Kung fu * Wuxia

* Mecha
Mecha
* Mexploitation

* Monster

* Giant monster * Jiangshi * Kaiju * Vampire * Werewolf * Zombie

* Mountain * Mouth of Garbage * Muslim social

* Nature

* Environmental issues

* Opera * Outlaw biker * Ozploitation * Partisan film
Partisan film
* Pirate

* Prison

* Women

* Race * Rape and revenge * Road * Rubble * Rumberas * Samurai

* Sexploitation

* Bavarian porn * Commedia sexy all\'italiana * Mexican sex comedy * Nazi exploitation * Pornochanchada * Nunsploitation * Sex report

* Shomin-geki * Slavery * Slice of life

* Snuff

* Crush

* South Seas * Sports

* Spy

* Eurospy

* Superhero * Surfing * Swashbuckler * Sword-and-sandal * Sword and sorcery * Travel * Trial * Vigilante

* War

* Anti-war * Euro War * Submarine

* Western

* Acid * Epic * Florida * Meat pie * Northern * Ostern * revisionist * Space * Spaghetti * Weird * Zapata

* Zombie

* Zombie comedy

By movement or period

* Absolute * Australian New Wave * Auteur films * Berlin School * Bourekas * Brighton School

* British New Wave

* Kitchen sink realism

* Budapest school * Cannibal boom * Cinéma du look * Cinema Novo * Cinema of Transgression * Cinéma pur * Commedia all\'italiana * Documentary Film Movement
Documentary Film Movement
* Dogme 95 * Erra Cinema * European art cinema * Film gris * Free Cinema * French New Wave * German Expressionist * German underground horror * Nigerian Golden Age * Grupo Cine Liberación * Heimatfilm * Hollywood on the Tiber * Hong Kong New Wave * Iranian New Wave * Italian futurist * Italian neorealist * Japanese New Wave * Kammerspielfilm * L.A. Rebellion * Lettrist * Mumblecore * Neorealist * New French Extremity * New German * New Generation * New Hollywood * New Nigerian * New Queer * No wave * Nuevo Cine Mexicano * Parallel Cinema
Parallel Cinema
* Persian Film * Poetic realist * Polish Film School * Poliziotteschi * Praška filmska škola * Prussian film * Pure Film Movement * Remodernist * Romanian New Wave * Spaghetti Western * Socialist realist

* Social realist

* Kitchen sink realism

* Soviet Parallel * Structural * Surrealist * Sword-and-sandal * Telefoni Bianchi * Third Cinema * Yugoslav Black Wave

BY AUDIENCE

* Chick flick * Children\'s * Guy-cry * Teen * Woman\'s

By format, technique, approach, or production

* 3D * Actuality

* Animation
Animation

* Anime
Anime
* computer * Stop motion
Stop motion
* traditional

* Anthology * Art * B movie * Black-and-white * Blockbuster * Bollywood
Bollywood
* Cinéma vérité * Classical Hollywood cinema * Collage * Color * Compilation * Composite

* Cult

* Midnight movie

* Database cinema * Docufiction * Ethnofiction

* Experimental

* Abstract

* Feature * Featurette * Film à clef * Film noir * Film-poem * Found footage * Grindhouse * Hyperlink cinema

* Independent

* Guerrilla filmmaking

* Interstitial art

* Live action

* Animation
Animation

* Low-budget * Major studio * Making-of * Masala * Message picture * Meta-film * Mockbuster * Musical short * Mythopoeia * Neorealist * No budget * Paracinema * Participatory * Poetry * Postmodernist * Sceneggiata
Sceneggiata
* Semidocumentary * Serial * Shinpa * Short * Silent * Socialist realist * Sound * Underground

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