_NEVERMIND_ is the second studio album by the American rock band
Nirvana , released on September 24,
Despite low commercial expectations by the band and its record label
, _Nevermind_ became a surprise success in late 1991, largely due to
the popularity of its first single, "
Smells Like Teen Spirit ". By
January 1992, it had replaced
* 1 Background * 2 Recording and production
* 3 Music
* 3.1 Lyrics
* 4 Title and artwork
* 5 Release
* 5.1 2011 Deluxe and Super Deluxe Editions
* 6 Critical reception * 7 Legacy
* 8 Track listing
* 8.1 20th-anniversary edition bonus tracks * 8.2 Super Deluxe Edition bonuses
* 9 Personnel
* 10 Charts and certifications
* 10.1 Original album weekly charts * 10.2 20th Anniversary Edition weekly charts * 10.3 Certifications * 10.4 Year-end charts * 10.5 Decade-end charts * 10.6 Singles charts * 10.7 Other charted songs
* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links
Nirvana was a grunge rock band from Aberdeen, Washington , formed by Kurt Cobain and Krist Novoselic in 1987, that had signed to Seattle independent record label Sub Pop . The band released their debut album _Bleach _ in 1989, with Chad Channing on drums. However, Channing left Nirvana in 1990, and the band was in need of a permanent drummer. During a show by hardcore punk band Scream , the group's drummer, Dave Grohl , impressed Cobain and Novoselic. When Scream unexpectedly disbanded, Grohl contacted Novoselic, made his way to Seattle, and was soon invited to join the band. Novoselic said in retrospect that when Grohl joined the band, everything "fell into place".
Meanwhile, Cobain was writing a number of new songs. At the time
Cobain was listening to bands like
The Melvins ,
R.E.M. , The
Smithereens , and the
By the start of the 1990s, Sub Pop was experiencing financial difficulties. With rumors that Sub Pop would sign up as a subsidiary of a major record label, the band decided to "cut out the middleman" and start to look for a major record label. A number of labels courted the band, but Nirvana ultimately signed with Geffen Records imprint DGC Records based upon repeated recommendations from Kim Gordon of Sonic Youth (an influential alternative rock band who Nirvana idolized) and their management company Gold Mountain.
RECORDING AND PRODUCTION
In early 1990, Nirvana began planning its second album for Sub Pop,
tentatively titled _Sheep_. For the album,
Sub Pop head Bruce Pavitt
After signing to DGC, a number of producers for the album were
Scott Litt , David Briggs , and Don Dixon , but
Nirvana still wanted Butch Vig. Novoselic noted in 2001 that the band
was already nervous about recording on a major label, and the
producers suggested by DGC wanted percentage points for working on the
album. Instead, the band held out for Vig, with whom they felt
comfortable collaborating. Afforded a budget of $65,000, Nirvana
recorded _Nevermind_ at
Sound City Studios in
When the group arrived in California, Nirvana did a few days of pre-production where the band and Vig tightened up some of the song arrangements. The only recording carried over from the Smart Studios sessions was the song "Polly", which included cymbal crashes performed by Chad Channing. Once recording commenced, the band worked eight to ten hours a day. The band members tended to take two or three tries at instrumental takes; if the takes were not satisfactory at that point, they would move on to something else. The group had rehearsed the songs so much before recording started that often only a few takes were needed. Cobain used a variety of guitars, from Stratocasters to jaguars , and Novoselic used a black 1979 and natural 1976 Gibson Ripper. Novoselic and Grohl finished their bass and drum tracks in a matter of days, but Cobain had to work longer on guitar overdubs, singing, and particularly lyrics (which sometimes were finished mere minutes before recording). Cobain's phrasing was so consistent on various takes that Vig would mix the takes together to create overdubs. Vig says that he often had to trick Cobain into recording additional takes for overdubs since the singer was averse to performing multiple takes. In particular, Vig convinced Cobain to double-track his vocals on the song "In Bloom" by telling him "John Lennon did it." While the sessions went well generally, Vig said Cobain would become moody and difficult at times: "He'd be great for an hour, and then he'd sit in a corner and say nothing for an hour."
After the recording sessions were completed, Vig and the band set out
to mix the album. However, after a few days, both Vig and the band
members realized that they were unhappy with how the mixes were
turning out. As a result, they decided to call in someone else to
oversee the mixing, with
Geffen Records imprint DGC supplying a list
of possible options. The list contained several familiar names,
Scott Litt (known for his work with R.E.M.) and Ed Stasium
(known for his work with
The Ramones and The Smithereens). However,
Cobain feared that bringing in known mixers would result in the album
sounding like the work of those bands. Instead, Cobain chose Andy
Wallace (who had co-produced
_Nevermind_ was mastered on the afternoon of August 2 at The Mastering Lab in Hollywood, California. Howie Weinberg started working alone when no one else showed up at the appointed time in the studio; by the time Nirvana, Andy Wallace, and Gary Gersh arrived, Weinberg had mastered most of the album. One of the songs mastered at the session, a hidden track called "Endless, Nameless" intended to appear at the end of "Something in the Way", was accidentally left off initial pressings of the album. Weinberg recalled, "In the beginning, it was kind of a verbal thing to put that track at the end. Maybe I misconstrued their instructions, so you can call it my mistake if you want. Maybe I didn't write it down when Nirvana or the record company said to do it. So, when they pressed the first twenty thousand or so CDs, albums, and cassettes, it wasn't on there." When the band discovered the song's omission after listening to its copy of the album, Cobain called Weinberg and demanded he rectify the mistake. Weinberg complied and added about ten minutes of silence between the end of "Something in the Way" and the start of the hidden track on future pressings of the album.
_ "Smells Like Teen Spirit" A sample of " Smells Like Teen Spirit ", the first track on the album. The sample illustrates the change in dynamics from verse to pre-chorus and chorus. The band maintains the chord progression throughout, relying on the changes in dynamics and the reintroduction of the main guitar riff at the end to indicate the shifts between sections. ------------------------- "Come as You Are" A sample of " Come as You Are ", the second single from Nevermind_. Guitarist Kurt Cobain uses a chorus pedal when playing his guitar, creating a "watery" effect. ------------------------- "Polly" A sample of "Polly ", which was inspired by a news article about the abduction, torture, and rape in June 1987 of a 14-year-old girl by Gerald Arthur Friend that Cobain had read. -------------------------
_Problems playing these files? See media help ._
Cobain, Nirvana's main songwriter, fashioned chord sequences using
primarily power chords and wrote songs that combined pop hooks with
dissonant guitar riffs. His aim for _Nevermind_'s material was to
sound like "
The Knack and the
Bay City Rollers getting molested by
Black Flag and
Grohl has said that Cobain told him, "Music comes first and lyrics come second," and Grohl believes that above all Cobain focused on the melodies of his songs. Cobain was still working on the album's lyrics well into the recording of _Nevermind._ Additionally, Cobain's phrasing on the album is often difficult to understand. Vig asserted that clarity of Cobain's singing was not paramount. Vig said, "Even though you couldn't quite tell what he was singing about, you knew it was intense as hell." Cobain would later complain when rock journalists attempted to decipher his singing and extract meaning from his lyrics, writing "Why in the hell do journalists insist on coming up with a second-rate Freudian evaluation of my lyrics, when 90 percent of the time they've transcribed them incorrectly?"
Charles R. Cross asserted in his 2001 biography of Kurt Cobain, _ Heavier Than Heaven _, that many of the songs written for _Nevermind_ were about Cobain's dysfunctional relationship with Tobi Vail . After their relationship ended, Cobain began writing and painting violent scenes, many of which revealed a hatred for himself and others. Songs written during this period were less violent, but still reflected anger absent from Cobain's earlier songs. Cross wrote, "In the four months following their break-up, Kurt would write a half dozen of his most memorable songs, all of them about Tobi Vail." "Drain You" begins with the line, "One baby to another said 'I'm lucky to have met you,'" quoting what Vail had once told Cobain, and the line "It is now my duty to completely drain you" refers to the power Vail had over Kurt in their relationship. According to Novoselic, "'Lounge Act' is about Tobi," and the song contains the line "I'll arrest myself, I'll wear a shield," referring to Cobain having the K Records logo tattooed on his arm to impress Vail. Though "Lithium" had been written before Cobain knew Vail, the lyrics of the song were changed to reference her. Cobain also said in an interview with _Musician _ that "some of my very personal experiences, like breaking up with girlfriends and having bad relationships, feeling that death void that the person in the song is feeling–very lonely, sick."
TITLE AND ARTWORK
The album's tentative title _Sheep_ was something Cobain created as an inside joke directed towards the people he expected to buy the record. He wrote a fake advertisement for _Sheep_ in his journal that read "Because you want to not; because everyone else is." Novoselic said the inspiration for the title was the band's cynicism about the public's reaction to Operation Desert Storm . As recording sessions for the album were completed, Cobain grew tired of the title and suggested to Novoselic that the new album be named _Nevermind_. Cobain liked the title because it was a metaphor for his attitude on life and because it was grammatically incorrect.
The _Nevermind_ album cover shows a naked baby boy, alone underwater with a US dollar bill on a fishhook just out of his reach. According to Cobain, he conceived of the idea while watching a television program on water births with Grohl. Cobain mentioned it to Geffen's art director Robert Fisher . Fisher found some stock footage of underwater births but they were too graphic for the record company. Also, the stock house that controlled the photo of a swimming baby that they subsequently settled on wanted $7,500 a year for its use; so, instead Fisher sent a photographer to a pool for babies to take pictures. Five shots resulted and the band settled on the image of a four-month-old infant named Spencer Elden , the son of the photographer's friend. However, there was some concern because Elden's penis was visible in the image. Geffen prepared an alternate cover without the penis, as they were afraid that it would offend people, but relented when Cobain made it clear that the only compromise he would accept was a sticker covering the penis that would say, "If you're offended by this, you must be a closet pedophile."
The back cover of the album features a photograph of a rubber monkey in front of a collage created by Cobain. The collage features photos of raw beef from a supermarket advertisement, images from Dante\'s _Inferno _, and pictures of diseased vaginas from Cobain's collection of medical photos. Cobain noted, "If you look real close, there is a picture of Kiss in the back standing on a slab of beef." The album's liner notes contain no complete song lyrics; instead, the liner contains random song lyrics and unused lyrical fragments that Cobain arranged into a poem. However, the single for "Lithium" contains lyrics for each song in _Nevermind_.
_Nevermind_ was released on September 24, 1991. American record stores received an initial shipment of 46,251 copies, while 35,000 copies were shipped in the United Kingdom, where _Bleach_ had been successful. The lead single "Smells Like Teen Spirit" had been released on September 10 with the intention of being a base-building cut among alternative rock fans, while the next single "Come as You Are " would be the song that would possibly garner more attention. The band set out on a short American tour four days before the release date to support the album. Geffen Records hoped that _Nevermind_ would sell around 250,000 copies, which was the same level the record company had achieved with Sonic Youth's Geffen debut _Goo _. The best estimate was that if all involved worked hard, the record could possibly be certified Gold by September 1992.
The album debuted on the _Billboard_ 200 at number 144. Geffen
shipped about half of the initial US pressing to the American
Northwest, where it sold out quickly and was unavailable for days.
Geffen reputedly put production of all other albums on hold in order
to fulfill demand in the region. _Nevermind_ was already selling well
but, over the next few months, the momentum increased significantly as
"Smells Like Teen Spirit" unexpectedly became more and more popular.
The song's video had received a world premiere on
As the band set out for their European tour at the start of November 1991, _Nevermind_ entered the _Billboard_ Top 40 for the first time at number 35. By this point, "Smells Like Teen Spirit" had become a genuine hit and the album was selling so fast none of Geffen's marketing strategies aimed at different sales levels could be enacted. Geffen president Ed Rosenblatt told _ The New York Times _, "We didn't do anything. It was just one of those 'Get out of the way and duck' records." Nirvana found as they toured Europe during the end of 1991 that the shows were dangerously oversold, television crews became a constant presence onstage, and "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was almost omnipresent on radio and music television.
_Nevermind_ became Nirvana's first number one album on January 11,
_Nevermind_ was certified Gold and Platinum by the Recording Industry
Association of America in November
2011 DELUXE AND SUPER DELUXE EDITIONS
In September 2011, in honor of the album's 20th anniversary,
Universal Music Enterprises released a 2-CD Deluxe Edition and a
4-CD/1-DVD Super Deluxe Edition of _Nevermind_. The first disc on
both editions features the original album with studio and live
b-sides. The second disc on both editions features early recordings of
sessions that featured songs that would later appear on the album,
including the Smart Studio sessions and some band rehearsals recorded
with a boombox . The second disc is rounded out by two
Blender _ _
Christgau\'s Consumer Guide _ A
_ Entertainment Weekly _ A−
NME _ 9/10
_ Rolling Stone _ _
Select _ 4/5
Geffen's press promotion for _Nevermind_ was lower than that typical
of a major record label. The label's publicist primarily targeted
music publications with long lead times for publication as well as
magazines in the
At first, _Nevermind_ did not receive many reviews, and many
publications ignored the album. Months after its release and after
"Smells Like Teen Spirit" garnered airplay, print media organizations
were "scrambling" to cover the phenomenon the album had become.
However, by that point, much of the attention fell on Cobain rather
than the album itself. The reviews that did initially appear were
largely positive. Karen Schoemer of _The New York Times_ wrote, "With
'Nevermind,' Nirvana has certainly succeeded. There are enough
intriguing textures, mood shifts, instrumental snippets and inventive
word plays to provide for hours of entertainment." Schoemer concluded,
"'Nevermind' is more sophisticated and carefully produced than
anything peer bands like
Some of the reviews were not entirely positive. _
Rolling Stone _
originally gave the album three out of five stars. Reviewer Ira
Robbins wrote, "If Nirvana isn't onto anything altogether new,
_Nevermind_ does possess the songs, character and confident spirit to
be much more than a reformulation of college radio's high-octane
The Boston Globe
_Nevermind_ was voted as the best album of the year in _The Village
Voice _ Pazz "Smells Like Teen Spirit" also topped the single of the
year and video of the year polls. _Nevermind_ topped the poll by a
large majority, and _Village Voice_ critic
Robert Christgau wrote in
his companion piece to the poll, "As a modest pop surprise they might
have scored a modest victory, like
De La Soul
Michael Azerrad argued in his Nirvana biography _Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana _ (1993) that _Nevermind_ marked an epochal generational shift in music similar to the rock-and-roll explosion in the 1950s and the end of the baby boomer generation's dominance of the musical landscape. Azerrad wrote, "_Nevermind_ came along at exactly the right time. This was music by, for, and about a whole new group of young people who had been overlooked, ignored, or condescended to." In its citation placing it at number 17 in its 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time , _Rolling Stone_ said, "No album in recent history had such an overpowering impact on a generation—a nation of teens suddenly turned punk—and such a catastrophic effect on its main creator." Gary Gersh, who signed Nirvana to Geffen Records, added that "There is a pre-Nirvana and post-Nirvana record business...'Nevermind' showed that this wasn't some alternative thing happening off in a corner, and then back to reality. This is reality."
_Nevermind_ has continued to garner critical praise since its
release. The album was listed at number 17 on _Rolling Stone_'s list
The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time ". _Rolling Stone_ also rated
_Nevermind_ as the number one best album of the 1990s, calling it the
"album that guaranteed the nineties would not suck." _Time_ placed
_Nevermind_, which writer
Josh Tyrangiel called "the finest album of
the 90s", on its 2006 list of "The All-TIME 100 Albums". Pitchfork
named the album the sixth best of the decade, noting that "anyone who
hates this record today is just trying to be cool, and needs to be
trying harder." In 2006, readers of
All songs were written by Kurt Cobain , except where noted.
NO. TITLE LENGTH
3. " Come as You Are " 3:39
4. "Breed " 3:03
5. "Lithium " 4:17
6. "Polly " 2:57
7. "Territorial Pissings" (Cobain, Chet Powers ) 2:22
8. " Drain You " 3:43
9. "Lounge Act" 2:36
10. "Stay Away" 3:32
11. " On a Plain " 3:16
12. " Something in the Way " 3:46
* Later pressings include "Endless, Nameless", a hidden track which begins after 10 minutes of silence following "Something in the Way", making track 12's total length 20:35.
20TH-ANNIVERSARY EDITION BONUS TRACKS
* "Endless, Nameless" ( Hidden track on some pressings of _Nevermind_) – 6:44 * "Even in His Youth" ("Smells Like Teen Spirit" b-side) – 3:03 * "Aneurysm " (Cobain, Novoselic, Grohl) ("Smells Like Teen Spirit" b-side) – 4:46 * "Curmudgeon" (Cobain, Novoselic, Grohl) ("Lithium" b-side) – 2:59 * "D-7 " ( Greg Sage ) ("Lithium" b-side) – 3:45 * "Been a Son" (Live, "Lithium" b-side) – 2:31 * "School" (Live, "Come as You Are" b-side) – 2:33 * "Drain You" (Live, "Come as You Are" b-side) – 3:53 * "Sliver " (Live, "In Bloom" b-side) – 2:04 * "Polly" (Live, "In Bloom" b-side) – 2:47
* "In Bloom" (April 1990, Smart Studios) – 4:32
* "Immodium (Breed)" (April 1990, Smart Studios) – 3:15
* "Lithium" (April 1990, Smart Studios) – 4:31
* "Polly" (April 1990, Smart Studios) – 2:59
* "Pay to Play" (April 1990, Smart Studios) – 3:29 (Originally
released on the _
DGC Rarities Vol. 1 _ compilation album in 1994, this
song was recorded in 1990 and eventually evolved into "Stay Away" on
ORIGINAL ALBUM WEEKLY CHARTS
CHARTS (1992) Peak position
Australian Albums (ARIA ) 2
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria ) 2
Canadian Albums (RPM ) 1
Dutch Albums ( MegaCharts ) 3
Finnish Albums ( The Official Finnish Charts ) 1
French Albums (SNEP ) 1
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100 ) 3
Hungarian Albums ( Mahasz ) 12
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ ) 2
Norwegian Albums ( VG-lista ) 2
Spanish Albums ( Spanish Albums Chart ) 2
Swedish Albums ( Sverigetopplistan ) 1
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade ) 2
UK Albums (OCC ) 7
US _Billboard_ 200 1
CHARTS (2015) Peak position
Polish Albums (ZPAV ) 11
20TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION WEEKLY CHARTS
CHART (2011) Peak position
Belgian Albums ( Ultratop Wallonia) 7
Danish Albums ( Hitlisten ) 16
Finnish Albums (Suomen virallinen lista ) 41
French Albums (SNEP ) 5
Italian Albums (FIMI ) 20
Japanese Albums ( Oricon ) 26
Mexican Albums ( Top 100 Mexico ) 43
Portuguese Albums (AFP ) 1
Spanish Albums (PROMUSICAE ) 12
US Top Catalog Albums (_Billboard_ ) 2
REGION CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED UNITS /SALES
ARGENTINA (CAPIF ) 3× Platinum 180,000^
AUSTRALIA (ARIA ) 5× Platinum 350,000^
AUSTRIA (IFPI AUSTRIA) Platinum 50,000*
BELGIUM (BEA ) 3× Platinum 150,000*
BRAZIL (PRO-MúSICA BRASIL ) Platinum 250,000*
CANADA (MUSIC CANADA ) Diamond 1,000,000^
FINLAND (MUSIIKKITUOTTAJAT ) Gold 46,830
FRANCE (SNEP ) Diamond 1,690,000
GERMANY (BVMI ) 2× Platinum 1,000,000^
ITALY (FIMI ) Platinum 100,000*
JAPAN (RIAJ ) 3× Platinum 600,000
MEXICO ( AMPROFON ) 2× Gold 200,000^
NEW ZEALAND (RMNZ ) 7× Platinum 105,000^
POLAND (ZPAV ) Platinum 100,000*
SWEDEN (GLF ) 2× Platinum 200,000^
SWITZERLAND (IFPI SWITZERLAND) Platinum 50,000^
UNITED KINGDOM (BPI ) 5× Platinum 1,807,142
UNITED STATES (RIAA ) Diamond 10,640,000
*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone
CHART (1992) POSITION
AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS (ARIA) 17
CHART (1995) POSITION
AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS (ARIA) 35
CHART (1996) POSITION
AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS (ARIA) 49
CHART (2015) POSITION
AUSTRALIAN ALBUMS (ARIA) 98
ITALIAN ALBUMS (FIMI) 98
UK VINYL ALBUMS (OFFICIAL CHARTS COMPANY ) 13
CHART (2016) POSITION
ITALIAN ALBUMS (FIMI) 89
POLISH ALBUMS (ZPAV ) 96
UK VINYL ALBUMS (OFFICIAL CHARTS COMPANY ) 10
CHART (1990–1999) POSITION
U.S. _Billboard_ 200 32
YEAR SONG PEAK CHART POSITIONS CERTIFICATIONS
US US Main US Mod AUS BEL CAN FIN FR IRE ITA NLD NZ SPN SWE UK
1991 " Smells Like Teen Spirit " 6 7 1 5 1 9 8 1 15 3 3 1 1 3 7
* US: Platinum (physical) * US: Gold (digital) * AUS: Gold * DEN: Platinum * IT: Platinum * NZ: Gold * SWE: Gold * UK: Platinum
1992 " Come as You Are " 32 3 3 25 15 27 8 12 7 8 16 3 16 24 9
* IT: Gold * UK: Silver
"Lithium " 64 16 25 53 28 83 1 — 5 16 17 28 13 — 11
* UK: Silver
"—" denotes releases that did not chart or were not released in that territory.
OTHER CHARTED SONGS
YEAR SONG PEAK POSITIONS
1992 " On a Plain " 25
1991 in music
* _Classic Albums: Nirvana –
* ^ "This Day in Music Spotlight: Nirvana Begins Recording
‘Nevermind’". .gibson.com. Retrieved 2014-04-05.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _Classic Albums—Nirvana:
Nevermind_ . Isis Productions, 2004.
* ^ Azerrad, 1993. p. 145
* ^ Azerrad, 1993. p. 162
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hoi, Tobias. "In Bloom." _
* ^ "Classifiche “Top of the Music” 2015 FIMI-GfK: La musica italiana in vetta negli album e nei singoli digitali" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana . Retrieved January 14, 2016. * ^ Official Biggest Vinyl Singles and Albums of 2015 revealed officialcharts.com. January 13, 2016. * ^ "Top of the Music - FIMI/GfK: Le uniche classifiche annuali complete." (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana . Retrieved January 29, 2017. * ^ "W 2016 roku najlepiej sprzedającym się albumem było "Życie po śmierci" O.S.T.R.". 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016. * ^ The Official Top 40 biggest selling vinyl albums and singles of 2016 officialcharts.com. January 1, 2017. * ^ Mayfield, Geoff. "1999 The Year in Music Totally '90s: Diary of a Decade – The listing of Top Pop Albums of the '90s & Hot 100 Singles of the '90s". _Billboard_. December 25, 1999. * ^ "Nirvana – Chart History: Hot 100". billboard.com. Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ Nirvana – Chart History: Mainstream Rock Tracks billboard.com. Retrieved November 30, 2014. * ^ "Nirvana – Chart History: Alternative Songs". _Billboard _. Retrieved 2010-11-11.
* ^ Australian (ARIA Chart ) peaks:
* Peaks within the top 50: "australian-charts.com > Nirvana discography". Hung Medien. Retrieved 2015-09-30. * Peaks between 51-100 until December 2010: Ryan, Gavin (2011). _Australia's Music Charts 1988-2010_. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing.
* ^ Nirvana Belgiam Ultratop Charts. ultratop.be/nl. Retrieved on September 17, 2012. * ^ "Nirvana Top Singles positions". _RPM _. Retrieved 2010-06-20. * ^ "Search for: Nirvana". LesCharts.com. Retrieved 2007-08-22. * ^ "Search the Charts". IrishCharts.ie. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
* For "Smells Like Teen Spirit": Billboard magazine - 21 August 1992 - p. 659 - "Hits of the World" section under "Italy" americanradiohistory.com. Retrieved June 21, 2016. * For "Come as You Are": Billboard magazine - May 30, 1992 - p. 42 - "Hits of the World Section" under "Italy" americanradiohistory.com. Retrieved July 3, 2016. * For "Lithium": Salvatori, Dario. (1999). _40 anni di hit parade italiana: _. Firenze: Tarab. ISBN 88-86675-55-0 .
* ^ dutcharts.nl. "Dutch Chart Archives". Retrieved 18 June 2010. * ^ Nirvana - New Zealand Singles Chart Positions charts.org.nz. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
* For "Smells Like Teen Spirit": Billboard magazine - 21 August 1992 - p. 59 - "Hits of the World" section under "Spain" americanradiohistory.com. Retrieved June 21, 2016. * For "Come as You Are" and "Lithium": Salaverri, Fernando. _Sólo éxitos, año an año, 1959-2002_. Madrid: Fundación Author-SGAE, 2005. ISBN 84-8048-639-2 , p. 602.
* ^ "Search for: Nirvana". SwedishCharts.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
* For all: "Nirvana UK Singles Chart Positions". officialcharts.com. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Search Results". Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved 2009-11-12. * ^ "The ARIA Chart – Best of 1992". Imgur.com (original document published by ARIA ). Retrieved September 23, 2016. * ^ Nirvana Smells Like teen Spirit - Denmark IFPI Certification - Track * ^ Nirvana - Italian 2014 Certifications fimi.it. retrieved July 11, 2016 * ^ The Official New Zealand Music Chart Top 40 - 24 May 1992 nztop40.co.nz. Retrieved 11 July 2016. * ^ "Swedish single certifications – Nirvana – Smells Like Teen Spirit" (in Swedish). Swedish Recording Industry Association . Archived from the original on November 11, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Certified Awards Search". British Phonographic Industry . Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-04. Note: User needs to enter "Nirvana" in the "Search" field, "Artist" in the "Search by" field and click the "Search" button. Select "More info" next to the relevant entry to see full certification history. * ^ Nirvana - Italian 2016 Certifications fimi.it. Retrieved July 11, 2016. * ^ Nirvana - Alternative Songs (Previously Modern Rock) chart history (2nd page) billboard.com. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
* _Classic Albums—Nirvana: Nevermind_ . Isis Productions, 2004. * Azerrad, Michael. _Come as You Are: The Story of Nirvana_. Doubleday, 1993. ISBN 0-385-47199-8 * Berkenstadt, Jim; Cross, Charles. _Classic Rock Albums: Nevermind_. Schirmer, 1998. ISBN 0-02-864775-0 * Cross, Charles. _Heavier Than Heaven: A Biography of Kurt Cobain_. Hyperion, 2001. ISBN 0-7868-8402-9 * Sandford, Christopher. _Kurt Cobain_. Carroll ">
* v * t * e
* KURT COBAIN * KRIST NOVOSELIC * DAVE GROHL
* _Bleach _ * _Nevermind_ * _In Utero _
* _ Incesticide _ * _Nirvana _ * _Sliver: The Best of the Box _ * _Icon _
* _Singles _ * _ With the Lights Out _ * _Nevermind: The Singles _
Love Buzz "
* "Sliver "
Smells Like Teen Spirit "
Come as You Are "
* "Lithium "
* " On a Plain " * "All Apologies" (Unplugged) * "The Man Who Sold the World " * "Where Did You Sleep Last Night " * "Lake of Fire " * "Aneurysm" (live) * "Drain You" (live)
Films and documentaries
* v * t * e
1990-1999 1990 Happy Mondays - _Pills \'n\' Thrills and Bellyaches _ 1991 Nirvana - _Nevermind_ 1992 Sugar - _ Copper Blue _ 1993 Björk - _Debut _ 1994 Oasis - _ Definitely Maybe _ 1995 Tricky - _ Maxinquaye _ 1996