farming , animal husbandry
pottery , metallurgy , wheel
circular ditches , henges , megaliths
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD,
or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology
, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the
ASPRO chronology , in
some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world
and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Traditionally considered the last part of the
Stone Age , the
Neolithic followed the terminal
Epipaleolithic _ period and
commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the
Neolithic Revolution ". It ended when metal tools became widespread
Copper Age or
Bronze Age ; or, in some geographical regions,
Iron Age ). The
Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and
cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and
domestic crops and of domesticated animals .
The beginning of the
Neolithic culture is considered to be in the
Jericho , modern-day
West Bank ) about 10,200–8800 BC. It
developed directly from the
Natufian culture in the
region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals , which then
evolved into true farming . The
Natufian period was between 12,000 and
10,200 BC, and the so-called "proto-Neolithic" is now included in the
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (
PPNA ) between 10,200 and 8800 BC. As the
Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a
sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes
associated with the
Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to
By 10,200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the
Asia Minor , North Africa and North
Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic
Revolution from around 10,000 BC.
Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both
wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat , millet and spelt
, and the keeping of dogs , sheep and goats . By about 6900–6400 BC,
it included domesticated cattle and pigs , the establishment of
permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of
Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic
appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies
Near East did not use pottery. In other parts of the world,
such as Africa,
South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent
domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic
cultures that arose completely independently of those in
Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures
used pottery _before_ developing agriculture.
Unlike during the
Paleolithic , only one human species (_Homo sapiens
sapiens _) existed in the Neolithic. The term _Neolithic_ derives
from the Greek νέος _néos_, "new" and λίθος _líthos_,
"stone", literally meaning "New
Stone Age ". The term was invented by
Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system .
* 1 Periods by pottery phase
Neolithic 1 –
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)
Neolithic 2 –
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB)
Neolithic 3 –
* 2 Periods by region
* 2.2 Southern
* 2.3 North Africa
* 2.5 South and East Asia
* 2.6 America
* 3 Social organization
* 4 Shelter
* 7 Clothing
* 8 Early settlements
* 9 List of cultures and sites
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 12.1 Citations
* 12.2 Sources
* 13 External links
PERIODS BY POTTERY PHASE
Human timeline view • discuss • edit -10 — – -9 — –
-8 — – -7 — – -6 — – -5 — – -4 — – -3 — – -2
— – -1 — – 0 — Human-like
Nakalipithecus _ _
Ouranopithecus _ _
Orrorin _ _
Ardipithecus _ _
Australopithecus _ _HOMO HABILIS _
_HOMO ERECTUS _ _NEANDERTHAL _ _HOMO SAPIENS _
← Earlier apes ← Possibly bipedal ← Earliest
bipedal ← Earliest stone tools ← Earliest exit
from Africa ← Earliest fire use ← Earliest cooking
← Earliest clothes ← Modern humans
Axis scale : millions of years .
Also see: _Life timeline _ and _Nature timeline _ _ An array of
Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and
Neolithic stone artifacts are by definition polished
and, except for specialty items, not chipped.
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In the Middle East, cultures identified as
Neolithic began appearing
in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred in the Levant
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B ) and from
there spread eastwards and westwards.
Neolithic cultures are also
attested in southeastern
Anatolia and northern
Mesopotamia by around
Beifudi site near Yixian in
Hebei Province, China,
contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and
Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east
Taihang Mountains , filling in an archaeological gap between
the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more
than 1,200 square yards (1,000 m2; 0.10 ha), and the collection of
neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
NEOLITHIC 1 – PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC A (PPNA)
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Neolithic 1 (PPNA) period began roughly around 10,000 BC in the
Levant . A temple area in southeastern
Göbekli Tepe dated
around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This
site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, evidenced by the
lack of permanent housing in the vicinity and may be the oldest known
human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering
25 acres (10 ha), contain limestone pillars carved with animals,
insects, and birds. Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as
hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported
roofs. Other early
PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have
been found in
Ain Mallaha , Nahal Oren , and
Kfar HaHoresh ), Gilgal in the
Jordan Valley , and
The start of
Neolithic 1 overlaps the
Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic
periods to some degree.
The major advance of
Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the
Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and
perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was
ground into flour.
Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were
herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and selective breeding ).
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in
to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated
by insects, and therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings.
This evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and
mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred
centuries before the first cultivation of grains.
Settlements became more permanent with circular houses, much like
those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were
for the first time made of mudbrick . The settlement had a surrounding
stone wall and perhaps a stone tower (as in Jericho). The wall served
as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to
keep animals penned. Some of the enclosures also suggest grain and
NEOLITHIC 2 – PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC B (PPNB)
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Neolithic 2 (PPNB) began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO
chronology in the
Jericho , Palestine). As with the PPNA
dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above.
This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast
Anatolia and settlements of the middle
Anatolia basin. A settlement of
3,000 inhabitants was found in the outskirts of
Considered to be one of the largest prehistoric settlements in the
Near East , called \
'Ain Ghazal , it was continuously inhabited from
approximately 7250 BC to approximately 5000 BC.
Settlements have rectangular mud-brick houses where the family lived
together in single or multiple rooms. Burial findings suggest an
ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead, which were
plastered with mud to make facial features. The rest of the corpse
could have been left outside the settlement to decay until only the
bones were left, then the bones were buried inside the settlement
underneath the floor or between houses.
NEOLITHIC 3 – POTTERY NEOLITHIC (PN)
Neolithic 3 (PN) began around 6,400 BC in the
Fertile Crescent .
By then distinctive cultures emerged, with pottery like the Halafian
(Turkey, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia) and Ubaid (Southern
Mesopotamia). This period has been further divided into PNA (Pottery
Neolithic A) and PNB (
Neolithic B) at some sites.
Chalcolithic (Stone-Bronze) period began about 4500 BC, then the
Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the
PERIODS BY REGION
'Ain Ghazal Statues found at \
'Ain Ghazal in
Jordan , are
considered to be one of the earliest large-scale representations of
the human form dating back to around 7250 BC.
Around 10,200 BC the first fully developed
belonging to the phase
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the
Fertile Crescent. Around 10,700–9400 BC a settlement was
Tell Qaramel , 10 miles (16 km) north of
Aleppo . The
settlement included two temples dating to 9650 BC. Around 9000 BC
during the PPNA, one of the world's first towns,
Jericho , appeared in
the Levant. It was surrounded by a stone and marble wall and contained
a population of 2,000–3,000 people and a massive stone tower.
Around 6400 BC the
Halaf culture appeared in Lebanon,
Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, and Northern
Mesopotamia and subsisted on
In 1981 a team of researchers from the Maison de l\'Orient et de la
Méditerranée , including
Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche divided
Near East neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to 9) based on
social, economic and cultural characteristics. In 2002 Danielle
Frédéric Abbès advanced this system with a division
into five periods.
Natufian between 12,000 and 10,200 BC,
Khiamian between 10,200 and 8800 BC,
PPNA : Sultanian (Jericho),
* Early PPNB (_PPNB ancien_) between 8800 and 7600 BC, middle PPNB
(_PPNB moyen_) between 7600 and 6900 BC,
* Late PPNB (_PPNB récent_) between 7500 and 7000 BC,
* A PPNB (sometimes called PPNC) transitional stage (_PPNB final_)
in which Halaf and dark faced burnished ware begin to emerge between
6900 and 6400 BC.
They also advanced the idea of a transitional stage between the PPNA
and PPNB between 8800 and 8600 BC at sites like
Jerf el Ahmar and Tell
Alluvial plains (
Elam ). Little rainfall makes irrigation
systems necessary. Ubaid culture from 6,900 BC.
Algerian cave paintings depicting hunting scenes
Domestication of sheep and goats reached
Egypt from the Near East
possibly as early as 6000 BC.
Graeme Barker states "The first
indisputable evidence for domestic plants and animals in the Nile
valley is not until the early fifth millennium BC in northern Egypt
and a thousand years later further south, in both cases as part of
strategies that still relied heavily on fishing, hunting, and the
gathering of wild plants" and suggests that these subsistence changes
were not due to farmers migrating from the
Near East but was an
indigenous development, with cereals either indigenous or obtained
through exchange. Other scholars argue that the primary stimulus for
agriculture and domesticated animals (as well as mud-brick
architecture and other
Neolithic cultural features) in
Egypt was from
the Middle East.
Neolithic Europe Female figure from Tumba
Republic of Macedonia Map showing distribution of
some of the main culture complexes in
Neolithic Europe , c. 3500 BC
Skara Brae , Scotland. Evidence of home furnishings (shelves)
Europe agrarian societies first appeared in the 7th
millennium BC , attested by one of the earliest farming sites of
Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi , southeastern
Albania and dating back
to 6500 BC. Anthropomorphic figurines have been found in the Balkans
from 6000 BC, and in
Central Europe by around 5800 BC (La Hoguette ).
Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo
culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving rise
to Starčevo-Körös (Cris),
Linearbandkeramik , and Vinča . Through
a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples , the
Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern
Europe by around 4500 BC. The
Vinča culture may have created the
earliest system of writing, the
Vinča signs , though archaeologist
Shan Winn believes they most likely represented pictograms and
ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing. The
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built enormous settlements in Romania,
Ukraine from 5300 to 2300 BC. The megalithic temple
Ġgantija on the Mediterranean island of
Gozo (in the
Maltese archipelago) and of
Mnajdra (Malta) are notable for their
Neolithic structures, the oldest of which date back to around
3600 BC. The
Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni , Paola , Malta, is a
subterranean structure excavated around 2500 BC; originally a
sanctuary, it became a necropolis , the only prehistoric underground
temple in the world, and showing a degree of artistry in stone
sculpture unique in prehistory to the Maltese islands. After 2500 BC,
the Maltese Islands were depopulated for several decades until the
arrival of a new influx of
Bronze Age immigrants, a culture that
cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called
dolmens to Malta. In most cases there are small chambers here, with
the cover made of a large slab placed on upright stones. They are
claimed to belong to a population certainly different from that which
built the previous megalithic temples. It is presumed the population
arrived from Sicily because of the similarity of Maltese dolmens to
some small constructions found in the largest island of the
SOUTH AND EAST ASIA
Neolithic sites in
South Asia are
Bhirrana in Haryana
dated to 7570-6200 BC, and
Mehrgarh , dated to 7500 BC, in the Kachi
plain of Baluchistan , Pakistan; the site has evidence of farming
(wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats).
In South India, the
Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until
around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South
Neolithic is characterized by Ashmounds since 2500 BC in
Karnataka region, expanded later to
Tamil Nadu .
In East Asia, the earliest sites include
Nanzhuangtou culture around
Pengtoushan culture around 7500–6100 BC, and
Peiligang culture around 7000–5000 BC.
The 'Neolithic' (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone
implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote
and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea).
Polished stone adze and axes are used in the present day (as of 2008 )
in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. This
is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older
generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail.
In 2012, news was released about a new farming site discovered in
Munam-ri , Goseong , Gangwon Province ,
South Korea , which may be the
earliest farmland known to date in east Asia. "No remains of an
agricultural field from the
Neolithic period have been found in any
East Asian country before, the institute said, adding that the
discovery reveals that the history of agricultural cultivation at
least began during the period on the
Korean Peninsula ". The farm was
dated between 3600 and 3000 BC. Pottery, stone projectile points, and
possible houses were also found. "In 2002, researchers discovered
prehistoric earthenware , jade earrings, among other items in the
area". The research team will perform accelerator mass spectrometry
(AMS) dating to retrieve a more precise date for the site.
In Mesoamerica , a similar set of events (i.e., crop domestication
and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as
early as 11,000–10,000 BC. These cultures are usually not referred
to as belonging to the Neolithic; in America different terms are used
Formative stage instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era
instead of Early
Neolithic and Paleo-Indian for the preceding period.
Formative stage is equivalent to the
Neolithic Revolution period
in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the southwestern United States it
occurred from 500 to 1200 AD when there was a dramatic increase in
population and development of large villages supported by agriculture
based on dryland farming of maize, and later, beans, squash, and
domesticated turkeys. During this period the bow and arrow and ceramic
pottery were also introduced.
Neolithic figurine Anthropomorphic Female
Neolithic ceramic figurine
During most of the
Neolithic age of
Eurasia , people lived in small
tribes composed of multiple bands or lineages. There is little
scientific evidence of developed social stratification in most
Neolithic societies; social stratification is more associated with the
Bronze Age . Although some late Eurasian
formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, states evolved in
Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most
on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian. Beyond Eurasia,
however, states were formed during the local
Neolithic in three areas,
namely in the Preceramic Andes with the Norte Chico Civilization ,
Formative Mesoamerica and Ancient Hawaiʻi . However, most Neolithic
societies were noticeably more hierarchical than the Paleolithic
cultures that preceded them and hunter-gatherer cultures in general.
The domestication of large animals (c. 8000 BC) resulted in a
dramatic increase in social inequality in most of the areas where it
occurred; New Guinea being a notable exception. Possession of
livestock allowed competition between households and resulted in
inherited inequalities of wealth.
Neolithic pastoralists who
controlled large herds gradually acquired more livestock, and this
made economic inequalities more pronounced. However, evidence of
social inequality is still disputed, as settlements such as Catal
Huyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and
burial sites, suggesting a more egalitarian society with no evidence
of the concept of capital, although some homes do appear slightly
larger or more elaborately decorated than others.
Families and households were still largely independent economically,
and the household was probably the center of life. However,
Central Europe have revealed that early Neolithic
Linear Ceramic cultures ("_Linearbandkeramik_") were building large
arrangements of circular ditches between 4800 and 4600 BC. These
structures (and their later counterparts such as causewayed enclosures
, burial mounds , and henge ) required considerable time and labour to
construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able
to organise and direct human labour — though non-hierarchical and
voluntary work remain possibilities.
There is a large body of evidence for fortified settlements at
_Linearbandkeramik_ sites along the
Rhine , as at least some villages
were fortified for some time with a palisade and an outer ditch.
Settlements with palisades and weapon-traumatized bones have been
discovered, such as at the
Talheim Death Pit demonstrates
"...systematic violence between groups" and warfare was probably much
more common during the
Neolithic than in the preceding Paleolithic
period. This supplanted an earlier view of the Linear
as living a "peaceful, unfortified lifestyle".
Control of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of
corporate-level or 'tribal' groups, headed by a charismatic
individual; whether a 'big man ' or a proto-chief , functioning as a
lineage-group head. Whether a non-hierarchical system of organization
existed is debatable, and there is no evidence that explicitly
Neolithic societies functioned under any dominating
class or individual, as was the case in the chiefdoms of the European
Bronze Age . Theories to explain the apparent implied
Neolithic (and Paleolithic) societies have arisen,
Marxist concept of primitive communism .
Neolithic house in
Tuzla , Bosnia and
The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the
Paleolithic to the
Neolithic era. In the Paleolithic, people did not
normally live in permanent constructions. In the Neolithic, mud brick
houses started appearing that were coated with plaster. The growth of
agriculture made permanent houses possible. Doorways were made on the
roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the
houses. The roof was supported by beams from the inside. The rough
ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents
Stilt-houses settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura
Terramare ) region. Remains have been found at the Ljubljana
Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper
Austria , for example.
Neolithic Revolution A Cucuteni-Trypillian
culture deer antler plough Food and cooking items retrieved at
Neolithic site: millstones , charred bread, grains and
small apples, a clay cooking pot, and containers made of antlers and
A significant and far-reaching shift in human subsistence and
lifestyle was to be brought about in areas where crop farming and
cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance on an
essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral
transhumance was at first supplemented, and then increasingly replaced
by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. These
developments are also believed to have greatly encouraged the growth
of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to
spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more
localized dwellings. This trend would continue into the Bronze Age,
eventually giving rise to permanently settled farming towns , and
later cities and states whose larger populations could be sustained by
the increased productivity from cultivated lands.
The profound differences in human interactions and subsistence
methods associated with the onset of early agricultural practices in
Neolithic have been called the _
Neolithic Revolution _, a term
coined in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe
One potential benefit of the development and increasing
sophistication of farming technology was the possibility of producing
surplus crop yields, in other words, food supplies in excess of the
immediate needs of the community. Surpluses could be stored for later
use, or possibly traded for other necessities or luxuries.
Agricultural life afforded securities that pastoral life could not,
and sedentary farming populations grew faster than nomadic.
However, early farmers were also adversely affected in times of
famine , such as may be caused by drought or pests . In instances
where agriculture had become the predominant way of life, the
sensitivity to these shortages could be particularly acute, affecting
agrarian populations to an extent that otherwise may not have been
routinely experienced by prior hunter-gatherer communities.
Nevertheless, agrarian communities generally proved successful, and
their growth and the expansion of territory under cultivation
Another significant change undergone by many of these newly agrarian
communities was one of diet . Pre-agrarian diets varied by region,
season, available local plant and animal resources and degree of
pastoralism and hunting. Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a
limited package of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and
to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products.
Supplementation of diet by hunting and gathering was to variable
degrees precluded by the increase in population above the carrying
capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population
concentration. In some cultures, there would have been a significant
shift toward increased starch and plant protein. The relative
nutritional benefits and drawbacks of these dietary changes and their
overall impact on early societal development is still debated.
In addition, increased population density, decreased population
mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and
continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would
have altered sanitation needs and patterns of disease .
Stone tool §
The identifying characteristic of
Neolithic technology is the use of
polished or ground stone tools, in contrast to the flaked stone tools
used during the
Neolithic people were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools
necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as
sickle blades and grinding stones ) and food production (e.g. pottery
, bone implements). They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of
other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points
, beads , and statuettes . But what allowed forest clearance on a
large scale was the polished stone axe above all other tools. Together
with the adze , fashioning wood for shelter, structures and canoes for
example, this enabled them to exploit their newly won farmland.
Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern
Central Asia were also accomplished builders,
utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. At Çatalhöyük
, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans
and animals. In
Europe , long houses built from wattle and daub were
constructed. Elaborate tombs were built for the dead. These tombs are
particularly numerous in
Ireland , where there are many thousand still
Neolithic people in the
British Isles built long barrows
and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps , henges, flint
mines and cursus monuments. It was also important to figure out ways
of preserving food for future months, such as fashioning relatively
airtight containers, and using substances like salt as preservatives.
The peoples of the
Americas and the
Pacific mostly retained the
Neolithic level of tool technology until the time of European contact.
Exceptions include copper hatchets and spearheads in the Great Lakes
Most clothing appears to have been made of animal skins, as indicated
by finds of large numbers of bone and antler pins that are ideal for
fastening leather. Wool cloth and linen might have become available
during the later Neolithic, as suggested by finds of perforated
stones that (depending on size) may have served as spindle whorls or
loom weights. The clothing worn in the
Neolithic Age might be
similar to that worn by
Ötzi the Iceman , although he was not
Neolithic (since he belonged to the later
Copper age ).
_ Reconstruction of a Cucuteni-Trypillian hut, in the Tripillian
This list (which may have dates, numbers, etc.) MAY BE BETTER IN A
SORTABLE TABLE FORMAT. Please help improve this list or discuss it on
the talk page . (February 2016)_
Neolithic human settlements include:
Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, c. 11,000–9000 BC
Guilá Naquitz Cave in
Mexico , c. 11,000 BC
Tell Qaramel in
Syria , 10,700–9400 BC
Franchthi Cave in
Greece , epipalaeolithic (c. 10,000 BC)
settlement, reoccupied between 7500 and 6000 BC
China , 9500–9000 BC
Lebanon believed to have been occupied first between
8800 and 7000 BC,
West bank ,
Neolithic from around 8350 BC, arising from
Aşıklı Höyük in Central
Turkey , an Aceramic
Neolithic period settlement, 8200–7400 BC, correlating with the
E/MPPNB in the Levant.
Nevali Cori in
Turkey , c. 8000 BC
The Archaeological Site of
Çatalhöyük in the
Konya Plain in
Pengtoushan culture in
China , 7500–6100 BC, rice residues were
carbon-14 dated to 8200–7800 BC in type site
Turkey , 7500 BC
'Ain Ghazal in
Jordan , 7250–5000 BC
Chogha Bonut in
Iran , 7200 BC
India , 7100 BC
Ganj Dareh in
Iran , c. 7000 BC
India , 7000 BC
China , 7000–5800 BC
Pakistan , 7000 BC
Crete , c. 7000 BC
Cyprus , c. 7000–4000 BC
Greece , 6850 BC (with a 660-year margin of error)
Republic of Macedonia , 6500 BC
Padah-Lin Caves in
Burma , c. 6000 BC
Serbia , 6000 BC
Stara Zagora in
Bulgaria , 5500 BC
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture , 5500–2750 BC, in
Ukraine , Moldova
Romania first salt works
Tell Zeidan in northern Syria, from about 5500 to 4000 BC.
* around 2000 settlements of
Trypillian culture , 5400–2800 BC
Tabon Cave Complex in
Quezon, Palawan ,
Philippines 5000–2000 BC
Hemudu culture in
China , 5000–4500 BC, large-scale rice
Megalithic Temples of Malta , 3600 BC
Knap of Howar
Knap of Howar and
Skara Brae ,
Orkney , Scotland , from 3500 BC
and 3100 BC respectively
Brú na Bóinne in
Ireland , c. 3500 BC
Lough Gur in
Ireland from around 3000 BC
Norte Chico civilization , from 3000 to 1700 BC, 30 aceramic
Neolithic period settlements in northern coastal
Neolithic village on the
Tagant Plateau in central southern
Mauritania , 2000–500 BC
Oaxaca , state in Southwestern Mexico, by 2000 BC Neolithic
sedentary villages had been established in the Central Valleys region
of this state.
China , 2000 BC
Mumun pottery period ,
Neolithic revolution spreads down the
Korean Peninsula and permanent settlements are established 1800–1500
Neolithic revolution reaches Japan around 500–300 BC
The world's oldest known engineered roadway , the
Sweet Track in
England , dates from 3800 BC and the world's oldest freestanding
structure is the neolithic temple of
LIST OF CULTURES AND SITES
Excavated dwellings at
Skara Brae (Orkney, Scotland), Europe's
_Note: Dates are very approximate, and are only given for a rough
estimate; consult each culture for specific time periods._
Levant : 10,000–8500 BC;
Europe : 5000–4000
BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region._
Franchthi Cave people
* Earliest European
Neolithic site: 20th to 3rd millennium BC
Sesclo village culture
* Starcevo-Criş culture
* (also known as the Starčevo-Körös-Criş culture )
Levant : 8500–6500 BC;
Europe : 4000–3500
BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region._
* Jinsha settlement and
Cardium Pottery culture
Comb Ceramic culture
Corded Ware culture
Grooved ware people
Skara Brae , et al.
Linear Pottery culture
Goseck circle , et al.
* Precucuteni culture
Windmill Hill culture
_Periodization : 6500–4500 BC;
Europe : 3500–3000 BC; Elsewhere:
varies greatly, depending on region._
Eneolithic Main article:
_Periodization: Middle East : 4500–3300 BC;
Europe : 3000–1700
BC; Elsewhere : varies greatly, depending on region. In the Americas,
Eneolithic ended as late as the 19th century AD for some peoples._
Rock art of the Djelfa region
Two layer hypothesis
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