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Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
(29 October 1926 – 27 February 2011) was a Turkish politician, engineer, and academic who was the Prime Minister of Turkey
Turkey
from 1996 to 1997. He was pressured by the military to step down as prime minister and was later banned from politics by the Constitutional Court of Turkey
Turkey
for violating the separation of religion and state as mandated by the constitution.[1][2] The political ideology and movement founded by Erbakan, Millî Görüş, calls for the strengthening of Islamic
Islamic
values in Turkey
Turkey
and turning away from what Erbakan perceived to be the negative secular influence of the Western world
Western world
in favor of closer relations to Muslim countries. Erbakan's political views conflicted with the core principle of secularism in Turkey, culminating in his removal from office. With the Millî Görüş
Millî Görüş
ideology, Erbakan was the founder and leader of several prominent Islamic
Islamic
political parties in Turkey
Turkey
from the 1960s to the 2010s, namely the National Order Party (MNP), the National Salvation Party (MSP), the Welfare Party
Welfare Party
(RP), the Virtue Party (FP), and the Felicity Party
Felicity Party
(SP).

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Political activities

2.1 Premiership 2.2 Post-PM

3 Death 4 Views 5 References 6 External links

Early life and education[edit] Erbakan was born in Sinop, at the coast of Black Sea
Black Sea
in northern Turkey.[3] His father was Mehmet Sabri, a judge from the prestigious Kozanoğlu family (Oghuz Turks, Afshar tribe) of Cilicia
Cilicia
and his mother Kamer was a native of Sinop and the second wife of Mehmet Sabri.[4] After high school education in Istanbul High School, he graduated from the Mechanical Engineering Faculty at the Istanbul Technical University in 1948, and received a PhD
PhD
degree in mechanical/engine engineering from the RWTH Aachen University.[3] After returning to Turkey, Erbakan became lecturer at the İTÜ and was appointed professor in 1965 at the same university.[3] After working some time in leading positions in the industry, he switched over to politics, and was elected deputy of Konya
Konya
in 1969.[3] He was a member of the Community of İskenderpaşa, a Turkish sufistic community of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
tariqah.[5] Political activities[edit] Erbakan's ideology is set forth in a manifesto, entitled Millî Görüş (National View), which he published in 1969.[3] The organisation of the same name, which he founded and of which he was the leader, upholds nowadays that the word "national" is to be understood in the sense of monotheistic ecumenism.[6][7] One of the leading names in Turkish politics for decades, Erbakan was the leader of a series of Islamic
Islamic
political parties that he founded or inspired. These parties rose to prominence only to be banned by Turkey's secular authorities. In the 1970s, Erbakan was chairman of the National Salvation Party which, at its peak, served in coalition government with the Republican People's Party of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit
Bülent Ecevit
during the Cyprus
Cyprus
crisis of 1974. In the wake of the 1980 military coup, Erbakan and his party were banned from politics.[3] He reemerged following a referendum to lift the ban in 1987 and became the leader of Refah Partisi
Refah Partisi
(Welfare Party).[3] His party benefited in the 1990s from the acrimony between the leaders of Turkey's two most prominent conservative parties, Mesut Yılmaz and Tansu Çiller. He led his party to a surprise success in the general elections of 1995. Premiership[edit] He became Prime Minister in 1996 in coalition with Çiller's Doğru Yol Partisi (Correct Path Party). As prime minister, he attempted to further Turkey's relations with the Arab nations.[3] In addition to trying to follow an economic welfare program, which was supposedly intended to increase welfare among Turkish citizens, the government tried to implement a multi-dimensional political approach to relations with the neighboring countries. Erbakan's image was damaged by his famous speech making fun of the nightly demonstrations against the Susurluk scandal. He was widely blamed at the time for his indifference. The Turkish military gradually increased the urgency[clarification needed] and frequency of its public warnings to Erbakan's government, eventually prompting Erbakan to step down in 1997[citation needed]. At the time there was a formal deal between Erbakan and Tansu Çiller, the leaders of the coalition, for a "period based premiership"[citation needed]. According to this, Erbakan was to act as the prime minister for a certain period (a fixed amount of time, which was not publicized), then he would step down in favour of Çiller. However, Ciller's party was the third-largest in the parliament, and when Erbakan stepped down, President Süleyman Demirel asked Mesut Yılmaz, leader of the second-largest party, to form a new government instead. Post-PM[edit] In an unprecedented move, Erbakan's ruling Welfare Party
Welfare Party
was subsequently banned by the courts, which held that the party had an agenda to promote Islamic
Islamic
fundamentalism in the state, and Erbakan was barred once again from active politics.[8] He had argued that a truly democratic country should not shut down a political party for its beliefs. He was tried and sentenced to two years and four months imprisonment in the so-called Lost Trillion Case, which involved the use of forged documents to prevent the return of Treasury grants in the amount of around one trillion lira, i.e. one million in today's currency (around € 477,000) following the ban of the party in 1997.[9][10] Despite often being under political ban, Erbakan nonetheless acted as a mentor and informal advisor to former Refah members who founded the Virtue Party in 1997, among them the current President of the Turkish Republic, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The Virtue Party was found unconstitutional in 2001 and forcibly banned; by that time Erbakan's ban on political activities had ended, and he founded the Felicity Party, of which he was the leader in 2003–2004 and again from 2010[11] until his death. Death[edit]

Grave of Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
and his family at Merkezefendi Cemetery
Merkezefendi Cemetery
in Istanbul

Erbakan died on 27 February 2011 at 11:40 local time of heart failure at Güven Hospital in Çankaya, Ankara.[12] His body was transferred to Istanbul, and following the religious funeral service at the Fatih Mosque, the attending crowd accompanied his coffin the about 4 km (2.5 mi) way to the Merkezefendi Cemetery, where he was laid to rest beside his wife Nermin. He did not wish a state funeral, however his funeral was attended by highest state and government officials.[13] According to The Economist, at his death Erbakan was acknowledged as a moderating force on Turkey's Islamists, and made Turkey
Turkey
as a possible model for the Arab world as well[14] Views[edit] Main article: Millî Görüş His foreign policy had two main pillars: close cooperation and unity among Muslim countries, and struggle against Zionism. He created "D-8" or The Developing Eight, to achieve an economic and political unity among Muslim countries. It has eight members, including Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nigeria. References[edit]

^ [1] BBC. Ex-Turkish PM sentenced, March 2000 ^ [2] BBC. Turkey
Turkey
Bans Islamists, January 1998 ^ a b c d e f g h "85 yıllık yaşamından kesitler" (in Turkish). Ntvmsnbc.com. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.  ^ Prof. Dr. Necmettin Erbakan'in soyu ve dogumu Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Radikal: "Nakşibendi şeyhi öldü - Nakşibendi tarikatının ünlü kollarından İskender Paşa cemaatinin şeyhi Coşan, Avustralya'da trafik kazasında yaşamını yitirdi. Aynı kazada ölen Uyarel, şeyhin olası haleflerinden sayılıyordu" 5 Şubat 2001 ^ Statement of the IGMG Archived 2007-06-20 at the Wayback Machine. (Islamische Gemeinschaft Milli Görüş e. V.) to the 2002 report of the German State Office for the Protection of the Constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(in German) ^ Wer ist Milli Görüs? (Who is Milli Görüs?), German daily Die Tageszeitung, May 7, 2004 (in German) ^ "Turkish party given another week to justify existence". BBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ "Leaders of now-defunct Welfare Party
Welfare Party
stand trial for fraud". Hürriyet
Hürriyet
Daily News. 1999-02-09. Retrieved 2014-11-27.  ^ "Former President Gül testifies to prosecutors in 'lost trillion case'". Today's Zaman. 2014-11-19. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-27.  ^ "84-year-old Erbakan elected Felicity Party
Felicity Party
leader". Today's Zaman. October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2010.  ^ " Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
vefat etti". Ntvmsnbc (in Turkish). Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ "Erbakan son yolculuğuna uğurlandı 2011-03-01". Hürriyet
Hürriyet
(in Turkish). Retrieved 2011-10-14.  ^ http://www.economist.com/node/18289145

External links[edit]

Media related to Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
at Wikimedia Commons Biography of Necmeddin ERBAKAN Official Website of Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(in Turkish) Felicity Party
Felicity Party
website (in Turkish) Erbakan Died (in Turkish)

Political offices

Preceded by Kemal Satır Nizamettin Erkmen Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey January 28, 1974 – November 17, 1974 Succeeded by Zeyyat Baykara

Preceded by Zeyyat Baykara Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey March 31, 1975 – June 21, 1977 Succeeded by Turan Güneş Orhan Eyüboğlu

Preceded by Turan Güneş Orhan Eyüboğlu Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey July 21, 1977 – January 5, 1978 Succeeded by Orhan Eyüboğlu

Preceded by Mesut Yılmaz Prime Minister of Turkey June 28, 1996 – June 30, 1997 Succeeded by Mesut Yılmaz

Party political offices

New political party Leader of the National Order Party (MNP) January 26, 1970 – May 20, 1971 Party banned

Preceded by Süleyman Arif Emre Leader of the National Salvation Party (MSP) October 20, 1973 – September 12, 1980 Party banned

Preceded by Ahmet Tekdal Leader of the Welfare Party
Welfare Party
(RP) October 11, 1987 – January 16, 1998 Succeeded by Recai Kutan
Recai Kutan
of the Virtue Party

Preceded by Recai Kutan Leader of the Felicity Party
Felicity Party
(SP) May 11, 2003 – January 30, 2004 Succeeded by Recai Kutan

Preceded by Numan Kurtulmuş Leader of the Felicity Party
Felicity Party
(SP) October 17, 2010 – February 27, 2011 Succeeded by Mustafa Kamalak

Honorary titles

Preceded by Sırrı Enver Batur President of the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey May 25, 1969 – August 8, 1969 Succeeded by Sırrı Enver Batur

v t e

Prime Minister of Turkey

Government of the Grand National Assembly (1920–1923)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Fevzi Çakmak Rauf Orbay Fethi Okyar

Republic of Turkey (since 1923)

İsmet İnönü Fethi Okyar İsmet İnönü Celâl Bayar Refik Saydam Ahmet Fikri Tüzer Şükrü Saracoğlu Recep Peker Hasan Saka Şemsettin Günaltay Adnan Menderes Cemal Gürsel Fahri Özdilek İsmet İnönü Suat Hayri Ürgüplü Süleyman Demirel Nihat Erim Ferit Melen Naim Talu Bülent Ecevit Sadi Irmak Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ulusu Turgut Özal Ali Bozer Yıldırım Akbulut Mesut Yılmaz Süleyman Demirel Erdal İnönü Tansu Çiller Mesut Yılmaz Necmettin Erbakan Mesut Yılmaz Bülent Ecevit Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Ahmet Davutoğlu Binali Yıldırım

Italics denote acting prime ministers.

v t e

Leader of the Main Opposition of Turkey

Kazım Karabekir Fethi Okyar Celâl Bayar İsmet İnönü Ekrem Alican Ragıp Gümüşpala Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Necdet Calp Aydın Güven Gürkan Erdal İnönü Mesut Yılmaz Necmettin Erbakan Recai Kutan Deniz Baykal Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu

v t e

Leaders of the Felicity Party

Mehmet Recai Kutan Necmettin Erbakan Mehmet Recai Kutan Numan Kurtulmuş Necmettin Erbakan Mustafa Kamalak Temel Karamollaoğlu

v t e

Party leaders in Turkey

Before 1960

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Kâzım Karabekir Fethi Okyar İsmet İnönü Nuri Demirağ Celâl Bayar Hikmet Bayur Adnan Menderes Osman Bölükbaşı Ekrem Hayri Üstündağ Fevzi Lütfi Karaosmanoğlu

1960–80

Ekrem Alican Ragıp Gümüşpala Ahmet Oğuz Mehmet Ali Aybar Süleyman Demirel Alparslan Türkeş Turhan Feyzioğlu Hüseyin Balan Mustafa Timisi Ferruh Bozbeyli Behice Boran Necmettin Erbakan Bülent Ecevit Kemal Satır

1980–present

Turgut Sunalp Turgut Özal Necdet Calp Erdal İnönü Ahmet Nusret Tuna Cezmi Kartay Yıldırım Avcı Ahmet Tekdal Hüsamettin Cindoruk Aydın Güven Gürkan Ülkü Söylemezoğlu Rahşan Ecevit Mehmet Yazar Necdet Karababa Yıldırım Akbulut Mesut Yılmaz Doğu Perinçek Tansu Çiller Murat Karayalçın Deniz Baykal Hikmet Çetin Devlet Bahçeli Recai Kutan Altan Öymen Ahmet Türk Recep Tayyip Erdoğan İsmail Cem İpekçi Zeki Sezer Yaşar Nuri Öztürk Masum Türker Süleyman Soylu Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu Ahmet Davutoğlu Binali Yıldırım Selahattin Demirtaş

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18027960 LCCN: n88644037 ISNI: 0000 0001 1748 0651 GND: 119274523 SUDOC: 174949650 BNF:

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