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Nanyue
Nanyue
(Chinese: 南越) or Zhuang: Namzyied, or Nam Viet
Nam Viet
(Vietnamese: Nam Việt[1]) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the modern Chinese provinces
Chinese provinces
of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Nanyue
Nanyue
was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang. In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
paid obeisance to the Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu of Han, and Nanyue
Nanyue
was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state. Around 183 BC, relations between the Nanyue
Nanyue
and the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
soured, and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
began to refer to himself as an emperor, suggesting Nanyue's sovereignty. In 179 BC, relations between the Han and Nanyue
Nanyue
improved, and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
once again made submission, this time to Emperor
Emperor
Wen of Han as an subject state. The submission was somewhat superficial, as Nanyue
Nanyue
retained autonomy from the Han, and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
was referred to as "Emperor" throughout Nanyue
Nanyue
until his death. In 113 BC, fourth-generation leader Zhao Xing sought to have Nanyue
Nanyue
formally included as part of the Han Empire. His prime minister Lü Jia objected vehemently and subsequently killed Zhao Xing, installing his elder brother Zhao Jiande on the throne and forcing a confrontation with the Han dynasty. The next year, Emperor Wu of Han sent 100,000 troops to war against Nanyue. By the year's end, the army had destroyed Nanyue
Nanyue
and established Han rule. The kingdom lasted 93 years and had five generations of kings. The Kingdom of Nanyue's founding preserved the order of the Lingnan region during the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Qin dynasty. It allowed the southern region to avoid much of the hardship experienced by the northern, predominantly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
regions. The kingdom was founded by leaders originally from the Chinese heartland, and was responsible for bringing Chinese bureaucracy and more advanced agriculture and handicraft techniques to the inhabitants of the southern regions, as well as knowledge of the Chinese language
Chinese language
and writing system. Nanyue
Nanyue
leaders promoted a policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue
Hundred Yue
Tribes" (Chinese: 和集百越), and encouraged fellow Han Chinese
Han Chinese
to immigrate from their Yellow River homeland to the south. They supported mutual assimilation of the two cultures and peoples, and promulgated Han culture and the Chinese language throughout the region, though many elements of original Yue culture were preserved.[2] In Vietnam, the rulers of Nanyue
Nanyue
are referred to as the Triệu dynasty. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt, the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding

1.1.1 Qin southward expansion (218 BC) 1.1.2 Âu Lạc Suzerainty and Conquest 1.1.3 Proclamation (204 BC)

1.2 Nanyue
Nanyue
under Zhao Tuo 1.3 Zhao Mo 1.4 Zhao Yingqi 1.5 Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande 1.6 War and the decline of Nanyue

2 Geography and Demographics

2.1 Borders 2.2 Administrative Divisions 2.3 Ethnicities

3 Government

3.1 Administrative system 3.2 Military 3.3 Ethnic policy

4 Language 5 Diplomacy

5.1 With the Han Court 5.2 With Changsha 5.3 With Minyue 5.4 With the Yi Tribes of the Southwest

6 Kings 7 Archaeological findings 8 Vietnam 9 Nanyue
Nanyue
culture

9.1 Gallery 9.2 Jade
Jade
wares unearthed from the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] A detailed history of Nanyue
Nanyue
was written in Records of the Grand Historian by Han dynasty
Han dynasty
historian Sima Qian. It is mostly contained in section (juan) 113, Chinese: 南越列傳; pinyin: Nányuè Liè Zhuàn (Ordered Annals of Nanyue).[4] Founding[edit] Qin southward expansion (218 BC)[edit] Main article: Qin's campaign against the Yue tribes

A hufu 虎符, or Tiger Tally, made of bronze with gold inlay, found in the tomb of the King
King
of Nanyue
Nanyue
(at Guangzhou), dated 2nd century BCE, during the Western Han
Western Han
era of China; tiger Tallies were separated into two pieces, one held by the emperor, the other given to a military commander as a symbol of imperial authority and ability to command troops.

After Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
conquered the six other Chinese kingdoms of Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan, and Qi, he turned his attention to the Xiongnu tribes of the north and west and the Hundred Yue
Hundred Yue
peoples of what is now southern China. Around 218 BC, the First Emperor
Emperor
dispatched General Tu Sui with an army of 500,000 Qin soldiers to divide into five companies and attack the Hundred Yue
Hundred Yue
tribes of the Lingnan region. The first company gathered at Yuhan (Modern Yugan County
Yugan County
in Jiangxi Province) and attacked the Minyue, defeating them and establishing the Minzhong Commandery. The second company fortified at Nanye (in modern Jiangxi Province's Nankang County), and was designed to put defensive pressure on the southern clans. The third company occupied Panyu. The fourth company garrisoned near the Jiuyi Mountains, and the fifth company garrisoned outside Tancheng (in the southwest part of modern Hunan Province's Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County). The First Emperor
Emperor
assigned official Shi Lu to oversee supply logistics. Shi first led a regiment of soldiers through the Ling Channel (which connected the Xiang River
Xiang River
and the Li River), then navigated through the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and Pearl River water systems ensure the safety of the Qin supply routes. The Qin attack of the Western Valley (Chinese: 西甌) Yue tribe went smoothly, and Western Valley chieftain Yi-Xu-Song was killed. However, the Western Valley Yue were unwilling to submit to the Qin and fled into the jungle where they selected a new leader to continue resisting the Chinese armies. Later, a night-time counterattack by the Western Valley Yue devastated the Qin troops, and General Tu Sui was killed in the fighting. The Qin suffered heavy losses, and the imperial court selected General Zhao Tuo to assume command of the Chinese army. In 214 BC, the First Emperor
Emperor
dispatched Ren Xiao and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
at the head of reinforcements to once again mount an attack. This time, the Western Valley Yue were completely defeated, and the Lingnan
Lingnan
region was brought entirely under Chinese control.[5][6][7] In the same year, the Qin court established the Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang Commanderies, and Ren Xiao was made Lieutenant of Nanhai. Nanhai was further divided into Panyu, Longchuan, Boluo, and Jieyang
Jieyang
counties (among several others), and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
was made commander of Longchuan. The First Emperor
Emperor
died in 210 BC, and his son Zhao Huhai became the Second Emperor
Emperor
of Qin. The following year, soldiers Chen Sheng, Wu Guang, and others seized the opportunity to revolt against the Qin government. Insurrections spread throughout much of China (including those led by Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
and Liu Bang, who would later face off over the founding of the next dynasty) and the entire Yellow River
Yellow River
region devolved into chaos. Soon after the first insurrections, Nanhai Lieutenant Ren Xiao became gravely ill and summoned Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
to hear his dying instructions. Ren described the natural advantages of the southern region and described how a kingdom could be founded with the many Chinese settlers in the area to combat the warring groups in the Chinese north.[8] He drafted a decree instating Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
as the new Lieutenant of Nanhai, and died soon afterward. After Ren's death, Zhao Tuo, sent orders to his troops in Hengpu Pass (north of modern Nanxiong, Guangdong
Guangdong
Province), Yangshan Pass (northern Yangshan County), Huang Stream Pass (modern Yingde
Yingde
region, where the Lian River enters the Bei River), and other garrisons to fortify themselves against any northern troops. He also executed Qin officials still stationed in Nanhai and replaced them with his own trusted friends.[9] Âu Lạc Suzerainty and Conquest[edit] The kingdom of Âu Lạc laid south of Nanyue
Nanyue
in the early years of Nanyue's existence, with Âu Lạc located primarily in the Red River delta area, and Nanyue
Nanyue
encompassing Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang Commanderies. During the time when Nanyue
Nanyue
and Âu Lạc co-existed, Âu Lạc acknowledged Nanyue's suzerainty, especially because of their mutual anti-Han sentiment. Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
built up and reinforced his army, fearing an attack by the Han. However, when relations between the Han and Nanyue
Nanyue
improved, in 179 BC Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
marched southward and successfully annexed Âu Lạc.[10] Proclamation (204 BC)[edit] In 206 BC the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
ceased to exist, and the Yue peoples
Yue peoples
of Guilin and Xiang were largely independent once more. In 204 BC, Zhao Tuo founded the Kingdom of Nanyue, with Panyu
Panyu
as capital, and declared himself the Martial King
King
of Nanyue
Nanyue
(Chinese: 南越武王, Vietnamese: Nam Việt
Việt
Vũ Vương).

Statue of Zhao Tuo, in front of Heyuan
Heyuan
Railway Station

Nanyue
Nanyue
under Zhao Tuo[edit] Main article: Zhao Tuo Liu Bang, after years of war with his rivals, established the Han dynasty and reunified Central China in 202 BC. The fighting had left many areas of China depopulated and impoverished, and feudal lords continued to rebel while the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
made frequent incursions into northern Chinese territory. The precarious state of the empire therefore forced the Han court to treat Nanyue
Nanyue
initially with utmost circumspection. In 196 BC, Liu Bang, now Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu, sent Lu Jia (陸賈, not to be confused with Lü Jia 呂嘉) to Nanyue
Nanyue
in hopes of obtaining Zhao Tuo's allegiance. After arriving, Lu met with Zhao Tuo and is said to have found him dressed in Yue clothing and being greeted after their customs, which enraged him. A long exchange ensued,[11] wherein Lu is said to have admonished Zhao Tuo, pointing out that he was Chinese, not Yue, and should have maintained the dress and decorum of the Chinese and not have forgotten the traditions of his ancestors. Lu lauded the strength of the Han court and warned against a kingdom as small as Nanyue
Nanyue
daring to oppose it. He further threatened to kill Zhao's kinsmen in China proper and destroying their ancestral graveyards, as well as coercing the Yue into deposing Zhao himself. Following the threat, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
then decided to receive Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu's seal and submit to Han authority. Trade relations were established at the border between Nanyue
Nanyue
and the Han kingdom of Changsha. Although formally a Han subject state, Nanyue
Nanyue
seems to have retained a large measure of de facto autonomy.

After the death of Liu Bang
Liu Bang
in 195 BC, the government was put in the hands of his wife, Empress
Empress
Lü Zhi, who served as Empress Dowager
Empress Dowager
over their son Emperor
Emperor
Hui of Han and then Emperor
Emperor
Hui's sons Liu Gong and Liu Hong. Enraged, Empress
Empress
Lü sent men to Zhao Tuo's hometown of Zhending (modern Zhengding County
Zhengding County
in Hebei Province) who killed much of Zhao's extended family and desecrated the ancestral graveyard there. Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
believed that Wu Chen, the Prince of Changsha, had made false accusations against him to get Empress Dowager
Empress Dowager
Lü to block the trade between the states and to prepare to conquer the Nanyue
Nanyue
to merge into his principality of Changsha. In revenge, he then declared himself the emperor of Nanyue
Nanyue
and attacked the principality of Changsha
Changsha
and captured some neighboring towns under Han domain. Lü sent general Zhou Zao to punish Zhao Tuo. However, in the hot and humid climate of the south, an epidemic broke out quickly amongst the soldiers, and the weakened army was unable to cross the mountains, forcing them to withdraw which ended in Nanyue
Nanyue
victory, but the military conflict did not stop until the Empress
Empress
died. Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
then annexed the neighboring state of Minyue in the east as subject kingdom. The kingdom of Yelang
Yelang
and Tongshi (通什) also submitted to Nanyue
Nanyue
rule.

The map founded in Tomb 3 of Mawangdui
Mawangdui
Han tombs site, marking the positions of Han military garrisons that were employed in an attack against Nanyue
Nanyue
in 181 BC.[12]

In 179 BC, Liu Heng ascended the throne as Emperor
Emperor
of the Han. He reversed many of the previous policies of Empress
Empress
Lü and took a conciliatory attitude toward Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
and the Kingdom of Nanyue. He ordered officials to revisit Zhending, garrison the town, and make offerings to Zhao Tuo's ancestors regularly. His prime minister Chen Ping suggested sending Lu Jia to Nanyue
Nanyue
as they were familiar with each other. Lu arrived once more in Panyu
Panyu
and delivered a letter from the Emperor
Emperor
emphasizing that Empress
Empress
Lü's policies were what had caused the hostility between Nanyue
Nanyue
and the Han court and brought suffering to the border citizens. Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
decided to submit to the Han once again, withdrawing his title of "emperor" and reverting to "king", and Nanyue
Nanyue
became Han's subject state. However, most of the changes were superficial, and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
continued to be referred to as "emperor" throughout Nanyue.[13] Zhao Mo[edit] Main article: Zhao Mo In 137 BC, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
died, having lived over one hundred years. Because of his great age, his son, the Crown Prince Zhao Shi, had preceded him in death, and therefore Zhao Tuo's grandson Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
became king of Nanyue. In 135 BC, the king of neighboring Minyue launched an attack on the towns along the two nations' borders. Because Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
hadn't yet consolidated his rule, he was forced to implore Emperor
Emperor
Wu of Han to send troops to Nanyue's aid against what he called "the rebels of Minyue". The Emperor
Emperor
lauded Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
for his vassal loyalty and sent Wang Hui, an official governing ethnic minorities, and agricultural official Han Anguo at the head of an army with orders to separate and attack Minyue from two directions, one from Yuzhang Commandery, and the other from Kuaiji Commandery. Before they reached Minyue, however, the Minyue king was assassinated by his younger brother Yu Shan, who promptly surrendered.[14][15]

Zhao Mo's jade sarcophagus with red silk

The Emperor
Emperor
sent court emissary Yan Zhu to the Nanyue
Nanyue
capital to give an official report of Minyue's surrender to Zhao Mo, who had Yan return his gratitude to the Emperor
Emperor
along with a promise that Zhao would come visit the Imperial Court in Chang'an, and even sent his son Zhao Yingqi to return with Yan to the Chinese capital. Before the king could ever leave for Chang'an
Chang'an
himself, one of his ministers strenuously advised against going for fear that Emperor
Emperor
Wu would find some pretext to prevent him from returning, thus leading to the destruction of Nanyue. King
King
Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
thereupon feigned illness and never travelled to the Han capital. Immediately following Minyue's surrender to the Han army, Wang Hui had dispatched man named Tang Meng, local governor of Panyang County, to deliver the news to Zhao Mo. While in Nanyue, Tang Meng was introduced to the Yue custom of eating a sauce made from medlar fruit imported from Shu Commandery. Surprised that such a product was available, he learned that there was a route from Shu (modern Sichuan Province) to Yelang, and then along the Zangke River (the modern Beipan River
Beipan River
of Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guizhou) which allowed direct access to the Nanyue
Nanyue
capital Panyu. Tang Meng thereupon drafted a memorial to Emperor
Emperor
Wu suggesting a gathering of 100,000 elite soldiers at Yelang
Yelang
who would navigate the Zangke River and launch a surprise attack on Nanyue. Emperor
Emperor
Wu agreed with Tang's plan and promoted him to General of Langzhong and had him lead a thousand soldiers with a multitude of provisions and supply carts from Bafu Pass (near modern Hejiang County) into Yelang. Many of the carts carried ceremonial gifts which Yelang
Yelang
presented to the feudal lords of Yelang
Yelang
as bribes to declare allegiance to the Han dynasty, which they did, and Yelang
Yelang
became Qianwei Commandery of the Han Empire.[16] Over a decade later, Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
fell genuinely ill and died around 122 BC. Zhao Yingqi[edit] Main article: Zhao Yingqi After hearing of his father's serious illness, Zhao Yingqi received permission from Emperor
Emperor
Wu to return to Nanyue. After Zhao Mo's death, Yingqi assumed the Nanyue
Nanyue
throne. Before leaving for Chang'an
Chang'an
he had married a young Yue woman and had his eldest son Zhao Jiande. While in Chang'an, he also married a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
woman, like himself, who was from Handan. Together they had a son Zhao Xing. After assuming the Nanyue
Nanyue
kingship, he petitioned the Han Emperor
Emperor
to appoint his Chinese wife (who was from the Jiu 樛 family) as Queen and Zhao Xing as Crown Prince, a move that eventually brought disaster upon Nanyue. Zhao Yingqi was reputed to be a tyrant who killed citizens with flippant abandon. He died of illness around 113 BC. Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande[edit] Main articles: Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande Zhao Xing succeeded his father as king, and his mother became Queen Dowager. In 113 BC, Emperor
Emperor
Wu of Han sent senior minister Anguo Shaoji to Nanyue
Nanyue
summon Zhao Xing and his mother to Chang'an
Chang'an
for an audience with the Emperor, as well as two other officials with soldiers to await a response at Guiyang. At the time, Zhao Xing was still young and the Queen Dowager was a recent immigrant to Nanyue, so final authority in matters of state rested in the hands of Prime Minister Lü Jia. Before the Queen Dowager married Zhao Yingqi, it was widely rumored that she had had an affair with Anguo Shaoji, and they were said to have renewed it when he was sent to Nanyue, which caused the Nanyue
Nanyue
citizens to lose confidence in her rule. Fearful of losing her position of authority, Queen Dowager Jiu persuaded Zhao Xing and his ministers to fully submit to Han dynasty rule. At the same time, she dispatched a memorial to Emperor
Emperor
Wu requesting that they might join Han China, that they might have an audience with the Emperor
Emperor
every third year, and that the borders between Han China and Nanyue
Nanyue
might be dissolved. The Emperor
Emperor
granted her requests and sent Imperial seals to the Prime Minister and other senior officials, symbolizing that the Han court expected to directly control the appointments of senior officials. He also abolished the penal tattooing and nose-removal criminal punishments that were practiced among the Yue and instituted Han legal statutes. Emissaries that had been sent to Nanyue
Nanyue
were instructed to remain there to ensure the stability of Han control. Upon receiving their Imperial decrees, King
King
Zhao and the Queen Dowager began planning to leave for Chang'an.[17]

Prime Minister Lü Jia was much older than most officials and had served since the reign of Zhao Xing's grandfather Zhao Mo. His family was the preeminent Yue family in Nanyue
Nanyue
and was thoroughly intermarried with the Zhao royal family. He vehemently opposed Nanyue's submission to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and criticized Zhao Xing on numerous occasions, though his outcries were ignored. Lü decided to begin planning a coup and feigned illness to avoid meeting the emissaries of the Han court. The emissaries were well aware of Lü's influence in the kingdom - it easily rivalled that of the king - but were never able to remove him. Sima Qian
Sima Qian
recorded a story that the Queen Dowager and the Zhao Xing invited Lü to a banquet with several Han emissaries where they hoped to find a chance to kill Lü: during the banquet, the Queen Dowager mentioned that Prime Minister Lu was against Nanyue
Nanyue
submitting to the Han dynasty, with the hope that the Han emissaries would become enraged and kill Lü. However, Lü's younger brother had surrounded the palace with armed guards, and the Han emissaries, led by Anguo Shaoji, didn't dare attack Lü. Sensing the danger of the moment, Lü excused himself and stood to leave the palace. The Queen Dowager herself became furious and tried to grab a spear with which to kill the Prime Minister personally, but she was stopped by her son, the king. Lü Jia instructed his brother's armed men to surround his compound and stand guard and feigned illness, refusing to meet with King
King
Zhao or any Han emissaries. At the same time, be began seriously plotting the upcoming coup with other officials.[18] When news of the situation reached Emperor
Emperor
Wu, he dispatched a man named Han Qianqiu with 2,000 officials to Nanyue
Nanyue
to wrest control from Lü Jia. In 112 BC the men crossed into Nanyue
Nanyue
territory, and Lü Jia finally executed his plan. He and those loyal to him appealed to the citizens that Zhao Xing was but a youth, Queen Dowager Jiu a foreigner who was plotting with the Han emissaries with the intent to turn the country over to Han China, giving over all of Nanyue's treasures to the Han Emperor
Emperor
and selling Yue citizens to the Imperial court as slaves with no thought for the welfare of the Yue people themselves. With the people's support, Lü Jia and his younger brother led a large group of men into the king's palace, killing Zhao Xing, Queen Dowager Jiu, and all the Han emissaries in the capital. After the assassinations of Zhao Xing, the Queen Dowager, and the Han emissaries, Lü Jia ensured that Zhao Jiande, Zhao Yingqi's eldest son by his native Yue wife, took the throne, and quickly sent messengers to spread the news to the feudal rulers and officials of various areas of Nanyue. War and the decline of Nanyue[edit] Main articles: Southern expansion of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and Han–Nanyue War The 2,000 men led by Han Qianqiu began attacking towns along the Han- Nanyue
Nanyue
border, and the Yue residents ceased resisting them, instead giving them supplies and safe passage. The group of men advanced quickly through Nanyue
Nanyue
territory and were only 40 li from Panyu
Panyu
when they were ambushed by a regiment of Nanyue
Nanyue
soldiers and completely annihilated. Lü Jia then took the imperial tokens of the Han emissaries and placed them in a ceremonial wooden box, then attached to it a fake letter of apology and installed it on the border of Han and Nanyue, along with military reinforcements. When Emperor
Emperor
Wu heard of the coup and Prime Minister Lü's actions, he became enraged. After issuing compensation to the families of the slain emissaries, he decreed the immediate mobilization of an army to attack Nanyue. In autumn of 111 BC, Emperor
Emperor
Wu sent an army of 100,000 men divided into five companies to attack Nanyue. The first company was led by General Lu Bode
Lu Bode
and advanced from Guiyang
Guiyang
(modern Lianzhou) down the Huang River (now called the Lian River). The second company was led by Commander Yang Pu and advanced from Yuzhang Commandery (modern Nanchang) through the Hengpu Pass and down the Zhen River. The third and fourth companies were led by Zheng Yan and Tian Jia, both Yue chieftains who had joined the Han dynasty. The third company left from Lingling (modern Yongzhou) and sailed down the Li River, while the fourth company went directly to garrison Cangwu (modern Wuzhou). The fifth company was led by He Yi and was composed mainly of prisoners from Shu and Ba with soldiers from Yelang; they sailed directly down the Zangke River (modern Beipan River). At the same time, Yu Shan, a king of the Eastern Yue, declared his intention to participate in the Han dynasty's attack on Nanyue
Nanyue
and sent 8,000 men to support Yang Pu's company. However, upon reaching Jieyang, they pretended to have encountered severe winds that prevented them from advancing, and secretly sent details of the invasion to Nanyue.

Tomb of Prime Minister Lü Jia and General Nguyễn Danh Lang in Ân Thi District, Hưng Yên Province, Vietnam.

By winter of that year, Yang Pu's company had attacked Xunxia and moved on to destroy the northern gates of Panyu
Panyu
(modern Guangzhou), capturing Nanyue's naval fleet and provisions. Seizing the opportunity, they continued south and defeated the first wave of Nanyue
Nanyue
defenders before stopping to await the company led by Lu Bode. Lu's forces were mostly convicts freed in exchange for military service and made slow time, so at the planned rendezvous date with Yang Pu only a thousand of Lu's men had arrived. They went ahead with the attack anyway, and Yang's men led the advance into Panyu
Panyu
where Lü Jia and Zhao Jiande had fortified inside the inner walls. Yang Pu set up a camp southeast of the city and, as darkness fell, set the city on fire. Lu Bode
Lu Bode
encamped the northwest side of the city and sent soldiers up to the walls to encourage the Nanyue
Nanyue
soldiers to surrender. As the night passed, more and more Panyu
Panyu
defenders defected to Lu Bode's camp out of desperation, so that as dawn arrived most of the Nanyue
Nanyue
soldiers were gone. Lü Jia and Zhao Jiande realized Panyu was lost and fled the city by boat, heading west before the sun rose. Upon interrogating the surrendered soldiers, the Han generals learned of the two Nanyue
Nanyue
leaders' escape and sent men after them. Zhao Jiande was caught first, and Lü Jia was captured in what is now northern Vietnam. Based on many temples of Lü Jia (Lữ Gia), his wives and soldiers scattering in Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, the war might last until 98 BC.[19][20] After the fall of Panyu, Tây Vu Vương
Tây Vu Vương
(the captain of Tây Vu area of which the center is Cổ Loa) revolted against the First Chinese domination from Western Han
Western Han
dynasty.[21] He was killed by his assistant Hoàng Đồng (黄同).[22][23] Afterwards, the other commanderies and counties of Nanyue
Nanyue
surrendered to the Han dynasty, ending Nanyue's 93-year existence as an autonomous and mostly sovereign kingdom. When news of Nanyue's defeat reached Emperor
Emperor
Wu, he was staying in Zuoyi County in Shanxi Province
Shanxi Province
while travelling to perform imperial inspections, and promptly created the new county of Wenxi, meaning "Hearing of Glad News". After Lü Jia's capture he was executed by the Han soldiers and his head was sent to the emperor. Upon receiving it, he created Huojia County where he was travelling, meaning "Capturing [Lü] Jia". Geography and Demographics[edit] Borders[edit]

Territory and borders of Nanyue
Nanyue
kingdom

The Kingdom of Nanyue
Nanyue
originally comprised the Qin commanderies of Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang. After 179 BC, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
persuaded Minyue, Yelang, Tongshi, and other areas to submit to Nanyue
Nanyue
rule, but they were not strictly under Nanyue
Nanyue
control. After the Western Han
Western Han
dynasty defeated Nanyue, its territory was divided into the seven commanderies of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Hepu, Jiaoche, Jiuzhen, and Rinan. It was traditionally believed that the Qin conquest of the southern regions included the northern half of Vietnam, and that this area was also under Nanyue
Nanyue
control. However, scholars have recently stated that the Qin likely never conquered territory in what is now Vietnam, and that Chinese domination there was first accomplished by the Nanyue themselves.[24] Administrative Divisions[edit] Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
followed the Commandery-County system of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
when organizing the Kingdom of Nanyue. He left Nanhai Commandery and Guilin Commandery intact, then divided Xiang Commandery into the Jiaoche and Jiuzhen Commanderies.[25] Nanhai comprised most of modern Guangdong Province, and was divided by the Qin into Panyu, Longchuan, Boluo, and Jieyang
Jieyang
Counties, to which Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
added Zhenyang and Hankuang. Ethnicities[edit] The majority of Nanyue's citizens were mainly Yue peoples. The small Chinese minority consisted of descendants of Qin armies sent to conquer the south, as well as young girls who worked as army prostitutes, exiled Qin officials, exiled criminals, and merchants. The Yue people were divided into numerous branches, tribes, and clans. The Nanyue
Nanyue
lived in north, east, and central Guangdong, as well as a small group in east Guangxi. The Western Valley (Xi'ou) lived in most of Guangxi
Guangxi
and western Guangdong, with most of the population concentrated along the Xun River region and areas south of the Gui River, both part of the Xi River watershed. Descendants of Yi-Xu-Song, the chieftain killed resisting the Qin armies, acted as self-imposed governors of the Xi'ou clans. At the time of Nanyue's defeat by the Han dynasty, there were several hundred thousand Xi'ou people in Guilin Commandery alone. The Luoyue clans lived in what is now western and southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, the Leizhou Peninsula, Hainan, and southwest Guizhou. Populations were centered in the Zuo and You watersheds in Guangxi, the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam, and the Pan River watershed in Guizhou. The Chinese name "Luo", which denoted a white horse with a black mane, is said to have been applied to them after the Chinese saw their slash-and-burn method of hillside cultivation. Government[edit] Administrative system[edit]

Well of the Yue King
King
in Longchuan, said to have been dug by Zhao Tuo during his time as County Governor

Because the Kingdom of Nanyue
Nanyue
was established by Zhao Tuo, a Han Chinese general of the Qin dynasty, Nanyue's political and bureaucratic systems were, at first, essentially just continuations of those of the Qin Empire itself. Because of Zhao Tuo's submissions to the Han dynasty, Nanyue
Nanyue
also adopted many of the changes enacted by the Han, as well. At the same time, Nanyue
Nanyue
enjoyed complete autonomy – and de facto sovereignty – for most of its existence, so its rulers did enact several systems that were entirely unique to Nanyue.[26] Nanyue
Nanyue
was a monarchy, and its head of state generally held the title of "king" (Chinese: 王), though its first two rulers Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
and Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
were referred to as "Emperor" within Nanyue's borders. The kingdom had its own Calendar era system based (like China's) on Emperors' reign periods. Succession in the monarchy was based on hereditary rule, with the King
King
or Emperor's successor designated as crown prince. The ruler's mother was designated empress dowager, his wife as empress or queen, and his concubines as "Lady" (Chinese: 夫人). The formalities extended to the ruler's family were on the level of that of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
Emperor, rather than that of a feudal king.[27] Although Nanyue
Nanyue
continued the Commandery-County system of the Qin dynasty, its leaders later enfeoffed their own feudal princes and lords – a mark of its sovereignty – in a manner similar to that of the Western Han. Imperial documents from Nanyue
Nanyue
record that princes were enfeoffed at Cangwu, Xixu, as well as local lords at Gaochang and elsewhere. Zhao Guang, a relative of Zhao Tuo, was made King
King
of Cangwu, and his holdings were what is now Wuzhou
Wuzhou
in the Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region. In what is considered a manifestation of Zhao Tuo's respect for the Hundred Yue, he enfeoffed a Yue chieftain as King
King
of Xixu in order to allow the Yue of that area to enjoy autonomy under a ruler of their own ethnicity. The chieftain's name is unknown, but he was a descendant of Yi-Xu-Song, the chieftain killed while fighting the original Chinese invasion under the Qin dynasty.[28] Nanyue's bureaucracy was, like the famed bureaucracy of the Qin dynasty, divided into central and regional governments. The central government comprised a prime minister who held military and administrative authority, inner scribes who served under the prime minister, overseeing Censors of various rank and position, commanders of the Imperial Guard, senior officials who carried out the King's official administration, as well as all military officers and officials of the Food, Music, Transportation, Agriculture, and other bureaus.[29] Nanyue
Nanyue
enacted several other policies that reflected Chinese dominance, such as the household registration system (an early form of census), as well as the promulgation of the use of Chinese characters among the Hundred Yue
Hundred Yue
population and the use of Chinese weights and measures.[30] Military[edit]

Bronze sword excavated from a tomb in Guangxi
Guangxi
that dates to the late Warring States
Warring States
period or early Nanyue
Nanyue
Kingdom.

Nanyue's army was largely composed of the several hundred thousand (up to 500,000) Qin Chinese troops that invaded during the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and their descendents. After the kingdom's founding in 204 BC, some Yue citizens also joined the army. Nanyue's military officers were known as General, General of the Left, Xiao ("Colonel"), Wei ("Captain"), etc., essentially identical to the Chinese system. The army had infantry, naval troops, and cavalry.[31] Of the many artifacts excavated from Nanyue
Nanyue
tombs, the vast majority are bronze, indicating a lack of iron in Nanyue
Nanyue
industry and/or technology. Nanyue
Nanyue
soldiers generally wielded bronze short swords or spears and shot arrows with bronze arrowheads, while generals often had iron weapons. Ethnic policy[edit] The Kingdom continued most of the Qin Commanderies' policies and practices dealing with the interactions between the local Yue and the Han immigrants, and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
proactively promoted a policy of assimilating the two cultures into each other. Although the Han were certainly dominant in holding leadership positions, the overwhelming disparity was largest immediately after the Qin conquest. Over time, the Yue gradually began holding more positions of authority in the government. Lü Jia, the last prime minister of the Kingdom, was a Yue citizen, and over 70 of his kinsmen served as officials in various parts of the government. In areas of particular "complexity", as they were called, Yue chieftains were often enfeoffed with great autonomy, such as in Xixu. Under the impetus of Zhao Tuo's leadership, Chinese immigrants were encouraged to adopt the customs of the Yue. Marriages between the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Yue became increasingly common throughout Nanyue's existence, and even occurred in the Zhao royal family. Many marriages between the Zhao royal family (who were Han Chinese) and the Lü family (Yue – they likely adopted Chinese names early in Nanyue's history) were recorded. Zhao Jiande, Nanyue's last king, was the son of previous king Zhao Yingqi and his Yue wife. Despite the dominating influence of the Chinese newcomers on the Hundred Yue, the amount of assimilation gradually increased over time.[32] Language[edit] Other than Old Chinese
Old Chinese
which was used by Chinese immigrants and government officials, most Nanyue
Nanyue
citizens likely spoke Ancient Yue, an extinct language whose descendants are believed to be the Zhuang and Tai languages. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
in the region was likely much influenced by Yue speech (and vice versa), and many loanwords in Chinese have been identified by modern scholars.[33] The modern-day Yue Chinese
Yue Chinese
and Hakka spoken in the former territory of Nanyue
Nanyue
show strong lexical and structural influence from Tai-Kadai. Robert Bauer (1987) identifies twenty seven lexical items in Yue, Hakka and Min varieties, which share Tai-Kadai origins.[34] The followings are some examples cited from Bauer (1987):[34]

to beat, whip: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
faak7a ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
fa:k8, Siamese faatD2L, Longzhou faat, Poo-ai faat.

to beat, pound: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
tap8 ← Siamese thup4/top2, Longzhou tupD1, Po-ai tup3/tɔpD1, Mak/Dong tapD2, Tai Nuea top5, Sui-Lingam tjăpD2, Sui-Jungchiang tjăpD2, Sui-Pyo tjăpD2, T'en tjapD2, White Tai tup4, Red Tai tup3, Shan thup5, Lao Nong Khai thip3, Lue Moeng Yawng tup5, Leiping-Zhuang thop5/top4, Western Nung tup4, Yay tup5, Saek thap6, Tai Lo thup3, Tai Maw thup3, Tai No top5, Wuming Zhuang tup8, Li-Jiamao tap8.

to bite: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
khap8 ← Siamese khop2, Longzhou khoop5, Po-ai hap3, Ahom khup, Shan khop4, Lü khop, White Tai khop2, Nung khôp, Hsi-lin hapD2S, Wuming-Zhuang hap8, T'ien-pao hap, Black Tai khop2, Red Tai khop3, Lao Nong Khai khop1, Western Nung khap6, etc.

to burn: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
naat7a, Hakka nat8 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
na:t8, Po-ai naatD1L "hot".

child: Min-Chaozhou noŋ1 kiā3 "child", Min-Suixi nuŋ3 kia3, Mandarin-Chengdu nɑŋ1 pɑ1 kər1 "youngest sibling", Min-Fuzhou nauŋ6 "young, immature" ← Siamese nɔɔŋ4, Tai Lo lɔŋ3, Tai Maw nɔŋ3, Tai No nɔŋ3 "younger sibing", Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
tak8 nu:ŋ4, Longzhou no:ŋ4 ba:u5, Buyi nuaŋ4, Dai-Xishuangbanna nɔŋ4 tsa:i2, Dai-Dehong lɔŋ4 tsa:i2, etc.

correct, precisely, just now: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
ŋaam1 "correct", ŋaam1 ŋaam1 "just now", Hakka-Meixian ŋam5 ŋam5 "precisely", Hakka-Youding ŋaŋ1 ŋaŋ1 "just right", Min-Suixi ŋam1 "fit", Min-Chaozhou ŋam1, Min- Hainan
Hainan
ŋam1 ŋam1 "good" ← Wuming Zhuang ŋa:m1 "proper" / ŋa:m3 "precisely, appropriate" / ŋa:m5 "exactly", Longzhou ŋa:m5 vəi6.

to cover (1): Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
hom6/ham6 ← Siamese hom2, Longzhou hum5, Po-ai hɔmB1, Lao hom, Ahom hum, Shan hom2, Lü hum, White Tai hum2, Black Tai hoom2, Red Tai hom3, Nung hôm, Tay hôm, Tho hoom, T'ien-pao ham, Dioi hom, Hsi-lin hɔm, T'ien-chow hɔm, Lao Nong Khai hom3, Western Nung ham2, etc.

to cover (2): Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
khap7, Yue-Yangjiang kap7a, Hakka-Meixian khɛp7, Min-Xiamen kaˀ7, Min-Quanzhou kaˀ7, Min-Zhangzhou kaˀ7 "to cover" ← Wuming-Zhuang kop8 "to cover", Li-Jiamao khɔp7, Li-Baocheng khɔp7, Li-Qiandui khop9, Li-Tongshi khop7 "to cover".

to lash, whip, thrash: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
fit7 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
fit8, Li-Baoding fi:t7.

monkey: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
ma4 lau1 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
ma4 lau2, Mulao mə6 lau2.

to slip off, fall off, lose: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
lat7, Hakka lut7, Hakka-Yongding lut7, Min-Dongshandao lut7, Min-Suixi lak8, Min-Chaozhou luk7 ← Siamese lutD1S, Longzhou luut, Po-ai loot, Wiming-Zhuang lo:t7.

to stamp foot, trample: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
tam6, Hakka tem5 ← Wuming Zhuang tam6, Po-ai tamB2, Lao tham, Lü tam, Nung tam.

stupid: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
ŋɔŋ6, Hakka-Meixian ŋɔŋ5, Hakka-Yongfing ŋɔŋ5, Min-Dongshandao goŋ6, Min-Suixi ŋɔŋ1, Min-Fuzhou ŋouŋ6 ← Be-Lingao ŋən2, Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
ŋu:ŋ6, Li-Baoding ŋaŋ2, Li-Zhongsha ŋaŋ2, Li-Xifan ŋaŋ2, Li-Yuanmen ŋaŋ4, Li-Qiaodui ŋaŋ4, Li-Tongshi ŋaŋ4, Li-Baocheng ŋa:ŋ2, Li-Jiamao ŋa:ŋ2.

to tear, pinch, peel, nip: Yue- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
mit7 "tear, break off, pinch, peel off with finger", Hakka met7 "pluck, pull out, peel" ← Be-Lingao mit5 "rip, tear", Longzhou bitD1S, Po-ai mit, Nung bêt, Tay bit "pick, pluck, nip off", Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
bit7 "tear off, twist, peel, pinch, squeeze, press", Li-Tongshi mi:t7, Li-Baoding mi:t7 "pinch, squeeze, press".

Robert Bauer (1996) points out twenty nine possible cognates between Cantonese
Cantonese
spoken in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
and Tai-Kadai, of which seven cognates are confirmed to originate from Tai-Kadai sources:[35] Cantonese
Cantonese
kɐj1 hɔ:ŋ2 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
kai5 ha:ŋ6 "young chicken which has not laid eggs"[36] Cantonese
Cantonese
ja:ŋ5 ← Siamese jâ:ŋ "to step on, tread"[37] Cantonese
Cantonese
kɐm6 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
kam6, Siamese kʰòm, Be-Lingao xɔm4 "to press down"[38] Cantonese
Cantonese
kɐp7b na:3[a] ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
kop7, Siamese kòp "frog"[39] Cantonese
Cantonese
khɐp8 ← Siamese kʰòp "to bite"[39] Cantonese
Cantonese
lɐm5 ← Siamese lóm, Maonan lam5 "to collapse, to topple, to fall down (building)"[40] Cantonese
Cantonese
tɐm5 ← Wuming Zhuang
Wuming Zhuang
tam5, Siamese tàm "to hang down, be low"[41] There is no known evidence of a writing system among the Yue peoples of the Lingnan
Lingnan
region in pre-Qin times, and the Chinese conquest of the region is believed to have introduced writing to the area. However, Liang Tingwang, a professor from the Central University of Nationalities, said that the ancient Zhuang had their own proto-writing system but had to give it up because of the Qinshi Emperor's tough policy and to adopt the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
writing system, which ultimately developed into the old Zhuang demotic script alongside classical Chinese writing system during the Tang dynasty (618-907).[42] Old Chinese
Old Chinese
seems to have been the language of government, likely because Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
and most government officials were Chinese immigrants and not Yue. Archaeological finds at the Tomb of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King
King
in Guangzhou, the Nanyue
Nanyue
Palace Ruins, and the Luobowan tombs have provided nearly all that is known of Nanyue writing. These sites contained a wide variety of artifacts with writings in several different media. Items from King
King
Zhao Mo's tomb have seal script characters on them, while those from the Palace and Luobowan tend to have clerical script characters.

Bronze drum from Luobowan Tomb #1. Top-right closeup shows Chinese: 百廿斤; literally: "120 catties". Bottom-right closeup shows a fishing heron and several Bird-men figures.

Diplomacy[edit] With the Han Court[edit] Beginning with its first allegiance to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in 196 BC, Nanyue
Nanyue
alternately went through two periods of allegiance to and then opposition with Han China that continued until Nanyue's destruction at the hands of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in early 111 BC.

Gold seal excavated from the tomb of Zhao Mo, second King
King
of Nanyue. The seal's characters, shown in detail on the lower left, read 文帝行壐 ("Imperial Seal of Emperor
Emperor
Wen"), which demonstrates the first Nanyue
Nanyue
rulers' Emperor
Emperor
status within Nanyue
Nanyue
itself.

The first period of Nanyue's subordination to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
began in 196 BC when Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
met Lü Jia, an emissary from Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu of Han, and received from him a Han Imperial seal enthroning Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
as King
King
of Nanyue. This period lasted thirteen years until 183 BC, during which time significant trade took place. Nanyue
Nanyue
paid tribute in rarities from the south, and the Han court bestowed gifts of iron tools, horses, and cattle upon Nanyue. At the same time, the countries' borders were always heavily guarded.[43] Nanyue's first period of antagonism with the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
lasted from 183 BC to 179 BC, when trade was suspended and Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
severed relations with the Han. During this period, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
openly referred to himself as Emperor
Emperor
and launched an attack against the Kingdom of Changsha, a feudal state of the Han dynasty, and Han troops were sent to engage Nanyue. Nanyue's armies successfully halted the southern progress of the advance, winning the respect and then allegiance of the neighboring kingdoms of Minyue and Yelang.[44] Nanyue's second period of submission to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
lasted from 179 BC to 112 BC. This period began with Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
abandoning his title of "Emperor" and declaring allegiance to the Han Empire, but the submission is mostly superficial as Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
was referred to as emperor throughout Nanyue
Nanyue
and the kingdom retained its autonomy. Zhao Tuo's four successors did not display the strength he had, and Nanyue dependence on Han China slowly grew, characterized by second king Zhao Mo calling upon Emperor
Emperor
Wu of Han to defend Nanyue
Nanyue
from Minyue. Nanyue's final period of antagonism with Han China was the war that proved Nanyue's destruction as a kingdom. At the time of Prime Minister Lü Jia's rebellion, Han China was enjoying a period of growth, economic prosperity, and military success, having consistently defeated the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
tribes along China's northern and northwestern borders. The weakened state of Nanyue
Nanyue
and the strength of China at the time allowed Emperor
Emperor
Wu to unleash a devastating attack on Nanyue, as described above. With Changsha[edit]

An early Western-Han silk map found in Tomb 3 of Mawangdui
Mawangdui
Han tombs site, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha
Changsha
and Kingdom of Nanyue
Nanyue
(note: the south direction is oriented at the top).

Changsha
Changsha
was, at the time, a feudal kingdom that was part of Han China. Its territory comprised most of modern Hunan Province
Hunan Province
and part of Jiangxi Province. When Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu of Han enfeoffed Wu Rui as the first King
King
of Changsha, he also gave him the power to govern Nanhai, Xiang, and Guiling Commanderies, which caused strife between Changsha and Nanyue
Nanyue
from the start. The Han China- Nanyue
Nanyue
border was essentially that of Changsha, and therefore was constantly fortified on both sides. In terms of policies, because the Kingdom of Changsha
Changsha
had no sovereignty whatsoever, any policy of the Han court toward Nanyue
Nanyue
was by default also Changsha's policy. With Minyue[edit] Minyue was located northeast of Nanyue
Nanyue
along China's southeast coast, and comprised much of modern Fujian Province. The Minyue were defeated by the armies of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in the 3rd century BC and the area was organized under Qin control as the Minzhong Commandery, and Minyue ruler Wuzhu was deposed. Because of Wuzhu's support for Liu Bang
Liu Bang
after the collapse of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and the founding of the Han, he was reinstated by the Han court as King
King
of Minyue in 202 BC. The relations between Nanyue
Nanyue
and Minyue can be classified into three stages: the first, from 196 BC to 183 BC, was during Zhao Tuo's first submission to the Han dynasty, and the two kingdoms were on relatively equal footing. The second stage was from 183 BC to 135 BC, when Minyue submitted to Nanyue
Nanyue
after seeing it defeat the Han dynasty's first attack on Nanyue. The third stage began in 135 BC when King
King
Wang Ying attacked a weakened Nanyue, forcing Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
to seek aid from Han China. Minyue once again submitted to the Han dynasty, making itself and Nanyue
Nanyue
equals once more. With the Yi Tribes of the Southwest[edit] The southwestern Yi people
Yi people
lived west of Nanyue, and shared borders with Nanyue
Nanyue
in Yelang, Wulian, Juding, and other regions. Yelang
Yelang
was the largest state of the Yi people, comprising most of modern Guizhou and Yunnan
Yunnan
Provinces, as well as the southern part of Sichuan Province. Some believe the ancient Yi to have been related to the Hundred Yue, with this explaining the close relationship between Yelang
Yelang
and Nanyue. After Nanyue
Nanyue
first repelled the Han, nearly all of the Yi tribes declared allegiance to Nanyue, and most of them retained that allegiance until Nanyue's demise in 111 BC. During Emperor
Emperor
Wu of Han's final attack on Nanyue, most of the Yi tribes refused to assist in the invasion. One chieftain called Qie-Lan went so far as to openly oppose the move, later killing the emissary sent by the Han to his territory as well as the provincial governor installed in the Qianwei Commandery. Kings[edit]

Personal Name Reign Period Reigned From Other Names

Chinese Cantonese Pinyin Zhuang Vietnamese Chinese Cantonese Pinyin Vietnamese

趙佗/趙他 ziu6 taa4 Zhào Tuó Ciuq Doz Triệu Đà 武王 mou5 wong4 Wǔ Wáng Vũ Vương 203–137 BC  

趙眜 ziu6 mut6 Zhào Mò Ciuq Huz Triệu Mạt 文王 man4 wong4 Wén Wáng Văn Vương 137–122 BC 趙胡

趙嬰齊 ziu6 jing1 cai4 Zhào Yīngqí Ciuq Yinghcaez Triệu Anh Tề 明王 ming4 wong4 Míng Wáng Minh Vương 122–113 BC  

趙興 ziu6 hing1 Zhào Xīng Ciuq Hingh Triệu Hưng 哀王 oi1 wong4 Āi Wáng Ai Vương 113–112 BC  

趙建德 ziu6 gin3 dak1 Zhào Jiàndé Ciuq Gendwz Triệu Kiến Đức 陽王 joeng4 wong4 Yáng Wáng Dương Vương 112–111 BC  

Archaeological findings[edit]

View of the tomb of Zhao Mo

The Nanyue
Nanyue
Kingdom Palace Ruins, located in the city of Guangzhou, covers 15,000 square metres. Excavated in 1995, it contains the remains of the ancient Nanyue
Nanyue
palace. In 1996, it was listed as protected National Cultural Property by the Chinese government. Crescent-shaped ponds, Chinese gardens and other Qin architecture were discovered in the excavation. In 1983, the ancient tomb of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King
King
Wáng Mù (王墓) was discovered in Guangzhou, Guangdong. In 1988, the Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King
King
was constructed on this site, to display more than 1,000 excavated artefacts including 500 pieces of Chinese bronzes, 240 pieces of Chinese jade and 246 pieces of metal. In 1996, the Chinese government listed this site as a protected National Heritage Site. A bronze seal inscribed "Tư Phố hầu ấn" (Seal for Captain of Tu Pho County) was uncovered at Thanh Hoa
Thanh Hoa
in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
during the 1930s.[45] Owing to the similarity to seals found at the tomb of the second king of Nam Viet, this bronze seal is recognized as an official seal of the Nam Viet
Nam Viet
Kingdom. There were artifacts that were found in which belonged to the Dong Son culture
Dong Son culture
of northern Vietnam. The goods were found buried alongside the tomb of the second king of Nam Viet. Vietnam[edit] In Vietnam, the rulers of Nanyue
Nanyue
are referred to as the Triệu Dynasty, the Vietnamese pronunciation of the surname Chinese: 趙; pinyin: Zhào. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt
Việt
(Southern Việt), the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue.[1] (However, it has also been stated that the name "Vietnam" was derived from a combination of Quảng Nam Quốc (the domain of the Nguyen Lords, from whom the Nguyễn dynasty
Nguyễn dynasty
descended) and Đại Việt
Việt
(which the first emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, Gia Long, conquered).[46]). Peter Bellwood suggested that, ethnic Vietnamese are descended from the ancient Yuè of northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and western Guangdong.[47] However, the Austroasiatic predecessor of modern Vietnamese language has been proven to originate in modern-day Bolikhamsai Province
Bolikhamsai Province
and Khammouane Province
Khammouane Province
in Laos
Laos
as well as parts of Nghệ An Province
Nghệ An Province
and Quảng Bình Province
Quảng Bình Province
in Vietnam, rather than in the region north of the Red River delta.[48] The hypothesis proposed by Jerry Norman and Tsu-Lin Mei arguing for an Austroasiatic homeland along the middle Yangtze has been largely abandoned in most circles, and left unsupported by the majority of Austroasiatic specialists.[49] There is evidence that Chinese rulers of the Red River delta, during the medieval ages, tried to invent an origin of their own based on ancient Chinese texts, which recorded the movements of Tai-Kadai speaking peoples across the region of South China.[50] This leads to a common misconception in Vietnam
Vietnam
that the Vietnamese are descended from the ancient Yue. Professor Liam Kelley wrote on how the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ngô Thì Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại Việt
Việt
sử ký toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs. However, modern Vietnamese now believe that the information is true.[51] Ngô Thì Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to question the relations between Zhao Tuo's Nanyue
Nanyue
Kingdom in Guangdong and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red River Delta was a mere vassal to Nanyue
Nanyue
and not an integral part of it in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty.[52][53] Modern Vietnamese nationalists seek to stress local Vietnamese influence in history and downplay the role of foreign origin monarchs like the fact that the family of the Tran dynasty
Tran dynasty
rulers originated in China.[54] Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units in Vietnam.[55] Vietnamese scholars and historians have debated over whether to regard Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
as part of the "orthodox succession" of rulers or as "enemy invader".[56] The Jiaqing Emperor
Emperor
refused Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt, and changed the name instead to Việt
Việt
Nam.[57] Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục
Đại Nam thực lục
contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[58] Nanyue
Nanyue
culture[edit] There was a fusion of the Han and Yue cultures in significant ways, as shown by the artifacts unearthed by archaeologists from the tomb of King
King
Zhao Mo
Zhao Mo
in Guangzhou. The imperial Nanyue
Nanyue
tomb in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is extremely rich. There are quite a number of bronzes that show cultural influences from the Han, Chu, Yue and Ordos regions.[59] Gallery[edit]

Bronze wine vessel

Bronze disk

Brozen Canister with lacquer drawing

Nam Việt
Việt
Sluice Model

Mausoleum of King
King
Triệu Mạt
Triệu Mạt
(Zhao Mo)

Gold seal

Jiaoxing yubei

Chengpan gaozu bei

Đông Sơn bronze jar

Bronze mortar and pestle

Bronze mirror inlaid with silver

Game of Liubo

Game of Liubo

Jade
Jade
wares unearthed from the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King[edit]

See also[edit]

Triệu dynasty Zhao Tuo Panyu
Panyu
District Trọng Thủy Han– Nanyue
Nanyue
War Âu Lạc Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue
Nanyue
King Tây Vu Vương Đông Sơn culture Minyue Yelang Baiyue

Notes[edit]

^ The second syllable na:3 may correspond to Tai morpheme for 'field'.

References[edit]

^ a b Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 932. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.  ^ Zhang Rongfang, Huang Miaozhang, Nan Yue Guo Shi, 2nd ed., pp. 418–422 ^ Shelton Woods, L. (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 1576074161.  ^ Sima Qian
Sima Qian
- Records of the Grand Historian, section 113 《史記·南越列傳》 ^ Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, section 112. ^ Huai Nan Zi, section 18 ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 26–31. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 23 ^ Hu Shouwei, Nan Yue Kai Tuo Xian Qu -- Zhao Tuo, pp. 35–36. ^ Taylor, Keith Weller (1991). Birth of Vietnam, The. University of California Press. pp. 23–27. ISBN 0520074173.  ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 97 《《史記·酈生陸賈列傳》 ^ Hansen, Valerie (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. New York, USA & London, UK: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 125. ISBN 0-393-97374-3.  ^ Zhang and Huang, pp. 196-200; also Shi Ji 130 ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 114. ^ Hu Shouwei, Nan Yue Kai Tuo Xian Qu --- Zhao Tuo, pp. 76–77. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 116. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 401–402 ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 113. ^ "Lễ hội chọi trâu xã Hải Lựu (16-17 tháng Giêng hằng năm) Phần I (tiep theo)". 2010-02-03. Theo nhiều thư tịch cổ và các công trình nghiên cứu, sưu tầm của nhiều nhà khoa học nổi tiếng trong nước, cùng với sự truyền lại của nhân dân từ đời này sang đời khác, của các cụ cao tuổi ở Bạch Lưu, Hải Lựu và các xã lân cận thì vào cuối thế kỷ thứ II trước công nguyên, nhà Hán tấn công nước Nam Việt
Việt
của Triệu Đề, triều đình nhà Triệu tan rã lúc bấy giờ thừa tướng Lữ Gia, một tướng tài của triều đình đã rút khỏi kinh đô Phiên Ngung (thuộc Quảng Đông – Trung Quốc ngày nay). Về đóng ở núi Long Động - Lập Thạch, chống lại quân Hán do Lộ Bác Đức chỉ huy hơn 10 năm (từ 111- 98 TCN), suốt thời gian đó Ông cùng các thổ hào và nhân dân đánh theo quân nhà Hán thất điên bát đảo."  ^ "List of temples related to Triệu dynasty
Triệu dynasty
and Nam Việt
Việt
kingdom in modern Vietnam
Vietnam
and China". 2014-01-28.  ^ Từ điển bách khoa quân sự Việt
Việt
Nam, 2004, p564 "KHỞI NGHĨA TÂY VU VƯƠNG (lll TCN), khởi nghĩa của người Việt ở Giao Chỉ chống ách đô hộ của nhà Triệu (TQ). Khoảng cuối lll TCN, nhân lúc nhà Triệu suy yếu, bị nhà Tây Hán (TQ) thôn tính, một thủ lĩnh người Việt
Việt
(gọi là Tây Vu Vương, " ^ Viet Nam Social Sciences vol.1-6, p91, 2003 "In 111 B.C. there prevailed a historical personage of the name of Tay Vu Vuong who took advantage of troubles circumstances in the early period of Chinese domination to raise his power, and finally was killed by his general assistant, Hoang Dong. Professor Tran Quoc Vuong saw in him the Tay Vu chief having in hands tens of thousands of households, governing thousands miles of land and establishing his center in Co Loa area (59.239). Tay Vu and Tay Au is in fact the same. ^ Book of Han, Vol. 95, Story of Xi Nan Yi Liang Yue Zhao Xian, wrote: "故甌駱將左黃同斬西于王,封爲下鄜侯" ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 83–84. ^ Zhang & Huang, p. 114. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 112–113. ^ Yu Tianchi, Qin Shengmin, Lan Riyong, Liang Xuda, Qin Cailuan, Gu Nan Yue Guo Shi, pp. 60–63. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 113–121 ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 134–152 ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 121–126, 133–134. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 127–131 ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 170–174 ^ Zhang & Huang, 320-321. ^ a b Bauer, Robert S. (1987). 'Kadai loanwords in southern Chinese dialects', Transactions of the International Conference of Orientalists in Japan 32: 95–111. ^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1835-1836. ^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1822-1823. ^ Bauer (1996), p. 1823. ^ Bauer (1996), p. 1826. ^ a b Bauer (1996), p. 1827. ^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1828-1829. ^ Bauer (1996), p. 1834. ^ Huang, Bo (2017). Comprehensive Geographic Information Systems, Elsevier, p. 162. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 189-191. ^ Liu Min, "Ultimate Conclusions on 'Kai Guan' -- A View of Han-Nanyue Relations From the Wen Di Seal Chinese: ‘开棺’ 定论 -- 从文帝行玺看汉越关系), in Nanyue
Nanyue
Guo Shiji Yantaohui Lunwen Xuanji 南越国史迹研讨会论文选集, pp. 26-27. ^ "Thạp đồng Đông Sơn của Huyện lệnh Long Xoang (Xuyên) Triệu Đà". 2011-03-11. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Chiếc ấn đồng khối vuông “Tư (Việt) phố hầu ấn” có đúc hình rùa trên lưng được thương nhân cũng là nhà sưu tầm người Bỉ tên là Clement Huet mua được ở Thanh Hóa hồi trước thế chiến II (hiện bày ở Bảo tàng Nghệ thuật và Lịch sử Hoàng Gia Bỉ, Brussel) được cho là của viên điển sứ tước hầu ở Cửu Chân. Tư Phố là tên quận trị đóng ở khu vực làng Ràng (Thiệu Dương, Thanh Hóa) hiện nay.  ^ See, e.g., Bo Yang, Outlines of the History of the Chinese (中國人史綱), vol. 2, pp. 880-881. ^ Peter Bellwood. "Indo-Pacific prehistory: the Chiang Mai papers. Volume 2". Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association of Australian National University: 96.  ^ Chamberlain, J.R. 1998, "The origin of Sek: implications for Tai and Vietnamese history", in The International Conference on Tai Studies, ed. S. Burusphat, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 97-128. Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University. ^ Chamberlain, James R. (2016). "Kra-Dai and the Proto-History of South China and Vietnam", p. 30. In Journal of the Siam Society, Vol. 104, 2016. ^ Kelley, Liam C. (2012). The Biography of the Hồng Bàng Clan as a Medieval Vietnamese Invented Tradition". Journal of Vietnamese Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2: 87-130, published by: University of California Press. ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2016/01/24/biblical-and-mathematical-refutations-of-the-hong-manghong-bang-dynasty/ ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2015/12/23/ngo-thi-sis-demotion-of-trieu-dazhao-tuo/ ^ proof that he runs the blog ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2013/09/07/the-stranger-kings-of-the-ly-and-tran-dynasties/ ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2013/02/28/what-is-so-important-about-thoi-bac-thuoc/ ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2015/12/25/the-problem-of-either-or-but-not-why-in-vietnamese-history/ ^ Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.  ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8.  ^ Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Xi Han Nanyue
Nanyue
wang mu bo wu guan, Peter Y. K. Lam, Chinese University of Hong Kong. Art Gallery - 1991 - 303 pages - Snippet view [1]

Works cited

Bauer, Robert S. (1996), "Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese" (PDF), Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, Pan-Asiatic Linguistics V: 1 806- 1 844, Bangkok: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University at Salaya. 

Further reading[edit]

Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam
Vietnam
(illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013. Records of the Grand Historian, vol. 113. Book of Han, vol. 95. Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 12, 13, 17, 18, 20.

External links[edit]

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Chinese Text Project - Shiji《史記·南越列傳》

Preceded by Qin dynasty Thục dynasty Dynasties in history of Lingnan 204–111 BC Succeeded&#

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