Nanyue (Chinese: 南越) or Zhuang: Namzyied, or
Nam Viet (Vietnamese:
Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern
Vietnam and the modern
Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and
Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin
dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted
of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang.
In 196 BC,
Zhao Tuo paid obeisance to the
Emperor Gaozu of Han, and
Nanyue was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant",
synecdoche for a vassal state. Around 183 BC, relations between the
Nanyue and the
Han dynasty soured, and
Zhao Tuo began to refer to
himself as an emperor, suggesting Nanyue's sovereignty. In 179 BC,
relations between the Han and
Nanyue improved, and
Zhao Tuo once again
made submission, this time to
Emperor Wen of Han as an subject state.
The submission was somewhat superficial, as
Nanyue retained autonomy
from the Han, and
Zhao Tuo was referred to as "Emperor" throughout
Nanyue until his death. In 113 BC, fourth-generation leader Zhao Xing
sought to have
Nanyue formally included as part of the Han Empire. His
prime minister Lü Jia objected vehemently and subsequently killed
Zhao Xing, installing his elder brother
Zhao Jiande on the throne and
forcing a confrontation with the Han dynasty. The next year, Emperor
Wu of Han sent 100,000 troops to war against Nanyue. By the year's
end, the army had destroyed
Nanyue and established Han rule. The
kingdom lasted 93 years and had five generations of kings.
The Kingdom of Nanyue's founding preserved the order of the Lingnan
region during the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Qin dynasty.
It allowed the southern region to avoid much of the hardship
experienced by the northern, predominantly
Han Chinese regions. The
kingdom was founded by leaders originally from the Chinese heartland,
and was responsible for bringing Chinese bureaucracy and more advanced
agriculture and handicraft techniques to the inhabitants of the
southern regions, as well as knowledge of the
Chinese language and
Nanyue leaders promoted a policy of "Harmonizing and
Hundred Yue Tribes" (Chinese: 和集百越), and
Han Chinese to immigrate from their Yellow River
homeland to the south. They supported mutual assimilation of the two
cultures and peoples, and promulgated Han culture and the Chinese
language throughout the region, though many elements of original Yue
culture were preserved.
In Vietnam, the rulers of
Nanyue are referred to as the Triệu
dynasty. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt, the Vietnamese
pronunciation of Nanyue.
1.1.1 Qin southward expansion (218 BC)
Suzerainty and Conquest
1.1.3 Proclamation (204 BC)
Nanyue under Zhao Tuo
1.3 Zhao Mo
1.4 Zhao Yingqi
Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande
1.6 War and the decline of Nanyue
2 Geography and Demographics
2.2 Administrative Divisions
3.1 Administrative system
3.3 Ethnic policy
5.1 With the Han Court
5.2 With Changsha
5.3 With Minyue
5.4 With the Yi Tribes of the Southwest
7 Archaeological findings
Jade wares unearthed from the Mausoleum of the
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
A detailed history of
Nanyue was written in Records of the Grand
Han dynasty historian Sima Qian. It is mostly contained
in section (juan) 113, Chinese: 南越列傳; pinyin: Nányuè Liè
Zhuàn (Ordered Annals of Nanyue).
Qin southward expansion (218 BC)
Main article: Qin's campaign against the Yue tribes
A hufu 虎符, or Tiger Tally, made of bronze with gold inlay, found
in the tomb of the
Nanyue (at Guangzhou), dated 2nd century
BCE, during the
Western Han era of China; tiger Tallies were separated
into two pieces, one held by the emperor, the other given to a
military commander as a symbol of imperial authority and ability to
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang conquered the six other Chinese kingdoms of Han,
Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan, and Qi, he turned his attention to the Xiongnu
tribes of the north and west and the
Hundred Yue peoples of what is
now southern China. Around 218 BC, the First
General Tu Sui with an army of 500,000 Qin soldiers to divide into
five companies and attack the
Hundred Yue tribes of the Lingnan
region. The first company gathered at Yuhan (Modern
Yugan County in
Jiangxi Province) and attacked the Minyue, defeating them and
establishing the Minzhong Commandery. The second company fortified at
Nanye (in modern Jiangxi Province's Nankang County), and was designed
to put defensive pressure on the southern clans. The third company
occupied Panyu. The fourth company garrisoned near the Jiuyi
Mountains, and the fifth company garrisoned outside Tancheng (in the
southwest part of modern Hunan Province's Jingzhou Miao and Dong
Autonomous County). The First
Emperor assigned official Shi Lu to
oversee supply logistics. Shi first led a regiment of soldiers through
the Ling Channel (which connected the
Xiang River and the Li River),
then navigated through the
Yangtze River and Pearl River water systems
ensure the safety of the Qin supply routes. The Qin attack of the
Western Valley (Chinese: 西甌) Yue tribe went smoothly, and Western
Valley chieftain Yi-Xu-Song was killed. However, the Western Valley
Yue were unwilling to submit to the Qin and fled into the jungle where
they selected a new leader to continue resisting the Chinese armies.
Later, a night-time counterattack by the Western Valley Yue devastated
the Qin troops, and General Tu Sui was killed in the fighting. The Qin
suffered heavy losses, and the imperial court selected General Zhao
Tuo to assume command of the Chinese army. In 214 BC, the First
Emperor dispatched Ren Xiao and
Zhao Tuo at the head of reinforcements
to once again mount an attack. This time, the Western Valley Yue were
completely defeated, and the
Lingnan region was brought entirely under
Chinese control. In the same year, the Qin court established
the Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang Commanderies, and Ren Xiao was made
Lieutenant of Nanhai. Nanhai was further divided into Panyu,
Longchuan, Boluo, and
Jieyang counties (among several others), and
Zhao Tuo was made commander of Longchuan.
Emperor died in 210 BC, and his son Zhao Huhai became the
Emperor of Qin. The following year, soldiers Chen Sheng, Wu
Guang, and others seized the opportunity to revolt against the Qin
government. Insurrections spread throughout much of China (including
those led by
Xiang Yu and Liu Bang, who would later face off over the
founding of the next dynasty) and the entire
Yellow River region
devolved into chaos. Soon after the first insurrections, Nanhai
Lieutenant Ren Xiao became gravely ill and summoned
Zhao Tuo to hear
his dying instructions. Ren described the natural advantages of the
southern region and described how a kingdom could be founded with the
many Chinese settlers in the area to combat the warring groups in the
Chinese north. He drafted a decree instating
Zhao Tuo as the new
Lieutenant of Nanhai, and died soon afterward.
After Ren's death, Zhao Tuo, sent orders to his troops in Hengpu Pass
(north of modern Nanxiong,
Guangdong Province), Yangshan Pass
(northern Yangshan County), Huang Stream Pass (modern
Lian River enters the Bei River), and other garrisons to
fortify themselves against any northern troops. He also executed Qin
officials still stationed in Nanhai and replaced them with his own
Suzerainty and Conquest
The kingdom of
Âu Lạc laid south of
Nanyue in the early years of
Nanyue's existence, with
Âu Lạc located primarily in the Red River
delta area, and
Nanyue encompassing Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang
Commanderies. During the time when
Âu Lạc co-existed,
Âu Lạc acknowledged Nanyue's suzerainty, especially because of
their mutual anti-Han sentiment.
Zhao Tuo built up and reinforced his
army, fearing an attack by the Han. However, when relations between
the Han and
Nanyue improved, in 179 BC
Zhao Tuo marched southward and
successfully annexed Âu Lạc.
Proclamation (204 BC)
In 206 BC the
Qin dynasty ceased to exist, and the
Yue peoples of
Guilin and Xiang were largely independent once more. In 204 BC, Zhao
Tuo founded the Kingdom of Nanyue, with
Panyu as capital, and declared
himself the Martial
Nanyue (Chinese: 南越武王, Vietnamese:
Việt Vũ Vương).
Statue of Zhao Tuo, in front of
Heyuan Railway Station
Nanyue under Zhao Tuo
Main article: Zhao Tuo
Liu Bang, after years of war with his rivals, established the Han
dynasty and reunified Central China in 202 BC. The fighting had left
many areas of China depopulated and impoverished, and feudal lords
continued to rebel while the
Xiongnu made frequent incursions into
northern Chinese territory. The precarious state of the empire
therefore forced the Han court to treat
Nanyue initially with utmost
circumspection. In 196 BC, Liu Bang, now
Emperor Gaozu, sent Lu Jia
(陸賈, not to be confused with Lü Jia 呂嘉) to
Nanyue in hopes of
obtaining Zhao Tuo's allegiance. After arriving, Lu met with Zhao Tuo
and is said to have found him dressed in Yue clothing and being
greeted after their customs, which enraged him. A long exchange
ensued, wherein Lu is said to have admonished Zhao Tuo, pointing
out that he was Chinese, not Yue, and should have maintained the dress
and decorum of the Chinese and not have forgotten the traditions of
his ancestors. Lu lauded the strength of the Han court and warned
against a kingdom as small as
Nanyue daring to oppose it. He further
threatened to kill Zhao's kinsmen in China proper and destroying their
ancestral graveyards, as well as coercing the Yue into deposing Zhao
himself. Following the threat,
Zhao Tuo then decided to receive
Emperor Gaozu's seal and submit to Han authority. Trade relations were
established at the border between
Nanyue and the Han kingdom of
Changsha. Although formally a Han subject state,
Nanyue seems to have
retained a large measure of de facto autonomy.
After the death of
Liu Bang in 195 BC, the government was put in the
hands of his wife,
Empress Lü Zhi, who served as
Empress Dowager over
Emperor Hui of Han and then
Emperor Hui's sons
Liu Gong and
Liu Hong. Enraged,
Empress Lü sent men to Zhao Tuo's hometown of
Zhengding County in Hebei Province) who killed much
of Zhao's extended family and desecrated the ancestral graveyard
Zhao Tuo believed that Wu Chen, the Prince of Changsha, had
made false accusations against him to get
Empress Dowager Lü to block
the trade between the states and to prepare to conquer the
merge into his principality of Changsha. In revenge, he then declared
himself the emperor of
Nanyue and attacked the principality of
Changsha and captured some neighboring towns under Han domain. Lü
sent general Zhou Zao to punish Zhao Tuo. However, in the hot and
humid climate of the south, an epidemic broke out quickly amongst the
soldiers, and the weakened army was unable to cross the mountains,
forcing them to withdraw which ended in
Nanyue victory, but the
military conflict did not stop until the
Zhao Tuo then
annexed the neighboring state of
Minyue in the east as subject
kingdom. The kingdom of
Yelang and Tongshi (通什) also submitted to
The map founded in Tomb 3 of
Mawangdui Han tombs site, marking the
positions of Han military garrisons that were employed in an attack
Nanyue in 181 BC.
In 179 BC, Liu Heng ascended the throne as
Emperor of the Han. He
reversed many of the previous policies of
Empress Lü and took a
conciliatory attitude toward
Zhao Tuo and the Kingdom of Nanyue. He
ordered officials to revisit Zhending, garrison the town, and make
offerings to Zhao Tuo's ancestors regularly. His prime minister Chen
Ping suggested sending Lu Jia to
Nanyue as they were familiar with
each other. Lu arrived once more in
Panyu and delivered a letter from
Emperor emphasizing that
Empress Lü's policies were what had
caused the hostility between
Nanyue and the Han court and brought
suffering to the border citizens.
Zhao Tuo decided to submit to the
Han once again, withdrawing his title of "emperor" and reverting to
Nanyue became Han's subject state. However, most of the
changes were superficial, and
Zhao Tuo continued to be referred to as
"emperor" throughout Nanyue.
Main article: Zhao Mo
In 137 BC,
Zhao Tuo died, having lived over one hundred years. Because
of his great age, his son, the Crown Prince Zhao Shi, had preceded him
in death, and therefore Zhao Tuo's grandson
Zhao Mo became king of
Nanyue. In 135 BC, the king of neighboring
Minyue launched an attack
on the towns along the two nations' borders. Because
Zhao Mo hadn't
yet consolidated his rule, he was forced to implore
Emperor Wu of Han
to send troops to Nanyue's aid against what he called "the rebels of
Zhao Mo for his vassal loyalty and sent
Wang Hui, an official governing ethnic minorities, and agricultural
official Han Anguo at the head of an army with orders to separate and
Minyue from two directions, one from Yuzhang Commandery, and
the other from Kuaiji Commandery. Before they reached Minyue, however,
Minyue king was assassinated by his younger brother Yu Shan, who
Zhao Mo's jade sarcophagus with red silk
Emperor sent court emissary Yan Zhu to the
Nanyue capital to give
an official report of Minyue's surrender to Zhao Mo, who had Yan
return his gratitude to the
Emperor along with a promise that Zhao
would come visit the Imperial Court in Chang'an, and even sent his son
Zhao Yingqi to return with Yan to the Chinese capital. Before the king
could ever leave for
Chang'an himself, one of his ministers
strenuously advised against going for fear that
Emperor Wu would find
some pretext to prevent him from returning, thus leading to the
destruction of Nanyue.
Zhao Mo thereupon feigned illness and
never travelled to the Han capital.
Immediately following Minyue's surrender to the Han army, Wang Hui had
dispatched man named Tang Meng, local governor of Panyang County, to
deliver the news to Zhao Mo. While in Nanyue, Tang Meng was introduced
to the Yue custom of eating a sauce made from medlar fruit imported
from Shu Commandery. Surprised that such a product was available, he
learned that there was a route from Shu (modern Sichuan Province) to
Yelang, and then along the Zangke River (the modern
Beipan River of
Yunnan and Guizhou) which allowed direct access to the
Panyu. Tang Meng thereupon drafted a memorial to
Emperor Wu suggesting
a gathering of 100,000 elite soldiers at
Yelang who would navigate the
Zangke River and launch a surprise attack on Nanyue.
Emperor Wu agreed
with Tang's plan and promoted him to General of Langzhong and had him
lead a thousand soldiers with a multitude of provisions and supply
carts from Bafu Pass (near modern Hejiang County) into Yelang. Many of
the carts carried ceremonial gifts which
Yelang presented to the
feudal lords of
Yelang as bribes to declare allegiance to the Han
dynasty, which they did, and
Yelang became Qianwei Commandery of the
Over a decade later,
Zhao Mo fell genuinely ill and died around 122
Main article: Zhao Yingqi
After hearing of his father's serious illness,
Zhao Yingqi received
Emperor Wu to return to Nanyue. After Zhao Mo's death,
Yingqi assumed the
Nanyue throne. Before leaving for
Chang'an he had
married a young Yue woman and had his eldest son Zhao Jiande. While in
Chang'an, he also married a
Han Chinese woman, like himself, who was
from Handan. Together they had a son Zhao Xing. After assuming the
Nanyue kingship, he petitioned the Han
Emperor to appoint his Chinese
wife (who was from the Jiu 樛 family) as Queen and
Zhao Xing as Crown
Prince, a move that eventually brought disaster upon Nanyue. Zhao
Yingqi was reputed to be a tyrant who killed citizens with flippant
abandon. He died of illness around 113 BC.
Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande
Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande
Zhao Xing succeeded his father as king, and his mother became Queen
Dowager. In 113 BC,
Emperor Wu of Han sent senior minister Anguo
Zhao Xing and his mother to
Chang'an for an
audience with the Emperor, as well as two other officials with
soldiers to await a response at Guiyang. At the time,
Zhao Xing was
still young and the Queen Dowager was a recent immigrant to Nanyue, so
final authority in matters of state rested in the hands of Prime
Minister Lü Jia. Before the Queen Dowager married Zhao Yingqi, it was
widely rumored that she had had an affair with Anguo Shaoji, and they
were said to have renewed it when he was sent to Nanyue, which caused
Nanyue citizens to lose confidence in her rule.
Fearful of losing her position of authority, Queen Dowager Jiu
Zhao Xing and his ministers to fully submit to Han dynasty
rule. At the same time, she dispatched a memorial to
requesting that they might join Han China, that they might have an
audience with the
Emperor every third year, and that the borders
between Han China and
Nanyue might be dissolved. The
her requests and sent Imperial seals to the Prime Minister and other
senior officials, symbolizing that the Han court expected to directly
control the appointments of senior officials. He also abolished the
penal tattooing and nose-removal criminal punishments that were
practiced among the Yue and instituted Han legal statutes. Emissaries
that had been sent to
Nanyue were instructed to remain there to ensure
the stability of Han control. Upon receiving their Imperial decrees,
King Zhao and the Queen Dowager began planning to leave for
Prime Minister Lü Jia was much older than most officials and had
served since the reign of Zhao Xing's grandfather Zhao Mo. His family
was the preeminent Yue family in
Nanyue and was thoroughly
intermarried with the Zhao royal family. He vehemently opposed
Nanyue's submission to the
Han dynasty and criticized
Zhao Xing on
numerous occasions, though his outcries were ignored. Lü decided to
begin planning a coup and feigned illness to avoid meeting the
emissaries of the Han court. The emissaries were well aware of Lü's
influence in the kingdom - it easily rivalled that of the king - but
were never able to remove him.
Sima Qian recorded a story that the
Queen Dowager and the
Zhao Xing invited Lü to a banquet with several
Han emissaries where they hoped to find a chance to kill Lü: during
the banquet, the Queen Dowager mentioned that Prime Minister Lu was
Nanyue submitting to the Han dynasty, with the hope that the
Han emissaries would become enraged and kill Lü. However, Lü's
younger brother had surrounded the palace with armed guards, and the
Han emissaries, led by Anguo Shaoji, didn't dare attack Lü. Sensing
the danger of the moment, Lü excused himself and stood to leave the
palace. The Queen Dowager herself became furious and tried to grab a
spear with which to kill the Prime Minister personally, but she was
stopped by her son, the king. Lü Jia instructed his brother's armed
men to surround his compound and stand guard and feigned illness,
refusing to meet with
King Zhao or any Han emissaries. At the same
time, be began seriously plotting the upcoming coup with other
When news of the situation reached
Emperor Wu, he dispatched a man
named Han Qianqiu with 2,000 officials to
Nanyue to wrest control from
Lü Jia. In 112 BC the men crossed into
Nanyue territory, and Lü Jia
finally executed his plan. He and those loyal to him appealed to the
Zhao Xing was but a youth, Queen Dowager Jiu a foreigner
who was plotting with the Han emissaries with the intent to turn the
country over to Han China, giving over all of Nanyue's treasures to
Emperor and selling Yue citizens to the Imperial court as
slaves with no thought for the welfare of the Yue people themselves.
With the people's support, Lü Jia and his younger brother led a large
group of men into the king's palace, killing Zhao Xing, Queen Dowager
Jiu, and all the Han emissaries in the capital.
After the assassinations of Zhao Xing, the Queen Dowager, and the Han
emissaries, Lü Jia ensured that Zhao Jiande, Zhao Yingqi's eldest son
by his native Yue wife, took the throne, and quickly sent messengers
to spread the news to the feudal rulers and officials of various areas
War and the decline of Nanyue
Main articles: Southern expansion of the
Han dynasty and Han–Nanyue
The 2,000 men led by Han Qianqiu began attacking towns along the
Nanyue border, and the Yue residents ceased resisting them,
instead giving them supplies and safe passage. The group of men
advanced quickly through
Nanyue territory and were only 40 li from
Panyu when they were ambushed by a regiment of
Nanyue soldiers and
completely annihilated. Lü Jia then took the imperial tokens of the
Han emissaries and placed them in a ceremonial wooden box, then
attached to it a fake letter of apology and installed it on the border
of Han and Nanyue, along with military reinforcements. When
heard of the coup and Prime Minister Lü's actions, he became enraged.
After issuing compensation to the families of the slain emissaries, he
decreed the immediate mobilization of an army to attack Nanyue.
In autumn of 111 BC,
Emperor Wu sent an army of 100,000 men divided
into five companies to attack Nanyue. The first company was led by
Lu Bode and advanced from
Guiyang (modern Lianzhou) down the
Huang River (now called the Lian River). The second company was led by
Commander Yang Pu and advanced from Yuzhang Commandery (modern
Nanchang) through the Hengpu Pass and down the Zhen River. The third
and fourth companies were led by Zheng Yan and Tian Jia, both Yue
chieftains who had joined the Han dynasty. The third company left from
Lingling (modern Yongzhou) and sailed down the Li River, while the
fourth company went directly to garrison Cangwu (modern Wuzhou). The
fifth company was led by He Yi and was composed mainly of prisoners
from Shu and Ba with soldiers from Yelang; they sailed directly down
the Zangke River (modern Beipan River). At the same time, Yu Shan, a
king of the Eastern Yue, declared his intention to participate in the
Han dynasty's attack on
Nanyue and sent 8,000 men to support Yang Pu's
company. However, upon reaching Jieyang, they pretended to have
encountered severe winds that prevented them from advancing, and
secretly sent details of the invasion to Nanyue.
Tomb of Prime Minister Lü Jia and General Nguyễn Danh Lang in Ân
Thi District, Hưng Yên Province, Vietnam.
By winter of that year, Yang Pu's company had attacked Xunxia and
moved on to destroy the northern gates of
Panyu (modern Guangzhou),
capturing Nanyue's naval fleet and provisions. Seizing the
opportunity, they continued south and defeated the first wave of
Nanyue defenders before stopping to await the company led by Lu Bode.
Lu's forces were mostly convicts freed in exchange for military
service and made slow time, so at the planned rendezvous date with
Yang Pu only a thousand of Lu's men had arrived. They went ahead with
the attack anyway, and Yang's men led the advance into
Panyu where Lü
Zhao Jiande had fortified inside the inner walls. Yang Pu set
up a camp southeast of the city and, as darkness fell, set the city on
Lu Bode encamped the northwest side of the city and sent
soldiers up to the walls to encourage the
Nanyue soldiers to
surrender. As the night passed, more and more
Panyu defenders defected
to Lu Bode's camp out of desperation, so that as dawn arrived most of
Nanyue soldiers were gone. Lü Jia and
Zhao Jiande realized Panyu
was lost and fled the city by boat, heading west before the sun rose.
Upon interrogating the surrendered soldiers, the Han generals learned
of the two
Nanyue leaders' escape and sent men after them. Zhao Jiande
was caught first, and Lü Jia was captured in what is now northern
Vietnam. Based on many temples of Lü Jia (Lữ Gia), his wives and
soldiers scattering in
Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, the war
might last until 98 BC.
After the fall of Panyu,
Tây Vu Vương
Tây Vu Vương (the captain of Tây Vu area
of which the center is Cổ Loa) revolted against the First Chinese
Western Han dynasty. He was killed by his
assistant Hoàng Đồng (黄同).
Afterwards, the other commanderies and counties of
to the Han dynasty, ending Nanyue's 93-year existence as an autonomous
and mostly sovereign kingdom. When news of Nanyue's defeat reached
Emperor Wu, he was staying in Zuoyi County in
Shanxi Province while
travelling to perform imperial inspections, and promptly created the
new county of Wenxi, meaning "Hearing of Glad News". After Lü Jia's
capture he was executed by the Han soldiers and his head was sent to
the emperor. Upon receiving it, he created
Huojia County where he was
travelling, meaning "Capturing [Lü] Jia".
Geography and Demographics
Territory and borders of
The Kingdom of
Nanyue originally comprised the Qin commanderies of
Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang. After 179 BC,
Zhao Tuo persuaded Minyue,
Yelang, Tongshi, and other areas to submit to
Nanyue rule, but they
were not strictly under
Nanyue control. After the
Western Han dynasty
defeated Nanyue, its territory was divided into the seven commanderies
of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Hepu, Jiaoche, Jiuzhen, and Rinan. It was
traditionally believed that the Qin conquest of the southern regions
included the northern half of Vietnam, and that this area was also
Nanyue control. However, scholars have recently stated that the
Qin likely never conquered territory in what is now Vietnam, and that
Chinese domination there was first accomplished by the Nanyue
Zhao Tuo followed the Commandery-County system of the
Qin dynasty when
organizing the Kingdom of Nanyue. He left Nanhai Commandery and Guilin
Commandery intact, then divided Xiang Commandery into the Jiaoche and
Jiuzhen Commanderies. Nanhai comprised most of modern Guangdong
Province, and was divided by the Qin into Panyu, Longchuan, Boluo, and
Jieyang Counties, to which
Zhao Tuo added Zhenyang and Hankuang.
The majority of Nanyue's citizens were mainly Yue peoples. The small
Chinese minority consisted of descendants of Qin armies sent to
conquer the south, as well as young girls who worked as army
prostitutes, exiled Qin officials, exiled criminals, and merchants.
The Yue people were divided into numerous branches, tribes, and clans.
Nanyue lived in north, east, and central Guangdong, as well as a
small group in east Guangxi.
The Western Valley (Xi'ou) lived in most of
Guangxi and western
Guangdong, with most of the population concentrated along the Xun
River region and areas south of the Gui River, both part of the Xi
River watershed. Descendants of Yi-Xu-Song, the chieftain killed
resisting the Qin armies, acted as self-imposed governors of the Xi'ou
clans. At the time of Nanyue's defeat by the Han dynasty, there were
several hundred thousand Xi'ou people in Guilin Commandery alone.
The Luoyue clans lived in what is now western and southern Guangxi,
northern Vietnam, the Leizhou Peninsula, Hainan, and southwest
Guizhou. Populations were centered in the Zuo and You watersheds in
Red River Delta in northern Vietnam, and the Pan River
watershed in Guizhou. The Chinese name "Luo", which denoted a white
horse with a black mane, is said to have been applied to them after
the Chinese saw their slash-and-burn method of hillside cultivation.
Well of the Yue
King in Longchuan, said to have been dug by Zhao Tuo
during his time as County Governor
Because the Kingdom of
Nanyue was established by Zhao Tuo, a Han
Chinese general of the Qin dynasty, Nanyue's political and
bureaucratic systems were, at first, essentially just continuations of
those of the Qin Empire itself. Because of Zhao Tuo's submissions to
the Han dynasty,
Nanyue also adopted many of the changes enacted by
the Han, as well. At the same time,
Nanyue enjoyed complete autonomy
– and de facto sovereignty – for most of its existence, so its
rulers did enact several systems that were entirely unique to
Nanyue was a monarchy, and its head of state generally held the title
of "king" (Chinese: 王), though its first two rulers
Zhao Tuo and
Zhao Mo were referred to as "Emperor" within Nanyue's borders. The
kingdom had its own
Calendar era system based (like China's) on
Emperors' reign periods. Succession in the monarchy was based on
hereditary rule, with the
King or Emperor's successor designated as
crown prince. The ruler's mother was designated empress dowager, his
wife as empress or queen, and his concubines as "Lady" (Chinese:
夫人). The formalities extended to the ruler's family were on the
level of that of the
Han dynasty Emperor, rather than that of a feudal
Nanyue continued the Commandery-County system of the Qin
dynasty, its leaders later enfeoffed their own feudal princes and
lords – a mark of its sovereignty – in a manner similar to that of
the Western Han. Imperial documents from
Nanyue record that princes
were enfeoffed at Cangwu, Xixu, as well as local lords at Gaochang and
elsewhere. Zhao Guang, a relative of Zhao Tuo, was made
Cangwu, and his holdings were what is now
Wuzhou in the
Autonomous Region. In what is considered a manifestation of Zhao Tuo's
respect for the Hundred Yue, he enfeoffed a Yue chieftain as
Xixu in order to allow the Yue of that area to enjoy autonomy under a
ruler of their own ethnicity. The chieftain's name is unknown, but he
was a descendant of Yi-Xu-Song, the chieftain killed while fighting
the original Chinese invasion under the Qin dynasty.
Nanyue's bureaucracy was, like the famed bureaucracy of the Qin
dynasty, divided into central and regional governments. The central
government comprised a prime minister who held military and
administrative authority, inner scribes who served under the prime
minister, overseeing Censors of various rank and position, commanders
of the Imperial Guard, senior officials who carried out the King's
official administration, as well as all military officers and
officials of the Food, Music, Transportation, Agriculture, and other
Nanyue enacted several other policies that reflected Chinese
dominance, such as the household registration system (an early form of
census), as well as the promulgation of the use of Chinese characters
Hundred Yue population and the use of Chinese weights and
Bronze sword excavated from a tomb in
Guangxi that dates to the late
Warring States period or early
Nanyue's army was largely composed of the several hundred thousand (up
to 500,000) Qin Chinese troops that invaded during the
Qin dynasty and
their descendents. After the kingdom's founding in 204 BC, some Yue
citizens also joined the army. Nanyue's military officers were known
as General, General of the Left, Xiao ("Colonel"), Wei ("Captain"),
etc., essentially identical to the Chinese system. The army had
infantry, naval troops, and cavalry. Of the many artifacts
Nanyue tombs, the vast majority are bronze, indicating
a lack of iron in
Nanyue industry and/or technology.
generally wielded bronze short swords or spears and shot arrows with
bronze arrowheads, while generals often had iron weapons.
The Kingdom continued most of the Qin Commanderies' policies and
practices dealing with the interactions between the local Yue and the
Han immigrants, and
Zhao Tuo proactively promoted a policy of
assimilating the two cultures into each other. Although the Han were
certainly dominant in holding leadership positions, the overwhelming
disparity was largest immediately after the Qin conquest. Over time,
the Yue gradually began holding more positions of authority in the
government. Lü Jia, the last prime minister of the Kingdom, was a Yue
citizen, and over 70 of his kinsmen served as officials in various
parts of the government. In areas of particular "complexity", as they
were called, Yue chieftains were often enfeoffed with great autonomy,
such as in Xixu. Under the impetus of Zhao Tuo's leadership, Chinese
immigrants were encouraged to adopt the customs of the Yue. Marriages
Han Chinese and Yue became increasingly common throughout
Nanyue's existence, and even occurred in the Zhao royal family. Many
marriages between the Zhao royal family (who were Han Chinese) and the
Lü family (Yue – they likely adopted Chinese names early in
Nanyue's history) were recorded. Zhao Jiande, Nanyue's last king, was
the son of previous king
Zhao Yingqi and his Yue wife. Despite the
dominating influence of the Chinese newcomers on the Hundred Yue, the
amount of assimilation gradually increased over time.
Old Chinese which was used by Chinese immigrants and
government officials, most
Nanyue citizens likely spoke Ancient Yue,
an extinct language whose descendants are believed to be the Zhuang
and Tai languages.
Old Chinese in the region was likely much
influenced by Yue speech (and vice versa), and many loanwords in
Chinese have been identified by modern scholars. The modern-day
Yue Chinese and Hakka spoken in the former territory of
strong lexical and structural influence from Tai-Kadai.
Robert Bauer (1987) identifies twenty seven lexical items in Yue,
Hakka and Min varieties, which share Tai-Kadai origins. The
followings are some examples cited from Bauer (1987):
to beat, whip: Yue-
Guangzhou faak7a ←
Wuming Zhuang fa:k8, Siamese
faatD2L, Longzhou faat, Poo-ai faat.
to beat, pound: Yue-
Guangzhou tap8 ← Siamese thup4/top2, Longzhou
tupD1, Po-ai tup3/tɔpD1, Mak/Dong tapD2, Tai Nuea top5, Sui-Lingam
tjăpD2, Sui-Jungchiang tjăpD2, Sui-Pyo tjăpD2, T'en tjapD2, White
Tai tup4, Red Tai tup3, Shan thup5, Lao Nong Khai thip3, Lue Moeng
Yawng tup5, Leiping-Zhuang thop5/top4, Western Nung tup4, Yay tup5,
Saek thap6, Tai Lo thup3, Tai Maw thup3, Tai No top5, Wuming Zhuang
tup8, Li-Jiamao tap8.
to bite: Yue-
Guangzhou khap8 ← Siamese khop2, Longzhou khoop5, Po-ai
hap3, Ahom khup, Shan khop4, Lü khop, White Tai khop2, Nung khôp,
Hsi-lin hapD2S, Wuming-Zhuang hap8, T'ien-pao hap, Black Tai khop2,
Red Tai khop3, Lao Nong Khai khop1, Western Nung khap6, etc.
to burn: Yue-
Guangzhou naat7a, Hakka nat8 ←
Wuming Zhuang na:t8,
Po-ai naatD1L "hot".
child: Min-Chaozhou noŋ1 kiā3 "child", Min-Suixi nuŋ3 kia3,
Mandarin-Chengdu nɑŋ1 pɑ1 kər1 "youngest sibling", Min-Fuzhou
nauŋ6 "young, immature" ← Siamese nɔɔŋ4, Tai Lo lɔŋ3, Tai Maw
nɔŋ3, Tai No nɔŋ3 "younger sibing",
Wuming Zhuang tak8 nu:ŋ4,
Longzhou no:ŋ4 ba:u5, Buyi nuaŋ4, Dai-Xishuangbanna nɔŋ4 tsa:i2,
Dai-Dehong lɔŋ4 tsa:i2, etc.
correct, precisely, just now: Yue-
Guangzhou ŋaam1 "correct", ŋaam1
ŋaam1 "just now", Hakka-Meixian ŋam5 ŋam5 "precisely",
Hakka-Youding ŋaŋ1 ŋaŋ1 "just right", Min-Suixi ŋam1 "fit",
Min-Chaozhou ŋam1, Min-
Hainan ŋam1 ŋam1 "good" ← Wuming Zhuang
ŋa:m1 "proper" / ŋa:m3 "precisely, appropriate" / ŋa:m5 "exactly",
Longzhou ŋa:m5 vəi6.
to cover (1): Yue-
Guangzhou hom6/ham6 ← Siamese hom2, Longzhou hum5,
Po-ai hɔmB1, Lao hom, Ahom hum, Shan hom2, Lü hum, White Tai hum2,
Black Tai hoom2, Red Tai hom3, Nung hôm, Tay hôm, Tho hoom,
T'ien-pao ham, Dioi hom, Hsi-lin hɔm, T'ien-chow hɔm, Lao Nong Khai
hom3, Western Nung ham2, etc.
to cover (2): Yue-
Guangzhou khap7, Yue-Yangjiang kap7a, Hakka-Meixian
khɛp7, Min-Xiamen kaˀ7, Min-Quanzhou kaˀ7, Min-Zhangzhou kaˀ7 "to
cover" ← Wuming-Zhuang kop8 "to cover", Li-Jiamao khɔp7,
Li-Baocheng khɔp7, Li-Qiandui khop9, Li-Tongshi khop7 "to cover".
to lash, whip, thrash: Yue-
Guangzhou fit7 ←
Wuming Zhuang fit8,
Guangzhou ma4 lau1 ←
Wuming Zhuang ma4 lau2, Mulao mə6
to slip off, fall off, lose: Yue-
Guangzhou lat7, Hakka lut7,
Hakka-Yongding lut7, Min-Dongshandao lut7, Min-Suixi lak8,
Min-Chaozhou luk7 ← Siamese lutD1S, Longzhou luut, Po-ai loot,
to stamp foot, trample: Yue-
Guangzhou tam6, Hakka tem5 ← Wuming
Zhuang tam6, Po-ai tamB2, Lao tham, Lü tam, Nung tam.
Guangzhou ŋɔŋ6, Hakka-Meixian ŋɔŋ5, Hakka-Yongfing
ŋɔŋ5, Min-Dongshandao goŋ6, Min-Suixi ŋɔŋ1, Min-Fuzhou ŋouŋ6
← Be-Lingao ŋən2,
Wuming Zhuang ŋu:ŋ6, Li-Baoding ŋaŋ2,
Li-Zhongsha ŋaŋ2, Li-Xifan ŋaŋ2, Li-Yuanmen ŋaŋ4, Li-Qiaodui
ŋaŋ4, Li-Tongshi ŋaŋ4, Li-Baocheng ŋa:ŋ2, Li-Jiamao ŋa:ŋ2.
to tear, pinch, peel, nip: Yue-
Guangzhou mit7 "tear, break off, pinch,
peel off with finger", Hakka met7 "pluck, pull out, peel" ←
Be-Lingao mit5 "rip, tear", Longzhou bitD1S, Po-ai mit, Nung bêt, Tay
bit "pick, pluck, nip off",
Wuming Zhuang bit7 "tear off, twist, peel,
pinch, squeeze, press", Li-Tongshi mi:t7, Li-Baoding mi:t7 "pinch,
Robert Bauer (1996) points out twenty nine possible cognates between
Cantonese spoken in
Guangzhou and Tai-Kadai, of which seven cognates
are confirmed to originate from Tai-Kadai sources:
Cantonese kɐj1 hɔ:ŋ2 ←
Wuming Zhuang kai5 ha:ŋ6 "young chicken
which has not laid eggs"
Cantonese ja:ŋ5 ← Siamese jâ:ŋ "to step on, tread"
Cantonese kɐm6 ←
Wuming Zhuang kam6, Siamese kʰòm, Be-Lingao
xɔm4 "to press down"
Cantonese kɐp7b na:3[a] ←
Wuming Zhuang kop7, Siamese kòp
Cantonese khɐp8 ← Siamese kʰòp "to bite"
Cantonese lɐm5 ← Siamese lóm, Maonan lam5 "to collapse, to topple,
to fall down (building)"
Cantonese tɐm5 ←
Wuming Zhuang tam5, Siamese tàm "to hang down, be
There is no known evidence of a writing system among the Yue peoples
Lingnan region in pre-Qin times, and the Chinese conquest of
the region is believed to have introduced writing to the area.
However, Liang Tingwang, a professor from the Central University of
Nationalities, said that the ancient Zhuang had their own
proto-writing system but had to give it up because of the Qinshi
Emperor's tough policy and to adopt the
Han Chinese writing system,
which ultimately developed into the old Zhuang demotic script
alongside classical Chinese writing system during the Tang dynasty
Old Chinese seems to have been the language of
government, likely because
Zhao Tuo and most government officials were
Chinese immigrants and not Yue. Archaeological finds at the Tomb of
King in Guangzhou, the
Nanyue Palace Ruins, and the
Luobowan tombs have provided nearly all that is known of Nanyue
writing. These sites contained a wide variety of artifacts with
writings in several different media. Items from
King Zhao Mo's tomb
have seal script characters on them, while those from the Palace and
Luobowan tend to have clerical script characters.
Bronze drum from Luobowan Tomb #1. Top-right closeup shows Chinese:
百廿斤; literally: "120 catties". Bottom-right closeup shows a
fishing heron and several Bird-men figures.
With the Han Court
Beginning with its first allegiance to the
Han dynasty in 196 BC,
Nanyue alternately went through two periods of allegiance to and then
opposition with Han China that continued until Nanyue's destruction at
the hands of the
Han dynasty in early 111 BC.
Gold seal excavated from the tomb of Zhao Mo, second
King of Nanyue.
The seal's characters, shown in detail on the lower left, read
文帝行壐 ("Imperial Seal of
Emperor Wen"), which demonstrates the
Emperor status within
The first period of Nanyue's subordination to the
Han dynasty began in
196 BC when
Zhao Tuo met Lü Jia, an emissary from
Emperor Gaozu of
Han, and received from him a Han Imperial seal enthroning
Zhao Tuo as
King of Nanyue. This period lasted thirteen years until 183 BC, during
which time significant trade took place.
Nanyue paid tribute in
rarities from the south, and the Han court bestowed gifts of iron
tools, horses, and cattle upon Nanyue. At the same time, the
countries' borders were always heavily guarded.
Nanyue's first period of antagonism with the
Han dynasty lasted from
183 BC to 179 BC, when trade was suspended and
Zhao Tuo severed
relations with the Han. During this period,
Zhao Tuo openly referred
to himself as
Emperor and launched an attack against the Kingdom of
Changsha, a feudal state of the Han dynasty, and Han troops were sent
to engage Nanyue. Nanyue's armies successfully halted the southern
progress of the advance, winning the respect and then allegiance of
the neighboring kingdoms of
Minyue and Yelang.
Nanyue's second period of submission to the
Han dynasty lasted from
179 BC to 112 BC. This period began with
Zhao Tuo abandoning his title
of "Emperor" and declaring allegiance to the Han Empire, but the
submission is mostly superficial as
Zhao Tuo was referred to as
Nanyue and the kingdom retained its autonomy. Zhao
Tuo's four successors did not display the strength he had, and Nanyue
dependence on Han China slowly grew, characterized by second king Zhao
Mo calling upon
Emperor Wu of Han to defend
Nanyue from Minyue.
Nanyue's final period of antagonism with Han China was the war that
proved Nanyue's destruction as a kingdom. At the time of Prime
Minister Lü Jia's rebellion, Han China was enjoying a period of
growth, economic prosperity, and military success, having consistently
Xiongnu tribes along China's northern and northwestern
borders. The weakened state of
Nanyue and the strength of China at the
Emperor Wu to unleash a devastating attack on Nanyue, as
An early Western-Han silk map found in Tomb 3 of
Mawangdui Han tombs
site, depicting the Kingdom of
Changsha and Kingdom of
the south direction is oriented at the top).
Changsha was, at the time, a feudal kingdom that was part of Han
China. Its territory comprised most of modern
Hunan Province and part
of Jiangxi Province. When
Emperor Gaozu of Han enfeoffed Wu Rui as the
King of Changsha, he also gave him the power to govern Nanhai,
Xiang, and Guiling Commanderies, which caused strife between Changsha
Nanyue from the start. The Han China-
Nanyue border was essentially
that of Changsha, and therefore was constantly fortified on both
sides. In terms of policies, because the Kingdom of
Changsha had no
sovereignty whatsoever, any policy of the Han court toward
by default also Changsha's policy.
Minyue was located northeast of
Nanyue along China's southeast coast,
and comprised much of modern Fujian Province. The
Minyue were defeated
by the armies of the
Qin dynasty in the 3rd century BC and the area
was organized under Qin control as the Minzhong Commandery, and Minyue
ruler Wuzhu was deposed. Because of Wuzhu's support for
Liu Bang after
the collapse of the
Qin dynasty and the founding of the Han, he was
reinstated by the Han court as
Minyue in 202 BC.
The relations between
Minyue can be classified into three
stages: the first, from 196 BC to 183 BC, was during Zhao Tuo's first
submission to the Han dynasty, and the two kingdoms were on relatively
equal footing. The second stage was from 183 BC to 135 BC, when Minyue
Nanyue after seeing it defeat the Han dynasty's first
attack on Nanyue. The third stage began in 135 BC when
King Wang Ying
attacked a weakened Nanyue, forcing
Zhao Mo to seek aid from Han
Minyue once again submitted to the Han dynasty, making itself
Nanyue equals once more.
With the Yi Tribes of the Southwest
Yi people lived west of Nanyue, and shared borders
Nanyue in Yelang, Wulian, Juding, and other regions.
the largest state of the Yi people, comprising most of modern Guizhou
Yunnan Provinces, as well as the southern part of Sichuan
Province. Some believe the ancient Yi to have been related to the
Hundred Yue, with this explaining the close relationship between
Yelang and Nanyue. After
Nanyue first repelled the Han, nearly all of
the Yi tribes declared allegiance to Nanyue, and most of them retained
that allegiance until Nanyue's demise in 111 BC. During
Emperor Wu of
Han's final attack on Nanyue, most of the Yi tribes refused to assist
in the invasion. One chieftain called Qie-Lan went so far as to openly
oppose the move, later killing the emissary sent by the Han to his
territory as well as the provincial governor installed in the Qianwei
ziu6 jing1 cai4
Triệu Anh Tề
ziu6 gin3 dak1
Triệu Kiến Đức
View of the tomb of Zhao Mo
Nanyue Kingdom Palace Ruins, located in the city of Guangzhou,
covers 15,000 square metres. Excavated in 1995, it contains the
remains of the ancient
Nanyue palace. In 1996, it was listed as
protected National Cultural Property by the Chinese government.
Crescent-shaped ponds, Chinese gardens and other Qin architecture were
discovered in the excavation.
In 1983, the ancient tomb of the
King Wáng Mù (王墓) was
discovered in Guangzhou, Guangdong. In 1988, the Museum of the
Mausoleum of the
King was constructed on this site, to display
more than 1,000 excavated artefacts including 500 pieces of Chinese
bronzes, 240 pieces of Chinese jade and 246 pieces of metal. In 1996,
the Chinese government listed this site as a protected National
A bronze seal inscribed "Tư Phố hầu ấn" (Seal for Captain of Tu
Pho County) was uncovered at
Thanh Hoa in northern
Vietnam during the
1930s. Owing to the similarity to seals found at the tomb of the
second king of Nam Viet, this bronze seal is recognized as an official
seal of the
Nam Viet Kingdom. There were artifacts that were found in
which belonged to the
Dong Son culture
Dong Son culture of northern Vietnam. The goods
were found buried alongside the tomb of the second king of Nam Viet.
In Vietnam, the rulers of
Nanyue are referred to as the Triệu
Dynasty, the Vietnamese pronunciation of the surname Chinese: 趙;
pinyin: Zhào. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam
Việt), the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue. (However, it has
also been stated that the name "Vietnam" was derived from a
combination of Quảng Nam Quốc (the domain of the Nguyen Lords,
from whom the
Nguyễn dynasty descended) and Đại
Việt (which the
first emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, Gia Long, conquered).).
Peter Bellwood suggested that, ethnic Vietnamese are descended from
the ancient Yuè of northern
Vietnam and western Guangdong.
However, the Austroasiatic predecessor of modern Vietnamese language
has been proven to originate in modern-day
Bolikhamsai Province and
Khammouane Province in
Laos as well as parts of
Nghệ An Province
Nghệ An Province and
Quảng Bình Province
Quảng Bình Province in Vietnam, rather than in the region north of
the Red River delta. The hypothesis proposed by Jerry Norman and
Tsu-Lin Mei arguing for an Austroasiatic homeland along the middle
Yangtze has been largely abandoned in most circles, and left
unsupported by the majority of Austroasiatic specialists. There is
evidence that Chinese rulers of the Red River delta, during the
medieval ages, tried to invent an origin of their own based on ancient
Chinese texts, which recorded the movements of Tai-Kadai speaking
peoples across the region of South China. This leads to a common
Vietnam that the Vietnamese are descended from the
Professor Liam Kelley wrote on how the 17th century Vietnamese
historians like Ngô Thì Sĩ and Jesuits like Martinio Martini
studied texts on the Hồng Bàng Dynasty like Đại
Việt sử ký
toàn thư and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them
were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs.
However, modern Vietnamese now believe that the information is
true. Ngô Thì Sĩ used critical analysis of historical texts to
question the relations between Zhao Tuo's
Nanyue Kingdom in Guangdong
and the Vietnamese inhabited Red River Delta, concluding that the Red
River Delta was a mere vassal to
Nanyue and not an integral part of it
in addition to criticizing the existence of the Hồng Bàng
Modern Vietnamese nationalists seek to stress local Vietnamese
influence in history and downplay the role of foreign origin monarchs
like the fact that the family of the
Tran dynasty rulers originated in
China. Vietnamese historians have sought to construct a fantasy of
a continuous succession since the Hung Kings of local political units
in Vietnam. Vietnamese scholars and historians have debated over
whether to regard
Zhao Tuo as part of the "orthodox succession" of
rulers or as "enemy invader".
Emperor refused Gia Long's request to change his country's
name to Nam Việt, and changed the name instead to
Đại Nam thực lục
Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic
correspondence over the naming.
There was a fusion of the Han and Yue cultures in significant ways, as
shown by the artifacts unearthed by archaeologists from the tomb of
Zhao Mo in Guangzhou. The imperial
Nanyue tomb in
extremely rich. There are quite a number of bronzes that show cultural
influences from the Han, Chu, Yue and Ordos regions.
Bronze wine vessel
Brozen Canister with lacquer drawing
Việt Sluice Model
Triệu Mạt (Zhao Mo)
Chengpan gaozu bei
Đông Sơn bronze jar
Bronze mortar and pestle
Bronze mirror inlaid with silver
Game of Liubo
Game of Liubo
Jade wares unearthed from the Mausoleum of the
Museum of the Mausoleum of the
Tây Vu Vương
Đông Sơn culture
^ The second syllable na:3 may correspond to Tai morpheme for 'field'.
^ a b Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia.
ABC-CLIO. p. 932. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.
^ Zhang Rongfang, Huang Miaozhang, Nan Yue Guo Shi, 2nd ed., pp.
^ Shelton Woods, L. (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook.
ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 1576074161.
Sima Qian - Records of the Grand Historian, section 113
^ Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, section 112.
^ Huai Nan Zi, section 18
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 26–31.
^ Taylor (1983), p. 23
^ Hu Shouwei, Nan Yue Kai Tuo Xian Qu -- Zhao Tuo, pp. 35–36.
^ Taylor, Keith Weller (1991). Birth of Vietnam, The. University of
California Press. pp. 23–27. ISBN 0520074173.
^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 97
^ Hansen, Valerie (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600.
New York, USA & London, UK: W.W. Norton & Company.
p. 125. ISBN 0-393-97374-3.
^ Zhang and Huang, pp. 196-200; also Shi Ji 130
^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 114.
^ Hu Shouwei, Nan Yue Kai Tuo Xian Qu --- Zhao Tuo, pp. 76–77.
^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 116.
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 401–402
^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 113.
^ "Lễ hội chọi trâu xã Hải Lựu (16-17 tháng Giêng hằng
năm) Phần I (tiep theo)". 2010-02-03. Theo nhiều thư tịch cổ
và các công trình nghiên cứu, sưu tầm của nhiều nhà
khoa học nổi tiếng trong nước, cùng với sự truyền
lại của nhân dân từ đời này sang đời khác, của các
cụ cao tuổi ở Bạch Lưu, Hải Lựu và các xã lân cận
thì vào cuối thế kỷ thứ II trước công nguyên, nhà Hán
tấn công nước Nam
Việt của Triệu Đề, triều đình
nhà Triệu tan rã lúc bấy giờ thừa tướng Lữ Gia, một
tướng tài của triều đình đã rút khỏi kinh đô Phiên
Ngung (thuộc Quảng Đông – Trung Quốc ngày nay). Về đóng
ở núi Long Động - Lập Thạch, chống lại quân Hán do
Lộ Bác Đức chỉ huy hơn 10 năm (từ 111- 98 TCN), suốt
thời gian đó Ông cùng các thổ hào và nhân dân đánh theo
quân nhà Hán thất điên bát đảo."
^ "List of temples related to
Triệu dynasty and Nam
Vietnam and China". 2014-01-28.
^ Từ điển bách khoa quân sự
Việt Nam, 2004, p564 "KHỞI
NGHĨA TÂY VU VƯƠNG (lll TCN), khởi nghĩa của người Việt
ở Giao Chỉ chống ách đô hộ của nhà Triệu (TQ).
Khoảng cuối lll TCN, nhân lúc nhà Triệu suy yếu, bị nhà
Tây Hán (TQ) thôn tính, một thủ lĩnh người
là Tây Vu Vương, "
^ Viet Nam Social Sciences vol.1-6, p91, 2003 "In 111 B.C. there
prevailed a historical personage of the name of Tay Vu Vuong who took
advantage of troubles circumstances in the early period of Chinese
domination to raise his power, and finally was killed by his general
assistant, Hoang Dong. Professor Tran Quoc Vuong saw in him the Tay Vu
chief having in hands tens of thousands of households, governing
thousands miles of land and establishing his center in Co Loa area
(59.239). Tay Vu and Tay Au is in fact the same.
^ Book of Han, Vol. 95, Story of Xi Nan Yi Liang Yue Zhao Xian, wrote:
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 83–84.
^ Zhang & Huang, p. 114.
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 112–113.
^ Yu Tianchi, Qin Shengmin, Lan Riyong, Liang Xuda, Qin Cailuan, Gu
Nan Yue Guo Shi, pp. 60–63.
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 113–121
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 134–152
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 121–126, 133–134.
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 127–131
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 170–174
^ Zhang & Huang, 320-321.
^ a b Bauer, Robert S. (1987). 'Kadai loanwords in southern Chinese
dialects', Transactions of the International Conference of
Orientalists in Japan 32: 95–111.
^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1835-1836.
^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1822-1823.
^ Bauer (1996), p. 1823.
^ Bauer (1996), p. 1826.
^ a b Bauer (1996), p. 1827.
^ Bauer (1996), pp. 1828-1829.
^ Bauer (1996), p. 1834.
^ Huang, Bo (2017). Comprehensive Geographic Information Systems,
Elsevier, p. 162.
^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 189-191.
^ Liu Min, "Ultimate Conclusions on 'Kai Guan' -- A View of Han-Nanyue
Relations From the Wen Di Seal Chinese: ‘开棺’ 定论 --
Nanyue Guo Shiji Yantaohui Lunwen
Xuanji 南越国史迹研讨会论文选集, pp. 26-27.
^ "Thạp đồng Đông Sơn của Huyện lệnh Long Xoang (Xuyên)
Triệu Đà". 2011-03-11. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25.
Chiếc ấn đồng khối vuông “Tư (Việt) phố hầu ấn”
có đúc hình rùa trên lưng được thương nhân cũng là
nhà sưu tầm người Bỉ tên là Clement Huet mua được ở
Thanh Hóa hồi trước thế chiến II (hiện bày ở Bảo
tàng Nghệ thuật và Lịch sử Hoàng Gia Bỉ, Brussel)
được cho là của viên điển sứ tước hầu ở Cửu
Chân. Tư Phố là tên quận trị đóng ở khu vực làng
Ràng (Thiệu Dương, Thanh Hóa) hiện nay.
^ See, e.g., Bo Yang, Outlines of the History of the Chinese
(中國人史綱), vol. 2, pp. 880-881.
^ Peter Bellwood. "Indo-Pacific prehistory: the Chiang Mai papers.
Volume 2". Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association of Australian National
^ Chamberlain, J.R. 1998, "The origin of Sek: implications for Tai and
Vietnamese history", in The International Conference on Tai Studies,
ed. S. Burusphat, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 97-128. Institute of Language
and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University.
^ Chamberlain, James R. (2016). "Kra-Dai and the Proto-History of
South China and Vietnam", p. 30. In Journal of the Siam Society, Vol.
^ Kelley, Liam C. (2012). The Biography of the Hồng Bàng Clan as a
Medieval Vietnamese Invented Tradition". Journal of Vietnamese
Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2: 87-130, published by: University of California
^ proof that he runs the blog
^ Alexander Woodside (1971).
Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A
Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First
Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center.
pp. 120–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5.
^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in
Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–.
Guangzhou Xi Han
Nanyue wang mu bo wu guan, Peter Y. K. Lam, Chinese
University of Hong Kong. Art Gallery - 1991 - 303 pages - Snippet view
Bauer, Robert S. (1996), "Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese"
(PDF), Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages
and Linguistics, Pan-Asiatic Linguistics V: 1 806- 1 844, Bangkok:
Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol
University at Salaya.
Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of
reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173.
Retrieved 7 August 2013.
Records of the Grand Historian, vol. 113.
Book of Han, vol. 95.
Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 12, 13, 17, 18, 20.
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