NAGASAKI (長崎市, _Nagasaki-shi_, Japanese: ) ( listen (help
·info )) is the capital and the largest city of
on the island of
Kyushu in Japan. It became a centre of Portuguese and
Dutch influence in the 16th through 19th centuries, and the Churches
and Christian Sites in
Nagasaki have been proposed for inscription on
the UNESCO World Heritage List . Part of
Nagasaki was home to a major
Imperial Japanese Navy base during the
First Sino-Japanese War and
Russo-Japanese War . Its name means "long cape".
World War II
World War II , the American atomic bombings of
Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world
to experience a nuclear attack .
As of 1 March 2017 , the city has an estimated population of 425,723
and a population density of 1,000 persons per km². The total area is
406.35 km2 (156.89 sq mi).
* 1 History
* 1.1 Medieval and early modern history
* 1.2 Modern history
* 1.3 Atomic bombing of
World War II
World War II
* 1.4 After the war
* 2 Geography and climate
* 3 Education
* 3.1 Universities
* 3.2 Junior colleges
* 4 Transportation
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Sports
* 7 Main sites
* 8 Events
* 9 Cuisine
* 10 Twin towns
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 External links
Timeline of Nagasaki
MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN HISTORY
A small fishing village set in a secluded harbor,
Nagasaki had little
historical significance until contact with
Portuguese explorers in
1543. An early visitor was
Fernão Mendes Pinto , who came on a
Portuguese ship which landed nearby in
Tanegashima . _ Portuguese
(green)_ and Spanish _(yellow)_ trade routes to Macao and
_ A Japanese Nanban byōbu _ detail depicting a Portuguese carrack
arriving at Nagasaki, c. 1571
Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to
Japan as regular
trade freighters , thus increasing the contact and trade relations
Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with
China , with whom
Japan had previously severed its commercial
and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving
Wokou piracy in the
South China Sea
South China Sea , with the Portuguese now serving
as intermediaries between the two Asian countries.
Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts,
which would soon be acknowledged by all parties involved, the lack of
a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign
ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu
_daimyōs _ (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages
from the trade with the Portuguese.
In the meantime, Navarrese Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier
Kagoshima , South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a
thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, but left for
China in 1552 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained
behind converted a number of _daimyōs_. The most notable among them
Ōmura Sumitada . In 1569, Ōmura granted a permit for the
establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships
in Nagasaki, which was finally set up in 1571, under the supervision
of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major
Tristão Vaz de Veiga , with Ōmura's personal assistance.
The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city, and
Portuguese products imported through
Nagasaki (such as tobacco , bread
, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called _castellas _) were
assimilated into popular Japanese culture.
Tempura derived from a
popular Portuguese recipe originally known as _peixinho-da-horta_ ,
and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero' another example
of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also
brought with them many goods from
Due to the instability during the
Sengoku period , Sumitada and
Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass
administrative control over to the
Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus rather than see
the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic _daimyō_. Thus, for a
brief period after 1580, the city of
Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony,
under their administrative and military control. It was administered
by the captain of the Portuguese "black ship", the highest
representative of the Portuguese Crown, when present. It became a
Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan.
In 1587, however,
Toyotomi Hideyoshi 's campaign to unify the country
arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in
southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the
arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political
arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries , and
placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order
went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's
population remained openly practicing Catholic .
In 1596, the Spanish ship _San Felipe_ was wrecked off the coast of
Shikoku , and Hideyoshi learned from its pilot that the Spanish
Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In
response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics
Nagasaki on February 5 of that year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs
Japan "). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so
the city continued to thrive. Some of Nagasaki's stone bridges
over the Nakashima River in the 1870s
Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when
Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603,
Catholicism was still tolerated.
Many Catholic _daimyōs _ had been critical allies at the Battle of
Sekigahara , and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move
against them. Once
Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi
's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In
addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without
religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614,
Catholicism was officially
banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo
apostatized , and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would
not renounce the religion and left the country for
Southeast Asia . A brutal campaign of persecution
followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts
Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion (see
Martyrs of Japan ).
Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion and the last major
military action in
Japan until the
Meiji Restoration was the Shimabara
Rebellion of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly
incited the rebellion,
Shimabara Domain had been a Christian _han _
for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and
Christian icons . Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word
"Shimabara" solidified the connection between
disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda.
Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign
influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the
national isolation policy . The Portuguese, who had been previously
living on a specially constructed island-prison in
Dejima , were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the
Dutch were moved from their base at
Hirado into the trading island.
The Great Fire of
Nagasaki destroyed much of the city in 1663,
including the Mazu shrine at the Kofukuji Temple patronized by the
Chinese sailors and merchants visiting the port.
In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of
scholars to flood into
Nagasaki to study European science and art.
Nagasaki became a major center of _rangaku _, or "Dutch
Learning". During the
Edo period , the
Tokugawa shogunate governed the
city, appointing a _hatamoto _, the _
Nagasaki bugyō _, as its chief
administrator. Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778 Plan
of Nagasaki, 1860 Kameyama-ware jar with a Dutch trading ship,
Uchida Kuichi 's image of
Nagasaki c. 1870
Nagasaki in 1893
Ōura Church built in 1864, a national
Nagasaki Prefect Office,
Nagasaki City Office,
Consensus among historians was once that
Nagasaki was Japan's only
window on the world during its time as a closed country in the
Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was
not the case, since
Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū
Russia through Satsuma , Tsushima and Matsumae
Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art
and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities
from the Western World.
In 1808, during the
Napoleonic Wars the
Royal Navy frigate HMS
Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships.
The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food,
fuel, and water, later committing _seppuku _ as a result. Laws were
passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses,
threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training
of English and Russian translators.
The _Tōjinyashiki_ (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in
also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the
Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists
sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually
combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai
. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of
Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese.
Meiji Restoration ,
Japan opened its doors once again to
foreign trade and diplomatic relations.
Nagasaki became a free port in
1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868.
officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. With Christianity
legalized and the
Kakure Kirishitan coming out of hiding, Nagasaki
regained its earlier role as a center for Roman
Catholicism in Japan.
Meiji period ,
Nagasaki became a center of heavy industry.
Its main industry was ship-building , with the dockyards under control
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries becoming one of the prime contractors
Imperial Japanese Navy , and with
Nagasaki harbor used as an
anchorage under the control of nearby
Sasebo Naval District . During
World War II
World War II , at the time of the nuclear attack,
Nagasaki was an
important industrial city, containing both plants of the Mitsubishi
Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms
Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works,
Urakami Ordnance Works, several other small factories, and
most of the ports storage and trans-shipment facilities, which
employed about 90% of the city's labor force, and accounted for 90% of
the city's industry. These connections with the Japanese war effort
Nagasaki a major target for strategic bombing by the Allies
during the war.
ATOMIC BOMBING OF NAGASAKI DURING WORLD WAR II
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over
Nagasaki at 11:02 a.m.,
August 9, 1945
For 12 months prior to the nuclear attack,
Nagasaki had experienced
five small-scale air attacks by an aggregate of 136 U.S. planes which
dropped a total of 270 tons of high explosive , 53 tons of incendiary
, and 20 tons of fragmentation bombs . Of these, a raid of August 1,
1945, was most effective, with a few of the bombs hitting the
shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several
hitting the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, and six bombs landing at
Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on
buildings there. While the damage from these few bombs was relatively
small, it created considerable concern in
Nagasaki and a number of
people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for
safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the
On the day of the nuclear strike (August 9, 1945) the population in
Nagasaki was estimated to be 263,000, which consisted of 240,000
Japanese residents, 10,000 Korean residents, 2,500 conscripted Korean
workers, 9,000 Japanese soldiers, 600 conscripted Chinese workers, and
400 Allied POWs . That day, the
Boeing B-29 Superfortress _Bockscar
_, commanded by Major
Charles Sweeney , departed from
Tinian 's North
Field just before dawn, this time carrying a plutonium bomb , code
Fat Man ". The primary target for the bomb was Kokura , with
the secondary target, Nagasaki, if the primary target was too cloudy
to make a visual sighting. When the plane reached Kokura at 9:44 a.m.
Tinian Time), the city was obscured by clouds and smoke,
as the nearby city of Yawata had been firebombed on the previous day.
Unable to make a bombing attack on visual due to the clouds and smoke
and with limited fuel, the plane left the city at 10:30 a.m. for the
secondary target. After 20 minutes, the plane arrived at 10:50 a.m.
over Nagasaki, but the city was also concealed by clouds. Desperately
short of fuel and after making a couple of bombing runs without
obtaining any visual target, the crew was forced to use radar in order
to drop the bomb. At the last minute, the opening of the clouds
allowed them to make visual contact with a racetrack in Nagasaki, and
they dropped the bomb on the city's
Urakami Valley midway between the
Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south, and the
Urakami Ordnance Works in the north. 53 seconds after its
release, the bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m. at an approximate altitude of
Less than a second after the detonation, the north of the city was
destroyed and 35,000 people were killed. Among the deaths were 6,200
out of the 7,500 employees of the Mitsubishi Munitions plant, and
24,000 others (including 2,000 Koreans) who worked in other war plants
and factories in the city, as well as 150 Japanese soldiers. The
industrial damage in
Nagasaki was high, leaving 68–80% of the
non-dock industrial production destroyed. It was the second and, to
date, the last use of a nuclear weapon in combat , and also the second
detonation of a plutonium bomb. The first combat use of a nuclear
weapon was the "
Little Boy " bomb, which was dropped on the Japanese
Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The first plutonium bomb was
tested in central New Mexico , United States, on July 16, 1945. The
Fat Man bomb was somewhat more powerful than the one dropped over
Hiroshima, but because of Nagasaki's more uneven terrain, there was
AFTER THE WAR
_ One-legged torii _,
Sannō Shrine , Nagasaki,
Japan . The other
half was toppled in the explosion of the nuclear bomb.
The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. The
pace of reconstruction was slow. The first simple emergency dwellings
were not provided until 1946. The focus on redevelopment was the
replacement of war industries with foreign trade, shipbuilding and
fishing. This was formally declared when the
Culture City Reconstruction Law was passed in May 1949. New temples
were built, as well as new churches owing to an increase in the
presence of Christianity. Some of the rubble was left as a memorial,
such as a one-legged _torii _ at
Sannō Shrine and an arch near ground
zero . New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the
Atomic Bomb Museum .
Nagasaki remains first and foremost a port city,
supporting a rich ship building industry and setting a strong example
of perseverance and peace. _
Torii _, Nagasaki,
Japan . One-legged
torii in the background
On January 4, 2005, the towns of Iōjima , Kōyagi , Nomozaki , Sanwa
, Sotome and Takashima (all from Nishisonogi District ) were
officially merged into Nagasaki.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Nagasaki and Nishisonogi Peninsulas are located within the city
limits. The city is surrounded by the cities of Isahaya and Saikai ,
and the towns of Togitsu and Nagayo in Nishisonogi District .
Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay which forms the best natural
harbor on the island of Kyūshū. The main commercial and residential
area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two
rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which
the city lies. The heavily built-up area of the city is confined by
the terrain to less than 4 square miles (10 km2).
Nagasaki has the typical humid subtropical climate of Kyūshū and
Honshū, characterized by mild winters and long, hot, and humid
summers. Apart from Kanazawa and Shizuoka it is the wettest sizeable
Japan and indeed all of temperate Eurasia. In the summer, the
combination of persistent heat and high humidity results in unpleasant
conditions, with wet-bulb temperatures sometimes reaching 26 °C (79
°F). In the winter, however,
Nagasaki is drier and sunnier than Gotō
to the west, and temperatures are slightly milder than further inland
in Kyūshū. Since records began in 1878 the wettest month has been
July 1982 with 1,178 millimetres (46 in) including 555 millimetres
(21.9 in) in a single day, whilst the driest month has been September
1967 with 1.8 millimetres (0.07 in).
Precipitation occurs year-round,
though winter is the driest season; rainfall peaks sharply in June
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.5 MM)
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Japan Meteorological Agency
Japan Meteorological Agency (records)
Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science
Nagasaki University of Foreign Studies
* Kwassui Women\'s College
Nagasaki Junshin University
* Siebold University of Nagasaki
Nagasaki Junior College
Nagasaki Junshin Women's Junior College
* Tamaki Women's Junior College (玉木女子短期大学)
Nagasaki Women's Junior College (長崎女子短期大学)
A busy street in
The nearest airport is
Nagasaki Airport in the nearby city of Ōmura
Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) provides rail transportation
Nagasaki Main Line , whose terminal is at
Nagasaki Station . In
Nagasaki Electric Tramway operates five routes in the
Nagasaki Expressway serves vehicular traffic with
Nagasaki and Susukizuka. In addition, six national
highways crisscross the city: Routes 34 , 202 , 251 , 324 , and 499 .
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July
Nagasaki is represented in the
J. League of football with its local
V-Varen Nagasaki .
Dejima Museum of History
* Former residence of
* Former site of Latin Seminario
* Former site of the British Consulate in Nagasaki
* Former site of
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Nagasaki
* Former Glover Residence
* Former Alt Residence
* Former Ringer Residence
* Former Walker Residence
* Higashi-Yamate Juniban Mansion
* Kazagashira Park
Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum (Located next to the Peace Park)
Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture
Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
Nagasaki Peace Park
* Atomic Bomb Hypocenter (Located near the Peace Park)
Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
Nagasaki Science Museum
Nagasaki Subtropical Botanical Garden
Sannō Shrine - One-legged stone _torii _, sometimes called an
arch or gateway
Sakamoto International Cemetery
Siebold Memorial Museum
* Sōfuku-ji - Daiyūhōden and Daiippomon are national treasures of
* Suwa Shrine
Syusaku Endo Literature Museum
* Tateyama Park
Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument
Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum
* Miyo-Ken, a temple where the white snake is worshiped
Monument at the atomic bomb hypocenter in
Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
Sōfuku-ji (National treasure of Japan)
Nagasaki Lantern Festival
Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden , the
world's longest relay race , begins in
Nagasaki each November.
Kunchi , the most famous festival in Nagasaki, is held from 7–9
Nagasaki Lantern Festival, celebrating the
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year , is
celebrated from February 18 to March 4.
* Mogi Biwa
* Chinese Confections
* Shippoku Cuisine
* Toruko rice (_Turkish rice_)
Nagasaki Kakuni Manju
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
The city of
Nagasaki maintains sister cities or friendship relations
with other cities worldwide.
Hiroshima , Japan
Saint Paul, Minnesota , United States, since 1955
Dupnitsa , Bulgaria
* Santos , Brazil, since 1972
Fuzhou , China, since 1980
Middelburg , Netherlands, since 1978
Porto , Portugal, since 1978
Vaux-sur-Aure , France, since 2005; sister city of Sotome since
* Cultural treatments of the atomic bombings of
* Foreign cemeteries in
Hashima Island (Gunkanjima)
* ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). _A History of Us: War, Peace and all that
Jazz_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6 .
* ^ "Land Area and Environment -
Japan - knoema.com".
_Knoema_. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
* ^ Boxer, _The Christian Century In
Japan 1549–1650_, p.
* ^ Diego Paccheco, Monumenta Nipponica, 1970
* ^ so says the Jesuit account
* ^ "Cultural Properties", Official site, Nagasaki: Thomeizan
Kofukuji, retrieved 23 December 2016 .
* ^ Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan,
Richard Bowring and Haruko
* ^ Screech, Timon. _The Western Scientific Gaze and Popular
Imagery in Later Edo Japan: The Lens Within the Heart_. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996. p15.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Chapter II The Effects of the Atomic Bombings". United
States Strategic Bombing Survey.
* ^ _How Effective is Strategic Bombing?: Lessons Learned From
World War II
World War II to Kosovo (World of War)_. NYU Press. December 1, 2000.
* ^ "Avalon Project - The Atomic Bombings of
* ^ Bradley, F.J. (1999). _No Strategic Targets Left_. Turner
Publishing Company. p. 103. ISBN 1-5631-1483-6 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Skylark, Tom (2002). _Final Months of the Pacific War_.
Georgetown University Press . p. 178.
* ^ Bruce Cameron Reed (October 16, 2013). _The History and Science
of the Manhattan Project_.
Springer Publishing . p. 400. ISBN
* ^ "BBC - WW2 People\'s War - Timeline".
* ^ Robert Hull (October 11, 2011). _Welcome To Planet Earth - 2050
- Population Zero_.
AuthorHouse . p. 215. ISBN 1-4634-2604-6 .
* ^ _Nuke-Rebuke: Writers & Artists Against Nuclear Energy &
Weapons (The Contemporary anthology series)_. The Spirit That Moves Us
Press. May 1, 1984. pp. 22–29.
* ^ Groves 1962 , pp. 343–346.
* ^ Hoddeson et al., pp. 396-397
* ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993 , pp. 396–397
* ^ "AtomicBombMuseum.org - After the Bomb".
* ^ "
Nagasaki History Facts and Timeline".
* ^ あすにかけ全国的に厳しい冷え込み続く
* ^ "平年値（年・月ごとの値）".
Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
* ^ "観測史上1～10位の値（年間を通じての値）".
Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
* ^ "長崎外国語大学 -