HOME
The Info List - NCAA


--- Advertisement ---



The National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA)[a] is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States
United States
and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. In its 2016-17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion dollars in revenue, over 82% of which was generated by the Division I Men's Basketball
Basketball
Tournament. The overwhelming majority of the $1.06 billion was then distributed back to member organizations and institutions across the United States
United States
in support of their nearly half-million student athletes.[3] Some 95% of all revenues was expended, of which just 4% was devoted to day-to-day operations of the NCAA itself and an additional 8% to cover Association-wide expenses such as legal services, communications and business insurance. The remaining 88% went to member schools, organizations, and athletes.[4] In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer officially used by the NCAA.[5] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation and early years 1.2 1970s–present

2 Headquarters 3 Structure

3.1 Presidents of the NCAA 3.2 Division history

4 Player eligibility 5 NCAA sponsored sports

5.1 Men's programs 5.2 Women's programs 5.3 Women's "emerging sports"

6 Sports added and dropped

6.1 Men's sports 6.2 Women's sports

7 Championships

7.1 Trophies 7.2 Football Bowl Subdivision

8 Conferences

8.1 Division I

8.1.1 Division I FCS football-only conferences 8.1.2 Division I hockey-only conferences

8.2 Division II 8.3 Division III

8.3.1 Division III football-only conferences 8.3.2 Other Division III single-sport conferences

9 Media 10 LGBT inclusion policy 11 Rules violations 12 Sponsors 13 Finances

13.1 NCAA expenditures

13.1.1 Expenses by category

13.2 Player compensation proposals

14 Criticisms 15 Individual awards 16 Other collegiate athletic organizations

16.1 In the United States 16.2 Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents 16.3 International governing body

17 See also 18 Notes and references 19 Further reading 20 External links

History[edit] Formation and early years[edit] Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of crew.[6] As rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and often had to be adapted for each contest. The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport."[1] Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken
Henry MacCracken
of New York University
University
organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules; at a follow-on meeting on December 28, 1905 in New York, 62 higher-education institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).[1] The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.[1] For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.[7] In the late 1940s, there were only two colleges in the country, Notre Dame and Pennsylvania, with a national TV contract, a considerable source of revenue. In 1951, the NCAA voted to prohibit any live TV broadcast of college football games during the season. No sooner had the NCAA voted to ban television than public outcry forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to restrict the number of televised games for each team to stop the slide in gate attendance. University of Pennsylvania president Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen
defied the monopoly and renewed its contract with ABC. Eventually Penn was forced to back down when the NCAA, refusing Penn's request that the U.S. Attorney General rule on the legality of the NCAA's restrictive plan,[8][9] threatened to expel the Quakers from the association. Notre Dame continued televising its games through 1953, working around the ban by filming its games, then broadcasting them the next evening. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses. Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance.[7] The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, and a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri
in 1952.[7] Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, and legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games.[7] 1970s–present[edit] As college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III.[10] Five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision in 2006) in football.[7] Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. The AIAW was in a vulnerable position that precipitated conflicts with the NCAA in the early 1980s. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, and most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA.[11] By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year later in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program.[7] By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University
University
of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and the University
University
of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan – protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions, and the creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment – combined to make the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract. The NCAA appealed all the way to the United States
United States
Supreme Court, but lost in 1984 in the 7–2 ruling NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University
University
of Oklahoma.[12] (If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN
ESPN
had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated some $73.6 million for the Association and its members.) In 1999, the NCAA was sued for discriminating against female athletes under Title IX
Title IX
for systematically giving men in graduate school more waivers than a woman to participate in college sports. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to that law, without reviewing the merits of the discrimination claim.[13] Over the last two decades recruiting international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, the American universities are the only option to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the US with high academic expectations and aspirations.[14] In 2009, Simon Fraser University
University
in Burnaby, British Columbia, became the NCAA's first non-US member institution.[15][16] In 2014, the NCAA set a record high of a $989 Million in net revenue. Being just shy of $1 Billion is among the highest of all large sports organizations. Headquarters[edit]

The NCAA's current National Office in Indianapolis

The modern era of the NCAA began in July 1955 when its executive director, Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri
native Walter Byers, moved the organization's headquarters from the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago
Chicago
(where its offices were shared by the headquarters of the Big Ten Conference) to the Fairmount Building at 101 West 11th Street in Downtown Kansas City. The move was intended to separate the NCAA from the direct influence of any individual conference and keep it centrally located. The Fairmount was a block from Municipal Auditorium which had hosted Final Four games in 1940, 1941, and 1942. After Byers moved to Kansas City, the championships would be held in Municipal in 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, and 1964. The Fairmount office consisted of three rooms with no air conditioning. Byers' staff consisted of four people: an assistant, two secretaries, and a bookkeeper.[17] In 1964, it moved three blocks away to offices in the Midland Theatre. In 1973, it moved to 6299 Nall at Shawnee Mission Parkway
Shawnee Mission Parkway
in suburban Mission, Kansas
Mission, Kansas
in a $1.2 million building on 3.4 acres (14,000 m2). In 1989, it moved 6 miles (9.7 km) farther south to 6201 College
College
Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas. The new building was on 11.35 acres (45,900 m2) and had 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of space.[18] The NCAA was dissatisfied with its Johnson County, Kansas
Johnson County, Kansas
suburban location noting that its location on the south edges of the Kansas City suburbs was more than 40 minutes from Kansas City International Airport. They also noted that the suburban location was not drawing visitors to its new visitors' center.[19] In 1997, it asked for bids for a new headquarters. Various cities competed for a new headquarters with the two finalists being Kansas City and Indianapolis. Kansas City proposed to relocate the NCAA back downtown near the Crown Center
Crown Center
complex and would locate the visitors' center in Union Station. However Kansas City's main sports venue Kemper Arena
Kemper Arena
was nearly 30 years old.[19] Indianapolis
Indianapolis
argued that it was in fact more central than Kansas City in that two-thirds of the members are east of the Mississippi River.[19] The 50,000-seat RCA Dome far eclipsed the 17,000-seat Kemper Arena. In 1999, the NCAA moved its 300-member staff to its new headquarters in the White River State Park in a four-story 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) facility on the west edge of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. Adjacent to the headquarters is the 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) NCAA Hall of Champions.[20] Structure[edit] The NCAA's Board of Governors (formerly known as the Executive Committee) is the main body within the NCAA. This body elects the NCAA's President.[21] The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.[citation needed] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. The legislation is then passed on, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff provides support, acting as guides, liaisons, researchers, and public and media relations. The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA's stated objective for the venture is to help improve the fairness, quality, and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[22][23] Presidents of the NCAA[edit] The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.[1] In 1988, the title was changed to President.[24]

Walter Byers
Walter Byers
1951–1988 Dick Schultz 1988–1993 Cedric Dempsey 1994–2002[24] Myles Brand
Myles Brand
2003–2009[24][25] Jim Isch (interim) 2009–2010[26] Mark Emmert 2011–present

Division history[edit] See also: List of NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
institutions, List of NCAA Division II institutions, and List of NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III
institutions

Years Division

1906–1956 None

1956–1972 University
University
Division (Major College) College
College
Division (Small College)

1973–present Division I Division II Division III

1978–2006 Division I-A (football only) Division I-AA (football only) Division I-AAA Division II Division III

2006–present Division I FBS (football only) Division I FCS (football only) Division I (non-football) Division II Division III

Player eligibility[edit] To participate in college athletics in their freshman year, the NCAA requires that students meet three criteria: having graduated from high school, be completing the minimum required academic courses, and having qualifying grade-point average (GPA) and SAT or ACT scores.[27] The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math, natural or physical science, or another academic course such as a foreign language.[28] To meet the requirements for grade point average and SAT scores, the lowest possible GPA a student may be eligible with is a 1.70, as long as they have an SAT score of 1400. The lowest SAT scores a student may be eligible with is 700 as long as they have a GPA of 2.500.[27] As of the 2017–18 school year, a high school student may sign a letter of intent to enter and play football for a college in either of two periods. The first, introduced in 2017–18, is a three-day period in mid-December, coinciding with the first three days of the previously existing signing period for junior college players.[29] The second period, which before 2017 was the only one allowed for signings of high school players, starts on the first Wednesday in February.[30] In August 2011, the NCAA announced plans to raise academic requirements for postseason competition, including its two most prominent competitions, football's now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (replaced in 2014 by the College
College
Football Playoff) and the Division I Men's Basketball
Basketball
Tournament; the new requirement, which are based on an "Academic Progress Rate" (APR) that measures retention and graduation rates, and is calculated on a four-year, rolling basis.[31] The changes raise the rate from 900 to 930, which represents a 50% graduation rate.[31] Students are generally allowed to compete athletically for four years. Athletes are allowed to sit out a year while still attending school but not lose a year of eligibility by redshirting. NCAA sponsored sports[edit] The NCAA currently awards 90 national championships yearly – 46 women's, 41 men's, and coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following: basketball, baseball (men), beach volleyball (women), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men). The newest sport to be officially sanctioned is beach volleyball, which held its first championship in the 2015–16 school year. The Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I determines its own champion separately from the NCAA via the " College
College
Football Playoff"; this is not an official NCAA championship (see below). The most recently added championship is a single all-divisions championship in women's beach volleyball, which was approved by leaders of all three divisions in late 2014 and early 2015. The first championship was held in spring 2016.[32] The NCAA had called the sport "sand volleyball" until June 23, 2015, when it announced that it would use the internationally recognized name of "beach volleyball".[33] The NCAA has awarded championships in the following sports:

Baseball

Men's

Division I, CWS (1947–present) Division II (1968–present) Division III (1976–present)

Basketball

Men's

Division I (1939–present) Division II (1957–present) Division III (1975–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1982–present) Division III (1982–present)

Bowling

Women's (both genders have independent collegiate championships sponsored by the USBC)

Single Championship (2004–present)

Boxing1

Men's

Single Championship (1948–60)2

Cross Country1

Men's

Division I (1938–present) Division II (1958–present) Division III (1973–present)

Women's

Division I (1981–present) Division II (1981–present) Division III (1981–present)

Fencing1

Men's and Women's

Single Championship (1941–present)

Field Hockey

Women's

Division I (1981–present) Division II (1981–present) Division III (1981–present)

Football

Men's

Division 1 (FBS) (1978–present) Division I (FCS) (Formerly Division I-AA) (1978–present) Division II (1973–present) Division III (1973–present)

Golf1

Men's

Division I (1939–present) Division II (1963–present) Division III (1975–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1996–1999 (combined DII/DIII), 2000–present) Division III (1996–1999 (combined DII/DIII), 2000–present)

Gymnastics1

Men's

Single Championship (1938–present) Division II (1968–84)2

Women's

Single Championship (1982–present) Division II (1982–86)2

Ice Hockey

Men's

Division I (1948–present) Division II (1978–84, 1993–99)2 Division III (1984–present)

Women's

Division I (2001–present) Division III (2002–present)

Lacrosse

Men's

Division I (1971–present) Division II (1974-1979 (combined DII/DIII), 1980-1981, 1993–present) Division III (1974-1979 (combined DII/DIII), 1980–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (2001–present) Division III (1985–present)

Rifle1

Men's and Women's

Single Championship (1980–present)

Rowing

Women's

Division I (1997–present) Division II (2002–present) Division III (2002–present)

Skiing1

Men's and Women's

Single Championship (1954–present)

Soccer

Men's

Division I (1959–present) Division II (1972–present) Division III (1974–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1988–present) Division III (1986–present)

Softball

Women's

Division I, WCWS (1982–present) Division II (1982–present) Division III (1982–present)

Swimming and Diving1

Men's

Division I (1924–present) Division II (1964–present) Division III (1975–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1982–present) Division III (1982–present)

Tennis1

Men's

Division I (1946–present) Division II (1963–present) Division III (1976–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1982–present) Division III (1982–present)

Track and Field1

Indoor

Men's

Division I (1965–present) Division II (1985–present) Division III (1985–present)

Women's

Division I (1983–present) Division II (1985, 1987–present) Division III (1985, 1987–present)

Outdoor

Men's

Division I (1921–present) Division II (1963–present) Division III (1974–present)

Women's

Division I (1982–present) Division II (1982–present) Division III (1982–present)

Volleyball

Indoor

Men's

Divisions I and II (1970–present) Division III (2012–present)

Women's

Division I (1981–present) Division II (1981–present) Division III (1981–present)

Beach

Women's

Single Championship (2016–present)

Water Polo

Men's

Single Championship (1969–present)

Women's

Single Championship (2001–present)

Wrestling1

Men's

Division I (1928–present) Division II (1963–present) Division III (1974–present)

Notes

^ Championships in which an individual title(s) is (are) awarded alongside a cumulative team championship. ^ Championship has been discontinued; also noted with italics

The number of teams (school programs) that compete in each sport in their respective division as of 2017 are as follows:[34]

Men's programs[edit]

Sport Division I Division II Division III

Baseball 295 270 385

Basketball 347 318 424

Cross Country 311 280 399

Fencing 21 2 12

Football 128 FBS 123 FCS N/A N/A

Golf 297 233 299

Gymnastics 15 0 1

Ice Hockey 60 7 77

Lacrosse 70 67 234

Rifle 18 3 3

Skiing 11 6 16

Soccer 203 217 415

Swimming and Diving 133 75 223

Tennis 253 169 328

Track and Field (Indoor) 260 173 276

Track and Field (Outdoor) 281 215 311

Volleyball 21 25 82

Water Polo 21 7 15

Wrestling 76 61 101

Women's programs[edit]

Sport Division I Division II Division III

Basketball 345 319 439

Beach Volleyball 52 9 3

Bowling 34 30 12

Cross Country 344 307 420

Fencing 26 4 15

Field Hockey 79 33 164

Golf 263 192 212

Gymnastics 61 7 15

Ice Hockey 36 5 59

Lacrosse 111 107 280

Rifle 24 3 3

Rowing 89 16 41

Skiing 12 7 16

Soccer 329 268 438

Softball 291 296 414

Swimming and Diving 194 104 250

Tennis 315 226 372

Track and Field (Indoor) 325 195 283

Track and Field (Outdoor) 334 246 318

Volleyball 330 306 433

Water Polo 34 10 17

Women's "emerging sports"[edit] In addition to the above sports, the NCAA recognizes "emerging sports" for women. These sports have scholarship limitations for each sport, but do not currently have officially sanctioned NCAA championships. A member institution may use these sports to meet the required level of sports sponsorship for its division. An "Emerging Sport" must gain championship status (minimum 40 varsity programs for team sports, except 28 for Division III) within 10 years, or show steady progress toward that goal to remain on the list.[35] Until then, it is under the auspices of the NCAA and its respective institutions. Emerging Sport status allows for competition to include club teams to satisfy the minimum number of competitions bylaw established by the NCAA. The three sports currently designated as women's "emerging sports" are:

Rugby Triathlon Equestrian*

Equestrian has been recommended for elimination as an "emerging sport" due to lack of growth in the number of participating institutions.[36] Sports added and dropped[edit] The popularity of each of these sports programs has changed over time. Between 1988–89 and 2010–11, NCAA schools had net additions of 510 men's teams and 2,703 women's teams.[37] The following tables show the changes over time in the number of NCAA schools across all three divisions combined sponsoring each of the men's and women's team sports. Men's sports[edit] The men's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988/89 to 2010/11 period were indoor track and field, lacrosse, and cross-country running (each with more than 100 net gains). The men's sports with the biggest losses were wrestling (–104 teams), tennis, and rifle; the men's team sport with the most net losses was water polo.[37] Other reports show that 355 college wrestling programs have been eliminated since 2000; 212 men's gymnastics programs have been eliminated since 1969 with only 17 programs remaining as of 2013.[38]

Men's Team Sports: Number of Schools Sponsoring[39]

No. Sport 1981–82 2011–12 Change Percent

1 Basketball 741 1,060 +259 +43%

2 Baseball 642 927 +285 +44%

3 Soccer 521 803 +282 +54%

4 Football 497 651 +154 +31%

5 Lacrosse 138 295 +157 +116%

6 Ice hockey 130 135 +5 +4%

7 Volleyball 63 98 +35 +56%

8 Water polo 49 43 –6 –12%

The following table lists the men's individual DI sports with at least 5,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Men's individual sports

No. Sport Teams (2015)[40] Teams (1982)[40] Change Athletes[40] Season

1 Track (outdoor) 780 577 +203 28,177 Spring

2 Track (indoor) 681 422 +259 25,087 Winter

3 Cross country 989 650 +339 14,330 Fall

4 Swimming & diving 427 377 +50 9,715 Winter

5 Golf 831 590 +241 8,654 Spring

6 Tennis 765 690 +75 8,211 Spring

7 Wrestling 229 363 –134 7,049 Winter

Women's sports[edit] The women's sports with the biggest net gains during the 1988–89 to 2010–11 period were soccer (+599 teams), golf, and indoor track and field; no women's sports programs experienced double-digit net losses.[37]

Women's Team Sports: Number of Schools Sponsoring

Sport 1981–82 2011–12 Change Percent

Basketball 705 1,084 +379 +54%

Volleyball 603 1,047 +444 +74%

Soccer 80 996 +916 +1245%

Softball 348 976 +628 +180%

Lacrosse 105 376 +271 +258%

Field hockey 268 266 –2 –1%

Ice hockey 17 86 +69 +406%

Water polo — 64 +64 ——

Source: NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2012-13[permanent dead link] The following table lists the women's individual NCAA sports with at least 1,000 participating athletes. Sports are ranked by number of athletes.

Women's individual sports[41]

No. Sport Teams (2015)[40] Teams (1982)[41] Change Athletes[40] Season

1 Track (outdoor) 861 427 +434 28,797 Spring

2 Track (indoor) 772 239 +533 26,620 Winter

3 Cross country 1,072 417 +655 16,150 Fall

4 Swimming & diving 548 348 +200 12,428 Winter

5 Tennis 930 610 +320 8,960 Spring

6 Golf 651 125 +526 5,221 Spring

7 Equestrian 47 41* +6* 1,496

8 Gymnastics 82 179 –97 1,492 Winter

Equestrian was not a women's varsity sport in 1982 and the NCAA report does not include the number of teams for that year. Equestrian is first listed in the NCAA report in 1988-89 with 41 teams, and so the number of teams for that season is listed in the table above.

Championships[edit]

2006 NCAA championship banners hang from the ceiling of the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis

NCAA National Championship trophies, rings, and watches won by UCLA teams

See also: Non-NCAA championships, AIAW Champions, Pre-NCAA intercollegiate championships, Intercollegiate sports team champions, List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
championships, and List of NCAA schools with the most Division I national championships Trophies[edit] For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first, second, and third place teams respectively.[citation needed] In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place).[citation needed] Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations. Starting with the 2001–02 season, and again in the 2007–08 season, the trophies were changed.[citation needed] Starting in the 2006 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold-plated for the winner and silver-plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive an elaborate trophy with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy. As of March 23, 2018,[42] Stanford, UCLA, and Southern California (USC) have the most NCAA championships. Stanford holds the most, winning a combined 116 NCAA team championships in men's and women's sports, while UCLA is second with 114 and USC is third with 104. Football Bowl Subdivision[edit] Main articles: College
College
football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS and College
College
Football Playoff The NCAA has never sanctioned an official championship for its highest level of football, now known as Division I FBS. Instead, several outside bodies award their own titles. The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament or game for Division I FBS football. In the past, teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll, were said to have won the "national championship". Starting in 2014, the College
College
Football Playoff – a consortium of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games – has arranged to place the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that selects and seeds the teams) into two semifinal games, with the winners advancing to compete in the College Football Playoff National Championship, which is not officially sanctioned or recognized by the NCAA. The winner of the game receives a trophy; since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not denote NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do. Conferences[edit] See also: List of NCAA conferences and List of non-NCAA conferences The NCAA is divided into three levels of conference, Division I, Division II, and Division III, organized in declining program size, as well as numerous sub-divisions. Division I[edit] See also: NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
and List of Division I Athletic Directors

Notes

FBS conferences in football are denoted with an asterisk (*) FCS conferences in football are denoted with two asterisks (**) Conferences that do not sponsor football or basketball are in italics

America East Conference American Athletic Conference
American Athletic Conference
(The American) * Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference
(A-10) Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference
(ACC) * Atlantic Sun Conference
Atlantic Sun Conference
(ASUN) Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference
(Big 12) * Big East Conference Big Sky Conference
Big Sky Conference
** Big South Conference
Big South Conference
** Big Ten Conference
Big Ten Conference
(Big Ten or B1G) * Big West Conference Coastal Collegiate Sports Association
Coastal Collegiate Sports Association
(CCSA) Colonial Athletic Association
Colonial Athletic Association
(CAA) ** Conference USA
Conference USA
(C-USA) * Horizon League Ivy League
Ivy League
** Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference
(MAAC) Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference
(MAC) *

Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
(MEAC) ** Missouri Valley Conference
Missouri Valley Conference
(MVC) Mountain Pacific Sports Federation
Mountain Pacific Sports Federation
(MPSF) Mountain West Conference
Mountain West Conference
(MW) * Northeast Conference
Northeast Conference
(NEC) ** Ohio Valley Conference
Ohio Valley Conference
(OVC) ** Pac-12 Conference
Pac-12 Conference
(Pac-12) * Patriot League
Patriot League
** Southeastern Conference
Southeastern Conference
(SEC) * Southern Conference
Southern Conference
(SoCon) ** Southland Conference
Southland Conference
** Southwestern Athletic Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference
(SWAC) ** The Summit League
Summit League
(The Summit) Sun Belt Conference
Sun Belt Conference
(SBC) * West Coast Conference (WCC) Western Athletic Conference
Western Athletic Conference
(WAC) NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
Independents

Division I FCS football-only conferences[edit]

Missouri Valley Football Conference Pioneer Football League

Map of National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
Football Championship Division I-AA schools

Division I hockey-only conferences[edit]

Atlantic Hockey College
College
Hockey America ECAC Hockey Hockey East National Collegiate Hockey Conference
National Collegiate Hockey Conference
(NCHC) Western Collegiate Hockey Association
Western Collegiate Hockey Association
(WCHA)

Division II[edit] See also: NCAA Division II

California Collegiate Athletic Association
California Collegiate Athletic Association
(CCAA) Central Atlantic Collegiate Conference
Central Atlantic Collegiate Conference
(CACC) Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association
Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association
(CIAA) Conference Carolinas
Conference Carolinas
(CC) East Coast Conference
East Coast Conference
(ECC) Great American Conference
Great American Conference
(GAC) Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(GLIAC) Great Lakes Valley Conference
Great Lakes Valley Conference
(GLVC) Great Midwest Athletic Conference
Great Midwest Athletic Conference
(G-MAC) Great Northwest Athletic Conference
Great Northwest Athletic Conference
(GNAC) Gulf South Conference
Gulf South Conference
(GSC) Heartland Conference
Heartland Conference
(Heartland) Lone Star Conference
Lone Star Conference
(LSC)

Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association
Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association
(MIAA) Mountain East Conference
Mountain East Conference
(MEC) Northeast-10 Conference
Northeast-10 Conference
(NE-10) Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference
Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference
(NSIC) Pacific West Conference
Pacific West Conference
(PacWest) Peach Belt Conference
Peach Belt Conference
(PBC) Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference
Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference
(PSAC) Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
(RMAC) South Atlantic Conference
South Atlantic Conference
(SAC) Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(SIAC) Sunshine State Conference
Sunshine State Conference
(SSC) NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
Independents

Division III[edit] See also: NCAA Division III

Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference
Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference
(AMCC) American Collegiate Athletic Association (ACAA) American Southwest Conference
American Southwest Conference
(ASC) Capital Athletic Conference
Capital Athletic Conference
(CAC) Centennial Conference
Centennial Conference
(Centennial) City University
University
of New York Athletic Conference (CUNYAC) College
College
Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin (CCIW) Colonial States Athletic Conference
Colonial States Athletic Conference
(CSAC) Commonwealth Coast Conference
Commonwealth Coast Conference
(CCC)

The former New England Football Conference
New England Football Conference
(NEFC) was absorbed by the CCC in 2017 and is now the CCC football league, although it technically remains separate from the all-sports conference.

Empire 8
Empire 8
(E8) Great Northeast Athletic Conference
Great Northeast Athletic Conference
(GNAC) Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference
Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference
(HCAC) NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III
Independents Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(IIAC) Landmark Conference
Landmark Conference
(Landmark) Liberty League
Liberty League
(Liberty) Little East Conference
Little East Conference
(LEC) Massachusetts State Collegiate Athletic Conference
Massachusetts State Collegiate Athletic Conference
(MASCAC) Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association
Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association
(MIAA) Middle Atlantic Conferences
Middle Atlantic Conferences
(MAC) – An umbrella organization of the following three conferences:

MAC Commonwealth, sponsoring competition in 15 sports, but not football MAC Freedom, sponsoring competition in the same set of 15 sports Middle Atlantic Conference, sponsoring 12 sports, including football

Midwest Conference
Midwest Conference
(Midwest or MWC) Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(MIAC) New England Collegiate Conference
New England Collegiate Conference
(NECC) New England Small College
College
Athletic Conference (NESCAC) New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference
New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference
(NEWMAC) New Jersey Athletic Conference
New Jersey Athletic Conference
(NJAC) North Atlantic Conference
North Atlantic Conference
(NAC) North Coast Athletic Conference
North Coast Athletic Conference
(NCAC) North Eastern Athletic Conference
North Eastern Athletic Conference
(NEAC) Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference
Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference
(NACC) Northwest Conference
Northwest Conference
(NWC) Ohio Athletic Conference
Ohio Athletic Conference
(OAC) Old Dominion Athletic Conference
Old Dominion Athletic Conference
(ODAC) Presidents' Athletic Conference
Presidents' Athletic Conference
(PAC) Skyline Conference
Skyline Conference
(Skyline) Southern Athletic Association
Southern Athletic Association
(SAA) Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(SCIAC) Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference
Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference
(SCAC) State University
University
of New York Athletic Conference (SUNYAC) St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(SLIAC) University
University
Athletic Association (UAA) Upper Midwest Athletic Conference
Upper Midwest Athletic Conference
(UMAC) USA South Athletic Conference
USA South Athletic Conference
(USA South) Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
(WIAC) NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III
Independents

Division III football-only conferences[edit]

Eastern Collegiate Football Conference
Eastern Collegiate Football Conference
(ECFC)

Other Division III single-sport conferences[edit]

Continental Volleyball
Volleyball
Conference (CVC) – men's volleyball ECAC East
ECAC East
– men's and women's ice hockey ECAC Northeast
ECAC Northeast
– men's ice hockey ECAC West
ECAC West
– men's and women's ice hockey Midwest Collegiate Volleyball
Volleyball
League (MCVL) – men's volleyball Midwest Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Conference (MLC) – men's lacrosse Midwest Women's Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Conference (MWLC) – women's lacrosse Northern Collegiate Hockey Association
Northern Collegiate Hockey Association
(NCHA) – men's and women's ice hockey Ohio River Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Conference (ORLC) – men's and women's lacrosse United Volleyball
Volleyball
Conference (UVC) – men's volleyball

Media[edit] The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS
CBS
Sports, CBS Sports Network, ESPN, ESPN
ESPN
Plus, and Turner Sports
Turner Sports
for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[43] ESPN
ESPN
and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships, CBS
CBS
to 67, and Turner Sports
Turner Sports
to one. The followings are the most prominent championships and rightsholders:

CBS: Men's basketball ( NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
Men's Basketball
Basketball
Tournament, with Turner Sports, and NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
Men's Basketball
Basketball
Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I) ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's Division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (Division I for both sexes) Turner Sports: NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
with CBS

WestwoodOne has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours to the men's College
College
World Series (baseball). DirecTV
DirecTV
has an exclusive package expanding CBS' coverage of the men's basketball tournament. From 1998 to 2013, Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
had a license to develop college sports video games with the NCAA's branding, which included its NCAA Football and NCAA Basketball
Basketball
(formerly NCAA March Madness) series. The NCAA's licensing was not required to produce the games, as rights to use teams are not licensed through the NCAA, but through entities such as individual schools and the Collegiate Licensing Company. EA only acquired the license so that it could officially incorporate the Men's Division I Basketball
Basketball
Championship into its college basketball game series. The NCAA withdrew EA's license due to uncertainties surrounding a series of lawsuits, most notably O'Bannon v. NCAA, involving the use of player likenesses in college sports video games.[44][45] LGBT inclusion policy[edit] In 2010, the NCAA Executive Committee announced its support and commitment to diversity, inclusion, and gender equality among its student-athletes, coaches, and administrators. The statement included the NCAA’s commitment to ensuring that all students have equal opportunities to achieve their academic goals, and coaches and administrators have equal opportunities for career development in a climate of respect.[46] In 2012, the LGBTQ Subcommittee of the NCAA association-wide Committee on Women’s Athletics and the Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee commissioned Champions of Respect, a document that provides resources and advocacy that promotes inclusion and equality for LGBTQ student-athletes, coaches, administrators and all others associated with intercollegiate athletics. This resource uses guides from the Women's Sports Foundation It Takes a Team! project for addressing issues related to LGBTQ equality in intercollegiate athletics.[46] The document provides information on specific issues LGBTQ sportspeople face, similarities and differences of these issues on women’s and men’s teams, policy recommendations and best practices, and legal resources and court cases.[47] The NCAA has kept these core values central to its decisions regarding the allocation of championship bids. In April 2016, the Board of Governors announced new requirements for host cities that includes protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity for all people involved in the event. This decision was prompted by several states passing laws that permit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in accordance with religious beliefs.[48] The NCAA expressed concern over Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act that allows businesses to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. This bill was proposed just before Indianapolis
Indianapolis
was set to host the 2015 Men’s Basketball
Basketball
Final Four tournament.[49] The bill clashed with the NCAA core values of inclusion and equality, and forced the NCAA to consider moving events out of Indiana. Under pressure from across the nation and fearing the economic loss of being banned from hosting NCAA events, the governor of Indiana, Mike Pence, revised the bill so that businesses could not discriminate based on sexual orientation, race, religion, or disability. The NCAA accepted the revised bill and continues to host events in Indiana.[50] The bill was enacted into law on July 1, 2015.[51] On September 12, 2016, the NCAA announced that it would pull all seven planned championship events out of North Carolina for the 2016-2017 academic year.[52] This decision was a response to the state passing the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act (H.B. 2) on March 23, 2016. This law requires people to use public restrooms that correspond with their sex assigned at birth and stops cities from passing laws that protect against discrimination towards gay and transgender people.[53] The NCAA Board of Governors determined that this law would make ensuring an inclusive atmosphere in the host communities challenging, and relocating these championship events best reflects the association's commitment to maintaining an environment that is consistent with its core values.[52] North Carolina has lost the opportunity to host the 2018 Final Four Tournament which was scheduled to be in Charlotte, but is relocated to San Antonio. If H.B. 2 is not repealed, North Carolina could be barred from bidding for events from 2019 to 2022.[54] Historically, the NCAA has used its authority in deciding on host cities to promote its core values. The Association also prohibits championship events in states that display the Confederate flag, and at member schools that have abusive or offensive nicknames or mascots based on Native American imagery. Board members wish to ensure that anyone associated with an NCAA championship event will be treated with fairness and respect.[48] Rules violations[edit] See also: List of NCAA institutions on probation Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership. Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions. Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty. In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty is known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it did not do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered; it has only four winning seasons and four bowl appearance since then (mostly under June Jones, the team's head coach from 2008 until his resignation during the 2014 season). The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005. In addition to these cases, the most recent division I school to be considered was Penn State. This because of the Jerry Sandusky Incident that consequently almost landed Penn State on the hook for the Death Penalty. They received a 60 million dollars fine, in addition to forfeited seasons and other sanctions as well. Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors, and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause penalty" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[55] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order essentially has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order. Sponsors[edit] The NCAA has a two-tier sponsorship division. AT&T, Coca-Cola, and CapitalOne
CapitalOne
are NCAA Corporate Champions, all others are NCAA Corporate Partners.[56]

Company Category Since

Buffalo Wild Wings Bar and restaurant 2015

AT&T Telecommunications 2001

Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages 2002

Northwestern Mutual Insurance and financial services 2004

Enterprise Rent-A-Car Car rental 2005

Lowe's Home improvement 2005

CapitalOne Banking and credit cards 2008

Nabisco
Nabisco
(Ritz and Oreo) Snack foods 2017

Hershey's (Reese's) Confections 2009

Google Cloud[disambiguation needed] Computing 2017

UPS Package delivery and logistics 2009

Nissan
Nissan
(Infiniti) Car & parts 2010

Wendy's Fast-food restaurant 2016

Pizza Hut Restaurant 2016

Intel Computing 2017

General Motors
General Motors
(Buick) Car and parts 2013

Marriott Hotels and hospitality 2017

Finances[edit] As a governing body for amateur sports the NCAA is classified as a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization.[57] As such, it is not required to pay most taxes on income that for-profit private and public corporations are subject to. While this business model has been challenged during court cases, the NCAA, has ultimately emerged victorious.[58] As of 2014 the NCAA reported that it had over $600 million in unrestricted net assets in its annual report.[59] During 2014 the NCAA also reported almost a billion dollars of revenue, contributing to a "budget surplus" - revenues in excess of disbursements for that year - of over $80 million.[59] Over $700 million of that revenue total was from licensing TV rights to its sporting events.[59] In addition, the NCAA also earns money through investment growth of its endowment fund. Established in 2004 with $45 million, the fund has grown to over $380 million in 2014.[60] NCAA expenditures[edit] What is often misunderstood in criticisms of the volume of revenue the NCAA generates, including calls for cash player payments, is that the vast majority of it is passed through to both its member schools and their student-athletes. According to the NCAA it receives most of its annual revenue from two sources: Division I Men's Basketball
Basketball
television and marketing rights, and championships ticket sales. "That money is distributed in more than a dozen ways – almost all of which directly support NCAA schools, conferences and nearly half a million student-athletes."[4] In 2017 total NCAA revenues were in excess of $1.06 billion dollars.[61] Division I basketball television and marketing rights generated $821.4 million, and "championships ticket sales" totaled $129.4 million. Other "smaller streams of revenue, such as membership dues" contributed an unspecified amount.[4] In return, some 95% of these revenues were expended on supporting NCAA schools and athletic programs, as well as operations of the NCAA itself (comprising some 12% of expenditures). Expenses by category[edit] The NCAA provided a breakdown of how those revenues were in turn spent, organizing pay-outs and expenses into some 14 basic categories. By far the largest went to Sports Scholarship and Sponsorship Funds, funding for sports and student scholarships under the Division I Basketball
Basketball
Performance Fund, expenses incurred in producing Division I Championshps (including team food, travel, and lodging), the Student Assistance Fund, and Student Athlete Services. Together these top five recipients accounted for 65% of all NCAA expenditures. General and Administrative expenses for running the NCAA day-to-day operations totaled approximately 4% of monies paid out, and other association-wide expenses, including legal services, communications, and business insurance totaled 8%.[4] The categories:

$210.8M Sport Sponsorship and Scholarship Funds

Distributed to Division I schools to help fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.

$160.5M Division I Basketball
Basketball
Performance Fund

Distributed to Division I conferences and independent schools based on their performance in the men’s basketball tournament over a six-year rolling period. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.

$96.7M Division I Championships

Provides college athletes the opportunity to compete for a championship and includes support for team travel, food and lodging.

$82.2M Student Assistance Fund

Distributed to Division I student-athletes for essential needs that arise during their time in college.

$71.8M Student-Athlete Services

Includes funding for catastrophic injury insurance, drug testing, student-athlete leadership programs, postgraduate scholarships and additional Association-wide championships support.

$50.3M Division I Equal Conference Fund

Distributed equally among Division I basketball-playing conferences that meet athletic and academic standards to play in the men's basketball tournament. The money is used to fund NCAA sports and provide scholarships for college athletes.

$46.7M Academic Enhancement Fund

Distributed to Division I schools to assist with academic programs and services.

$42.3M Division II Allocation

Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division II college athletes.

$39.6M Membership Support Services

Covers costs related to NCAA governance committees and the annual NCAA Convention.

$28.2M Division III Allocation

Funds championships, grants and other initiatives for Division III college athletes.

$9.5M Division I Conference Grants

Distributed to Division I conferences for programs that enhance officiating, compliance, minority opportunities and more.

$3.3M Educational Programs

Supports various educational services for members to help prepare student-athletes for life, including the Women Coaches Academy, the Emerging Leaders Seminars and the Pathway Program.

$74.3M Other Association-Wide Expenses

Includes support for Association-wide legal services, communications and business insurance.

$39.7M General and Administrative Expenses

Funds the day-to-day operations of the NCAA national office, including administrative and financial services, information technology and facilities management.

According to the NCAA, the 2017 fiscal year was the first in which its revenues topped $1.0 billion. The increase in revenue from 2016 came from hikes in television and marketing fees, plus greater monies generated from championship events and investment income.[61] An ESPN
ESPN
critique of the organization's 2017 financials indicated some $560.3 million of the total $956 million paid out went back to its roughly 1,100 member institutions in 24 sports in all three divisions, as well as $200 million for a one-time payment the NCAA made to schools to fund additional programs.[62] The Division I basketball tournament alone generated some $761 million, with another $60 million in 2016-17 marketing rights. With increases in rights fees it is estimated the basketball tournament will generate some $869 million for the 2018 championship.[62] Player compensation proposals[edit] The NCAA limits the amount of compensation that individual players can receive to scholarships equal to school tuition and related expenses. This rule has generated controversy, in light of the large amounts of revenues that schools earn from sports from TV contracts, ticket sales, and licensing and merchandise. Several commentators have discussed whether the NCAA limit on player compensation violates antitrust laws. There is a consensus among economists that the NCAA's compensation caps for men’s basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[63] Pro-rating payouts to Division I basketball players in proportion to the size of revenues its championship tournament generates relative to the NCAA's total annual revenues would be one possible approach, but will open the door to litigation by students and schools adversely affected by such a formula.

After losing the 1953 case The University
University
of Denver v. Nemeth, where it was found that a student and athlete was owed workers' compensation, it has been argued[by whom?] that the NCAA created the term "student-athlete." Andrew Zimbalist, in his book Unpaid Professionals (1999), claims the term was invented to prevent similar future litigation losses. In 2007, the case of White et al. v. NCAA was brought by former NCAA student-athletes Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris, and Chris Craig as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or Grant in Aid was a violation of federal antitrust laws. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA member schools would be free to offer any financial aid packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for receipt of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit."[64] In 2013, Jay Bilas
Jay Bilas
revealed that the NCAA was taking advantage of individual players through jersey sales in its store. Specifically, he typed the names of several top college football players, among them Tajh Boyd, Teddy Bridgewater, Jadeveon Clowney, Johnny Manziel, and AJ McCarron, into the search engine of the NCAA's official online store, and received the players' jerseys as primary search results.[65] The NCAA took down player jersey sales immediately following the incident.[66] Former NCAA President Walter Byers, in his book Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting College
College
Athletes, summarizes his criticisms of the NCAA's operation by stating that "Today the NCAA Presidents Commission is . . . firmly committed to the neo-plantation belief that the enormous proceeds from college games belong to the overseers (administrators) and supervisors (coaches). The plantation workers performing in the arena may only receive those benefits authorized by the overseers." The National Collegiate Players Association (NCPA) is a group started by former UCLA football players with the purpose of organizing student-athletes. Their goal is to change NCAA rules they view as unjust. Two of the rules they focus on include raising the scholarship amount and holding schools responsible for their players' sports-related medical injuries.[67] In March 2014, four players filed a class action antitrust lawsuit, alleging that the NCAA and its five dominant conferences are an "unlawful cartel". The suit charges that NCAA caps on the value of athletic scholarships have "illegally restricted the earning power of football and men's basketball players while making billions off their labor".[68] Tulane University
University
Sports Law Program Director Gabe Feldman called the suit "an instantly credible threat to the NCAA."[69] On September 30, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that limiting compensation to the cost of an athlete's attendance at a university was sufficient. It simultaneously ruled against a federal judge's proposal to pay student athletes $5,000 per year in deferred compensation.[58] Northwestern University's Division One Football team was the first NCAA team to unionize in 2014.[70] South Park, in the episode "Crack Baby Athletic Association" (s15e05), made oblique reference to the NCAA and compared its rules to slavery.[71]

Criticisms[edit]

This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material. (August 2011)

Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include, but are not limited to:

In 1998, the NCAA settled a $2.5 million lawsuit filed by former UNLV basketball coach, Jerry Tarkanian. Tarkanian sued the NCAA after he was forced to resign from UNLV, where he had been head coach from 1975 to 1992. The suit claimed the agency singled him out, penalizing the university's basketball program three times in that span. Tarkanian said "They can never, ever, make up for all the pain and agony they caused me. All I can say is that for 25 years they beat the hell out of me". The NCAA said that it regretted the long battle and it now has more understanding of Tarkanian's position and that the case has changed the enforcement process for the better. In the 1970s a Nevada judge stated that the NCAA's evidence against Tarkanian was "total 100 percent hearsay without a scrap of documentation in substantiation. The evidence shows that every fundamental principle pertaining to the plaintiff's due process rights was violated".[72] Don Yaeger
Don Yaeger
wrote "Public records suggest (Tarkanian's) case was the worst investigation ever conducted by the NCAA, rife with intimidation of athletes, bigotry ... slipshod work, creative note-taking and untruth by an investigator and vindictiveness by a disgruntled former coach".[73] In 1977, prompted partly by the Tarkanian case, the US Congress initiated an investigation into the NCAA.[72] It, combined with Tarkanian's case, forced the NCAA's internal files into the public record.[74] In 2013, the NCAA was criticized for denying Georgia offensive lineman Kolton Houston his eligibility for violating the drug policy. Houston tested positive for the anabolic steroid norandrolone that was given without his knowledge[by whom?] to recover from shoulder surgery during high school, but the banned substance remain trapped in the fatty tissues in his body. Despite a huge decline in the substance level to the point where Houston does not gain a significant advantage for using the drug and proof that he had not been reusing it, he remained ineligible. Houston would then undergo dangerous operational procedures to get under the threshold to regain his eligibility, which goes against the mission for the NCAA to help out students. The NCAA is being heavily criticized for maintaining their rigid standards and not making an exception for Houston.[75]

Individual awards[edit]

See also: Academic All-America, Best Female College
College
Athlete ESPY Award,[76] Best Male College
College
Athlete ESPY Award,[76] Senior CLASS Award, Honda Sports Award, College
College
baseball awards, and Sports Illustrated 2009 all-decade honors (college basketball & football) See footnote[77]

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards, including:

NCAA Award of Valor (not given every year); selection is based on the heroic action occurring during the academic year. NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honoring an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics. NCAA Inspiration Award (not given every year); selection is based on inspirational action. NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship. NCAA Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Award, the highest honor that the NCAA can confer on an individual. NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honoring a senior student-athlete who has distinguished herself throughout her collegiate career in academics, athletics, service, and leadership. Elite 90 Award, honoring the student-athlete with the highest cumulative GPA who has reached the competition at the finals site for each of the NCAA's 90 men's and women's championships (in Divisions I, II, and III, plus "National Collegiate" championships open to schools from more than one division). Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their college graduation. The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA's highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA. Today's Top 10 Award, honoring ten outstanding senior student-athletes. Walter Byers
Walter Byers
Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.

In previous years, the NCAA has presented the following awards at its NCAA Honors event: Astronaut Salute, Business Leader Salute, Congressional Medal of Honor Salute, Governor Salute, Olympians Salute, Performing Arts Salute, Presidents Cabinet Salute, Prominent National Media Salute, Special
Special
Recognition Awards, U.S. House of Representatives Salute, and U.S. Senate Salute.[78] Other collegiate athletic organizations[edit] The NCAA is the dominant, but not the only, collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such collegiate athletic organizations exist. In the United States[edit]

National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
(NAIA) National Junior College
College
Athletic Association (NJCAA) National Christian College
College
Athletic Association (NCCAA) United States
United States
Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA) Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) – (defunct) disbanded in 1982, after the NCAA began sponsoring championships in women's sports Northwest Athletic Conference (NWAC) – Community colleges in Washington and Oregon

Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents[edit]

Liga Mahasiswa (LIMA) British Universities & Colleges Sport U Sports
U Sports
– governing body for Canadian university sport Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association
Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association
(CCAA) National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines)
National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines)
(NCAA) and University
University
Athletic Association of the Philippines
Philippines
(UAAP) for Philippines
Philippines
(among other leagues)

International governing body[edit]

International University
University
Sports Federation (FISU) (Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire)

See also[edit]

Sports portal University
University
portal

College
College
athletics in the United States College
College
rivalries College
College
club sports in the United States NCAA Hall of Champions Higher education in the United States List of college athletic programs by U.S. state List of college sports team nicknames List of U.S. college mascots NCAA Native American mascot decision Homosexuality in modern sports

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

^ NCAA is usually pronounced "N C double A."

References

^ a b c d e "About the NCAA History". NCAA. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011. President Theodore Roosevelt summoned college athletics leaders to two White House conferences to encourage reforms. In early December 1905, Chancellor Henry M. MacCracken of New York University
University
convened a meeting of 13 institutions to initiate changes in football playing rules. At a subsequent meeting December 28 in New York City, 62 colleges and universities became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States
United States
(IAAUS). The IAAUS officially was constituted March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.  ^ "Simon Fraser University
University
approved to join NCAA D II". Tsn.ca. October 7, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ "Revenue". ncaa.org. NCAA.  ^ a b c d NCAA: Where does the money go? ^ "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008.  ^ Michael Whitmer (2015-06-06). "Harvard and Yale crews celebrate the 150th Boat Race". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-09-25.  ^ a b c d e f NCAA History between 1910 and 1980 Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ NCAA Refuses to Put TV Issue Up to U.S., The Pittsburgh Press, June 13, 1951, p 31. ^ Smith, R. A. (2001). Play-by-play: Radio, television, and big-time college sport. ^ " National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) American organization". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ Grundy, Pamela; Shackelford, Susan (2005). Shattering the Glass. The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-822-5.  ^ U.S. Supreme Court (1984). "NCAA v. BOARD OF REGENTS OF UNIV. OF OKLA., 468 U.S. 85 (1984) 468 U.S. 85 NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION v. BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA ET AL. CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE TENTH CIRCUIT No. 83-271." Findlaw.com. Retrieved September 6, 2010.  ^ Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (February 23, 1999). "NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSN. v. SMITH". Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved July 13, 2013.  ^ Benjamin Bendrich: Studentischer Spitzensport zwischen Resignation, Mythos und Aufbruch: eine Studie zur dualen Karriere in Deutschland und den USA.Göttingen: Optimus, 2015. ISBN 3-86376-164-2 ^ O'Toole, Thomas (September 1, 2009). "NCAA welcomes Simon Fraser, first Canadian member school". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2011.  ^ Lemire, Joe (August 5, 2009). "Canadian school's admittance to NCAA may change rules up north". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.  ^ "Growth of NCAA Apparent; But Optimism Stll Abounds" (PDF). NCAA News. June 15, 1973. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ "NCAA will move in 1989 to Overland Park, Kansas
Overland Park, Kansas
- NCAA News - May 4, 1988" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2014.  ^ a b c "Final Four: Indianapolis
Indianapolis
competes with Dallas, Denver and Kansas City for the NCAA's new headquarters". Indiana Business Magazine. Allbusiness.com. March 1, 1997. Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ "NCAA headquarters in Indianapolis
Indianapolis
to open July 26". NCAA. July 15, 1999. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014.  ^ "NCAA Elects Mark Emmert as New President", April 29, 2010. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". NCAA.org. September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Lapointe, Joe (October 11, 2002). "The N.C.A.A. Selects Brand As Its Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ Wieberg, Steve (September 16, 2009). "NCAA president Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer". USA Today. Retrieved September 16, 2009.  ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand's focus Archived September 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., NCAA News, September 22, 2009 ^ a b Hishinuma and Fremstad, 589–591[vague] ^ 2009–2010 Guide for the College-Bound Athletes ^ Rittenberg, Adam (May 8, 2017). "Collegiate Commissioners Association approves early signing period for football". ESPN.com. Retrieved May 9, 2017.  ^ "Football recruiting now a 24/7/365 event". ESPN. October 22, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ a b Elkin, Ali (August 17, 2011). "NCAA's stricter academic rules: What does it mean for your team?". This Just In (blog). CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2011.  ^ "NCAA DII, DIII membership approves Sand Volleyball
Volleyball
as 90th championship" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. January 17, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "NCAA's newest championship will be called beach volleyball" (Press release). National Collegiate Athletic Association. June 30, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.  ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2017, https://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/2016-17NCAA-0472_ParticRatesReport-FINAL_20171120.pdf ^ "Emerging Sports for Women". www.ncaa.org. NCAA. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2011.  ^ "Equestrian recommended for removal from emerging sports list". NCAA. October 27, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2015.  ^ a b c NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2011, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2012.pdf ^ Karen Owoc, Title IX
Title IX
and Its Effect on Men's Collegiate Athletics, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report • 2012-13[permanent dead link] ^ a b c d e NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2014.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ a b NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, October 2014, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/PR2014.pdf ^ List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
championships ^ NCAA Broadcast Information - NCAA.com Archived March 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "EA Sports Didn't Need the NCAA's Logo, and Maybe It Didn't Want It". Kotaku. Retrieved July 22, 2013.  ^ Goldfarb, Andrew (July 17, 2013). "NCAA Will Not Renew WA Sports Contract". IGN. Retrieved July 17, 2013.  ^ a b Griffin, Pat, and Hudson Taylor. “Champions of Respect: Inclusion of LGBT Student-Athletes and Staff in NCAA Programs,” April 2010. ^ Branch, John. “N.C.A.A. Advises on Sexual Orientation Issues.” The Quad: The New York Times College
College
Sports Blog, March 4, 2013. https://thequad.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/04/n-c-a-a-offers-guidance-on-l-g-b-t-matters/. ^ a b Hendrickson, Brian. “Board of Governors Approves Anti-Discrimination Process for Championships Bids.” Text. NCAA.org - The Official Site of the NCAA, April 27, 2016. ^ Reports, Tribune wire. “NCAA Weighs Response to Indiana’s Religious Freedom Law.” Chicagotribune.com, March 26, 2015. http://www.chicagotribune.com/chi-ncaa-tournament-indiana-religious-freedom-spt-20150326-story.html. ^ Lowery, Wesley. “Gov. Pence Signs Revised Indiana Religious Freedom Bill into Law.” Washington Post, April 2, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2015/04/02/gov-pence-signs-revised-indiana-religious-freedom-bill-into-law/. ^ "Indiana Gov. Pence defends religious objections law: 'This bill is not about discrimination'". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Retrieved March 29, 2015. ^ a b NCAA to Relocate Championships from North Carolina for 2016-17.” NCAA.com, September 12, 2016. https://www.ncaa.com/news/ncaa/article/2016-09-12/ncaa-relocate-championships-north-carolina-2016-17. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (April 5, 2016). "North Carolina transgender law: Is it discriminatory?". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2016. ^ Glier, Ray (2017-03-17). "N.C.A.A. Leader Mark Emmert Says Discrimination Policy Is Clear". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-04.  ^ "NCAA News Release; Baylor University, Former Basketball
Basketball
Coaches Penalized for Multiple Violations of NCAA Rules". Ncaa.org. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2010.  ^ "NCAA Corporate Champions and Corporate Partners". Ncaa.org. December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2009.  ^ root (2010-05-28). "Not For Profit Definition Investopedia". Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ a b Tracy, Marc; Strauss, Ben. "Court Strikes Down Payments to College
College
Athletes". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ a b c "NCAA has net assets of $627 million, say records". Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ Eichelberger, Curtis; Condon, Christopher. "NCAA's Investments Hit $527 Million as Gains Reach 11%". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ a b Sports Illustrated: NCAA Reports $1.1 Billion in Revenues ^ a b NCAA tops $1 billion in revenue ^ "The NCAA". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 2018-04-03.  ^ "White v NCAA". NCAA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.  ^ Parrish, Gary (August 6, 2013). "ESPN's Jay Bilas
Jay Bilas
spent Tuesday afternoon embarrassing the NCAA". College
College
Basketball
Basketball
Insider. CBSSports.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ Schlabach, Mark (August 9, 2013). "NCAA puts end to jersey sales". ESPN.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ "NCPA now homepage". Retrieved September 6, 2010.  ^ David Porter (March 17, 2014), Lawsuit seeks to end NCAA's 'unlawful cartel', Associated press  ^ Scott Soshnick (Mar 17, 2014), NCAA, Top Conferences Called a Cartel in Player Pay Suit, Bloomberg  ^ Jamieson, Dave (2014-03-26). "Northwestern Football Players Win First Round In Union Battle". Huff Post. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ " Crack Baby Athletic Association (Season 15, Episode 5) - Full Episode Player". South Park Studios. Retrieved January 3, 2013.  ^ a b Gordon S. White, Investigator For N.C.A.A. Under Fire New York Times, Nov. 8 1977. [1] ^ Quoted in Michael J. Goodman, Throwing in the Towel, LA Times, February 16, 1992. [2] ^ Michael J. Goodman, Throwing in the Towel, LA Times, February 16, 1992. [3] ^ Georgia lineman Kolton Houston is still waiting to play after 2010 PED mistake. ESPN.com
ESPN.com
(May 31, 2013). Retrieved on July 17, 2013. ^ a b The Best Female and Best Male College
College
Basketball
Basketball
and Best College
College
Football Player ESPY Awards – awarded from 1993 to 2001 – were absorbed in 2002 by the Best Female and Best Male College
College
Athlete ESPY Awards. ^ "NCAA Awards". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2011.  ^ "NCAA Honors Celebration". NCAA official website. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

Carter, W. Burlette (2006). "The Age of Innocence: The First 25 Years of the NCAA, 1906-1931" (PDF). Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology. 8 (2): 211–91.  Carter, W. Burlette (2000). "Student Athlete Welfare in a Restructured NCAA" (PDF). Virginia Journal of Sports and the Law. 8 (1): 1–103.  Carter, W. Burlette (2002). "Sounding the Death Knell for In Loco Parentis" (PDF). Indiana Law Review. 35 (3): 851–923. 

External links[edit]

Official website NCAA administrative website

v t e

National Collegiate Athletic Association

NCAA

Awards Hall of Champions Conferences

Division I

Institutions Athletic directors Baseball

Championship CWS

Basketball

Men Women

Cross Country

Men Women

Field hockey

Championship

Football

FBS FCS

Golf

Men Women

Ice hockey

Men Women

Lacrosse

Men Women

Rowing

Women

Soccer

Men Women

Softball

Championship WCWS

Swimming & Diving

Men Women

Tennis

Men Women

Track and Field

Men's indoor and outdoor Women's indoor and outdoor

Volleyball

Men Women

Wrestling

Championship

Division II

Institutions Baseball

Championship

Basketball

Men Women

Cross Country

Men Women

Field hockey

Championship

Football

Championship

Golf

Men Women

Gymnastics

Men Women

Ice hockey

Men

Lacrosse

Men Women

Rowing

Women

Soccer

Men Women

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Swimming & Diving

Men Women

Tennis

Men Women

Track and Field

Men's indoor and outdoor Women's indoor and outdoor

Volleyball

Women

Wrestling

Championship

Division III

Institutions Baseball

Championship

Basketball

Men Women

Cross Country

Men Women

Field hockey

Championship

Football

Championship

Golf

Men Women

Ice hockey

Men Women

Lacrosse

Men Women

Rowing

Women

Soccer

Men Women

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Swimming & Diving

Men Women

Tennis

Men Women

Track and Field

Men's indoor and outdoor Women's indoor and outdoor

Volleyball

Men Women

Wrestling

Championship

Single-division sports and championships

Beach volleyball

Women

Bowling

Women

Boxing

Championship

Fencing

Championships

Gymnastics

Men Women

Rifle

Championship

Skiing

Championships

Trampoline

Championship

Water polo

Men Women

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143411501 LCCN: n79058449 ISNI: 0000 0000 9700

.