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Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus.[1] This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis) and leprosy ( Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
leprae) in humans.[2] The Greek prefix myco- means "fungus," alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mold-like fashion on the surface of cultures.[3] It is acid fast and cannot be stained by the gram stain procedure.

Contents

1 Microbiologic characteristics

1.1 Pigmentation 1.2 Staining characteristics

2 Ecology 3 Pathogenicity

3.1 Medical classification

4 Mycosides 5 Genomics 6 Evolution 7 Species

7.1 Slowly growing

7.1.1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex 7.1.2 Mycobacterium avium complex 7.1.3 Mycobacterium gordonae clade 7.1.4 Mycobacterium kansasii
Mycobacterium kansasii
clade 7.1.5 Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
nonchromogenicum/terrae clade 7.1.6 Mycolactone-producing mycobacteria 7.1.7 Mycobacterium simiae clade 7.1.8 Ungrouped

7.2 Intermediate growth rate 7.3 Rapidly growing

7.3.1 Mycobacterium chelonae
Mycobacterium chelonae
clade 7.3.2 Mycobacterium fortuitum
Mycobacterium fortuitum
clade

7.4 Mycobacterium mucogenicum clade

7.4.1 Mycobacterium parafortuitum clade 7.4.2 Mycobacterium vaccae
Mycobacterium vaccae
clade 7.4.3 CF 7.4.4 Ungrouped

7.5 Ungrouped 7.6 Proposed division of the genus

8 Mycobacteriophage 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Microbiologic characteristics[edit]

Mycobacterial cell wall: 1-outer lipids, 2-mycolic acid, 3-polysaccharides (arabinogalactan), 4-peptidoglycan, 5-plasma membrane, 6-lipoarabinomannan (LAM), 7-phosphatidylinositol mannoside, 8-cell wall skeleton

Mycobacteria are aerobic and nonmotile bacteria (except for the species Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
marinum, which has been shown to be motile within macrophages) that are characteristically acid fast.[2] Mycobacteria have an outer membrane.[4] They possess capsules, and most do not form endospores. Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum
and perhaps M. bovis have been shown to sporulate;[5] however, this has been contested by further research.[6] The distinguishing characteristic of all Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
species is that the cell wall is thicker than in many other bacteria, being hydrophobic, waxy, and rich in mycolic acids/mycolates. The cell wall consists of the hydrophobic mycolate layer and a peptidoglycan layer held together by a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan. The cell wall makes a substantial contribution to the hardiness of this genus. The biosynthetic pathways of cell wall components are potential targets for new drugs for tuberculosis.[7] Many Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
species adapt readily to growth on very simple substrates, using ammonia or amino acids as nitrogen sources and glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of mineral salts. Optimum growth temperatures vary widely according to the species and range from 25 °C to over 50 °C. Most Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
species, including most clinically relevant species, can be cultured in blood agar.[8] However, some species grow very slowly due to extremely long reproductive cycles — M. leprae, may take more than 20 days to proceed through one division cycle (for comparison, some E. coli
E. coli
strains take only 20 minutes), making laboratory culture a slow process.[2] In addition, the availability of genetic manipulation techniques still lags far behind that of other bacterial species.[9] A natural division occurs between slowly– and rapidly–growing species. Mycobacteria that form colonies clearly visible to the naked eye within seven days on subculture are termed rapid growers, while those requiring longer periods are termed slow growers. Mycobacteria cells are straight or slightly curved rods between 0.2 and 0.6 µm wide and between 1.0 and 10 µm long. Pigmentation[edit] Some mycobacteria produce carotenoid pigments without light. Others require photoactivation for pigment production.

Photochromogens (Group I) Produce nonpigmented colonies when grown in the dark and pigmented colonies only after exposure to light and reincubation.

Ex: M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. simiae.

Scotochromogens (Group II) Produce deep yellow to orange colonies when grown in the presence of either the light or the dark.

Ex: M. scrofulaceum, M. gordonae, M. xenopi, M. szulgai.

Non-chromogens (Groups III & IV) Nonpigmented in the light and dark or have only a pale yellow, buff or tan pigment that does not intensify after light exposure.

Ex: M. tuberculosis, M. avium-intra-cellulare, M. bovis, M. ulcerans Ex: M. fortuitum, M. chelonae

Staining characteristics[edit] Mycobacteria are classical acid-fast organisms.[10] Stains used in evaluation of tissue specimens or microbiological specimens include Fite's stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and Kinyoun stain. Mycobacteria appear phenotypically most closely related to members of Nocardia, Rhodococcus
Rhodococcus
and Corynebacterium. Ecology[edit] Mycobacteria are widespread organisms, typically living in water (including tap water treated with chlorine) and food sources. Some, however, including the tuberculosis and the leprosy organisms, appear to be obligate parasites and are not found as free-living members of the genus. Pathogenicity[edit] Mycobacteria can colonize their hosts without the hosts showing any adverse signs. For example, billions of people around the world have asymptomatic infections of M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat. The organisms are hardy due to their cell wall, which is neither truly Gram negative nor positive. In addition, they are naturally resistant to a number of antibiotics that disrupt cell-wall biosynthesis, such as penicillin. Due to their unique cell wall, they can survive long exposure to acids, alkalis, detergents, oxidative bursts, lysis by complement, and many antibiotics. Most mycobacteria are susceptible to the antibiotics clarithromycin and rifamycin, but antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged. As with other bacterial pathogens, M. tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis
produce a number of surface and secreted proteins that contribute to its virulence. However, the mechanism by which these proteins contribute to virulence remains unknown.[11] Medical classification[edit] Mycobacteria can be classified into several major groups for purpose of diagnosis and treatment: M. tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis
complex, which can cause tuberculosis: M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti; M. leprae, which causes Hansen's disease or leprosy; Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are all the other mycobacteria, which can cause pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis, lymphadenitis, skin disease, or disseminated disease. Mycosides[edit] Mycosides are phenolic alcohols (such as phenolphthiocerol) that were shown to be components of Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
glycolipids that are termed glycosides of phenolphthiocerol dimycocerosate.[12] There are 18 and 20 carbon atoms in mycosides A, and B, respectively.[13] Genomics[edit]

Comparison of protein orthology in M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M. smegmatis, three major model systems in Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
research[14]

Comparative analyses of mycobacterial genomes have identified several conserved indels and signature proteins that are uniquely found in all sequenced species from the genus Mycobacterium.[15][16] Additionally, 14 proteins are found only in the species from the genera Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
and Nocardia, suggesting that these two genera are closely related.[16] The genomes of some mycobacteria are quite large when compared to other bacteria. For instance, the genome of M. vulneris encodes 6,653 proteins, which is larger than that of small eukaryotes such as yeast (which encodes only ~6000 proteins).[17] Evolution[edit] M. ulcerans evolved from M. marinum.[18] Species[edit]

Phylogenetic Position of the Tubercle Bacilli
Bacilli
within the Genus Mycobacterium. The blue triangle corresponds to tubercle bacilli sequences that are identical or differing by a single nucleotide. The sequences of the genus Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
that matched most closely to those of M. tuberculosis were retrieved from the BIBI database (http://pbil.univ-lyon.fr/bibi/) and aligned with those obtained for 17 smooth and MTBC strains. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree is based on 1,325 aligned nucleotide positions of the 16S rRNA gene. The scale gives the pairwise distances after Jukes-Cantor correction. Bootstrap support values higher than 90% are indicated at the nodes.

Phenotypic tests can be used to identify and distinguish different Mycobacteria species and strains. In older systems, mycobacteria are grouped based upon their appearance and rate of growth. However, these are symplesiomorphies, and more recent classification is based upon cladistics. Over 100 species are currently recognised. O'Neill and coworkers recently presented a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment of core genomes of 57 strains of bacteria, including all available mycobacteria.[19] Slowly growing[edit] Runyon's group I, II and III Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex[edit] Also see main article about Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex (MTBC) members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Species
Species
in this complex include:

M. africanum M. bovis M. bovis BCG M. canetti M. caprae M. microti M. mungi M. orygis M. pinnipedii M. suricattae M. tuberculosis, the major cause of human tuberculosis

Mycobacterium avium complex[edit]

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of species that, in a disseminated infection but not lung infection, used to be a significant cause of death in AIDS
AIDS
patients. The species M. indicus pranii appears to be basal in this complex.[20] Species
Species
in this complex include:

M. avium M. avium paratuberculosis, which has been implicated in Crohn's disease in humans and is the causative agent of Johne's disease
Johne's disease
in cattle and sheep M. avium silvaticum M. avium "hominissuis" M. colombiense M. indicus pranii M. intacellulare

Mycobacterium gordonae clade[edit]

M. asiaticum M. gordonae

Mycobacterium kansasii
Mycobacterium kansasii
clade[edit]

M. gastri M. kansasii

Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
nonchromogenicum/terrae clade[edit]

M. hiberniae M. icosiumassiliensis M. nonchromogenicum M. terrae M. triviale

Mycolactone-producing mycobacteria[edit]

M. ulcerans, which causes the "Buruli", or "Bairnsdale" ulcer M. pseudoshottsii M. shottsii

Mycobacterium simiae clade[edit]

M. triplex M. genavense M. florentinum M. lentiflavum M. palustre M. kubicae M. parascrofulaceum M. heidelbergense M. interjectum M. simiae

Ungrouped[edit]

M. arabiense M. aromaticivorans M. aquaticum M. bacteremicum M. bohemicum M. botniense M. branderi M. celatum M. chimaera M. conspicuum M. cookii M. doricum M. farcinogenes M. haemophilum M. heckeshornense M. intracellulare M. lacus M. leprae, which causes leprosy M. lepraemurium M. lepromatosis, another (less significant) cause of leprosy, described in 2008 M. liflandii M. llatzerense M. malmoense M. marinum, causes a rare disease called Aquarium granuloma. M. neoaurum M. monacense M. montefiorense M. murale M. nebraskense M. saskatchewanense M. sediminis M. scrofulaceum M. shimoidei M. szulgai Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
talmoniae M. tusciae M. xenopi M. yongonense

Intermediate growth rate[edit]

M. intermedium

Rapidly growing[edit] Mycobacterium chelonae
Mycobacterium chelonae
clade[edit]

M. abscessus M. bolletii M. chelonae M. immunogenum M. stephanolepidis

Mycobacterium fortuitum
Mycobacterium fortuitum
clade[edit]

M. boenickei M. brisbanense M. cosmeticum M. fortuitum M. fortuitum subsp. acetamidolyticum M. houstonense M. mageritense M. neworleansense M. peregrinum M. porcinum M. senegalense M. septicum

Mycobacterium mucogenicum clade[edit]

Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
aubagnese M. mucogenicum Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
phocaicum

Mycobacterium parafortuitum clade[edit]

M. austroafricanum M. diernhoferi M. frederiksbergense M. hodleri M. neoaurum M. parafortuitum

Mycobacterium vaccae
Mycobacterium vaccae
clade[edit]

M. aurum M. vaccae

CF[edit]

M. chitae M. fallax

Ungrouped[edit]

M. agri M. aichiense M. alvei M. arupense M. barrassiae M. brumae M. canariasense M. chubuense M. conceptionense M. confluentis M. duvalii M. elephantis M. flavescens M. gadium M. gilvum M. hassiacum M. holsaticum M. iranicum M. komossense M. madagascariense M. massiliense M. massilipolynesiensis M. moriokaense M. obuense M. phlei M. psychrotolerans M. pulveris M. pyrenivorans M. smegmatis

M. goodii M. wolinskyi

M. sphagni M. thermoresistibile M. vanbaalenii

Ungrouped[edit]

M. arosiense M. aubagnense M. chlorophenolicum M. fluoroanthenivorans M. kumamotonense M. novocastrense M. parmense M. poriferae M. rhodesiae M. seoulense M. tokaiense

Proposed division of the genus[edit] Gupta et al have, based on the analysis of 150 species in the genus, proposed dividing Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
into five genera.[21] The proposed new genera are:

Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
based on the Tuberculosis-Simiae clade Mycolicibacterium based on the Fortuitum-Vaccae clade Mycolicibacter based on the Terrae clade Mycolicibacillus based on the Triviale clade Mycobacteroides based on the Abscessus-Chelonae clade

Wider acceptance of this proposal is awaited. Mycobacteriophage[edit] Mycobacteria can be infected by Mycobacteriophage, bacterial viruses that may be used in the future to treat tuberculosis and related diseases by phage therapy. The procedure may not go into practice in the case of Mtb for some time, as bacteriophage particles cannot penetrate into the tuberculosis bacilli, or clumps. References[edit]

^ King HC, Khera-Butler T, James P, Oakley BB, Erenso G, Aseffa A, Knight R, Wellington EM, Courtenay O (2017) Environmental reservoirs of pathogenic mycobacteria across the Ethiopian biogeographical landscape. PLoS One 12(3):e0173811. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173811 ^ a b c Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ James H. Kerr and Terry L. Barrett, "Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases", Military Dermatology Textbook, p. 401. ^ Niederweis M, Danilchanka O, Huff J, Hoffmann C, Engelhardt H (2010). "Mycobacterial outer membranes: in search of proteins". Trends in Microbiology. 18 (3): 109–16. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.12.005. PMC 2931330 . PMID 20060722.  ^ Ghosh, Jaydip; Larsson, Pontus; Singh, Bhupender; Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Islam, Nurul M; Nath Sarkar, Sailendra; Dasgupta, Santanu; Kirsebom, Leif A (2009). "Sporulation in mycobacteria". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (26): 10781–10786. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904104106. PMC 2705590 . PMID 19541637.  ^ Traag, BA; Driks, A; Stragier, P; Bitter, W; Broussard, G; Hatfull, G; Chu, F; Adams, KN; Ramakrishnan, L; Losick, R (Jan 2010). "Do mycobacteria produce endospores?". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107 (2): 878–81. doi:10.1073/pnas.0911299107. PMC 2818926 . PMID 20080769.  ^ Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5.  ^ Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Edouard, Sophie; Pagnier, Isabelle; Mediannikov, Oleg; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier (2015). "Current and Past Strategies for Bacterial Culture in Clinical Microbiology". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 28 (1): 208–36. doi:10.1128/CMR.00110-14. PMC 4284306 . PMID 25567228.  ^ Parish T, Brown A (editors) (2009). Mycobacterium: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-40-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ McMurray DN (1996). "Mycobacteria and Nocardia". In Baron S et al. (eds.). Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ McCann, Jessica R.; Kurtz, Sherry; Braunstein, Miriam (2009). "Secreted and Exported Proteins Important to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis". In Wooldridge, Karl. Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press. pp. 265–297. ISBN 9781904455424.  ^ Smith, D.W., et al., Nature 1960, 186, 887 ^ fatty alcohols and aldehydes ^ Akinola R. et al. 2013 A Systems Level Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae
and Mycobacterium smegmatis
Mycobacterium smegmatis
Based on Functional Interaction. J Bacteriol Parasitol 2013, 4:4 ^ Gao, B.; Paramanathan, R.; Gupta, R. S. (2006). "Signature proteins that are distinctive characteristics of Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
and their subgroups". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 90 (1): 69–91. doi:10.1007/s10482-006-9061-2. PMID 16670965.  ^ a b Gao, B.; Gupta, R. S. (2012). "Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 76 (1): 66–112. doi:10.1128/MMBR.05011-11. PMC 3294427 . PMID 22390973.  ^ Croce, Olivier; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel (2014-05-08). "Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
vulneris DSM 45247T". Genome Announcements. 2 (3). doi:10.1128/genomeA.00370-14. ISSN 2169-8287. PMC 4014686 . PMID 24812218.  ^ Vandelannoote K, Meehan CJ, Eddyani M, Affolabi D, Phanzu DM, Eyangoh S, Jordaens K, Portaels F, Mangas K, Seemann T, Marsollier L, Marion E, Chauty A, Landier J, Fontanet A, Leirs H, Stinear TP, de Jong BC1 (2017) Multiple Introductions and Recent Spread of the Emerging Human Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans
Mycobacterium ulcerans
across Africa. Genome Biol Evol 9(3):414-426 ^ O'Neill, MB; Mortimer, TD; Pepperell, CS (2015). "Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
across Evolutionary Scales". PLoS Pathog. 11 (11): e1005257. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005257.  ^ Rahman, SA; Singh, Y; Kohli, S; Ahmad, J; Ehtesham, NZ; Tyagi, AK; Hasnain, SE (2014). "Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic Mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis". MBio. 5 (6): e02020–14. doi:10.1128/mBio.02020-14.  ^ Gupta RS, Lo B, Son J (2018) Phylogenomics and comparative genomic studies robustly support division of the genus Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
into an emended genus Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
and four novel genera. Front Microbiol. 9:67. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00067

Further reading[edit]

Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Aug 1997 156(2) Part 2 Supplement RIDOM: Ribosomal Differentiation of Medical Microorganisms J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature - Genus
Genus
Mycobacterium

External links[edit]

Tuberculist: Genome annotation database MTB Sysborg: Genome annotation database from the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology TB Structural Genomics Consortium: Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins MycDB: Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
database TBDB: Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
database Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Frequently Asked Questions about NTM Lung Disease PRASITE: Identification of mycobacteria

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Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

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Gram-positive
Gram-positive
bacterial infection: Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
(primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Actinomycineae

Actinomycetaceae

Actinomyces israelii

Actinomycosis Cutaneous actinomycosis

Tropheryma whipplei

Whipple's disease

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
infection

Actinomyces gerencseriae

Propionibacteriaceae

Propionibacterium acnes

Corynebacterineae

Mycobacteriaceae

M. tuberculosis/ M. bovis

Tuberculosis: Ghon focus/Ghon's complex Pott disease brain

Meningitis Rich focus

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

cutaneous

Scrofuloderma Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Prosector's wart Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
cutis orificialis Tuberculous cellulitis Tuberculous gumma

Lichen scrofulosorum Tuberculid

Papulonecrotic tuberculid

Primary inoculation tuberculosis Miliary Tuberculous pericarditis Urogenital tuberculosis Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

M. leprae

Leprosy: Tuberculoid leprosy Borderline tuberculoid leprosy Borderline leprosy Borderline lepromatous leprosy Lepromatous leprosy Histoid leprosy

Nontuberculous

R1:

M. kansasii M. marinum

Aquarium granuloma

R2:

M. gordonae

R3:

M. avium complex/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
avium/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
intracellulare/MAP

MAI infection

M. ulcerans

Buruli ulcer

M. haemophilum

R4/RG:

M. fortuitum M. chelonae M. abscessus

Nocardiaceae

Nocardia
Nocardia
asteroides/ Nocardia
Nocardia
brasiliensis

Nocardiosis

Rhodococcus
Rhodococcus
equi

Corynebacteriaceae

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
minutissimum

Erythrasma

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
jeikeium

Group JK corynebacterium sepsis

Bifidobacteriaceae

Gardnerella vaginalis

v t e

Mycobacteria (including Nontuberculous)

Slowly growing (R1P=photochromogenic; R2S=scotochromogenic; R3N=nonchromogenic)

Long helix 18 (TKHGC)

M. tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis
group

MTC M. tuberculosis M. bovis M. africanum M. microti M. canetti M. caprae M. pinnipedii

MPM R1P

M. marinum

R2S

M. pseudoshottsii

R3N

M. ulcerans M. shottsii M. ulcerans liflandii

Leprosy M. leprae M. lepraemurium M. lepromatosis

R3N other

M. lacus M. kumamotonense

K/H groups

M. kansasii group

MAC R3N

M. intracellulare/M. avium M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis M. chimaera

R2S

M. bohemicum

GK R1P

M. kansasii

R3N

M. gastri

R2S

M. nebraskense M. seoulense

R3N

M. scrofulaceum

M. haemophilum group

M. haemophilum R2S

M. szulgai

R3N

M. malmoense

M. gordonae group

R1P

M. asiaticum

R2S

M. gordonae

M. conspicuum group

R2S

M. conspicuum

Long helix 18 (other)

M. xenopi group

M. botniense M. shimoidei/M. xenopi M. heckeshornense M. hassiacum

M. celatum group

R2S

M. cookii

R3N

M. branderi M. celatum

M. hiberniae group

M. terrae M. hiberniae M. nonchromogenicum/M. arupense

Short helix 18

M. simiae clade

M. simiae group R3N

M. genavense/M. triplex M. florentinum/M. montefiorense M. heidelbergense/M. parmense M. simiae

R2S

M. lentiflavum

M. kubicae group R3N

M. parascrofulaceum

R2S

M. palustre/M. kubicae

M. interjectum group M. interjectum M. saskatchewanense

M. intermedium group

M. intermedium

Ungrouped

M. triviale M. doricum M. tusciae M. arosiense

Rapidly growing/ Runyon IV

M. neoaurum group

M. mageritense M. wolinskyi

M. canariasense M. cosmeticum M. diernhoferi M. hodleri M. frederiksbergense M. neoaurum

M. brisbanense

M. fluoroanthenivorans

F/T groups

M. fortuitum group

M. chitae/M. fallax/M. gadium

M. rhodesiae M. houstonense

M. neworleansense/M. boenickei/M. fortuitum/M. porcinum/M. senegalense

M. septicum/M. peregrinum/M. alvei

M. farcinogenes

M. vaccae group

M. obuense/M. gilvum/M. parafortuitum

M. chlorophenolicum/M. chubuense M. psychrotolerans/M. sphagni M. aubagnense/M. mucogenicum/M. phocaicum

AV

M. aurum M. vanbaalenii M. vaccae

M. austroafricanum M. pyrenivorans

M. poriferae

M. smegmatis
M. smegmatis
group

M. agri/M. thermoresistibile M. duvalii/M. flavescens M. monacense M. pulveris/M. conceptionense/M. moriokaense

M. novocastrense/M. brumae/M. phlei

M. confluentis/M. madagascariense

M. smegmatis/M. goodii

M. chelonae group

M. komossense M. murale/M. tokaiense M. aichiense M. chelonae M. abscessus M. immunogenum M. massiliense M. bolletii

M. elephantis group

M. elephantis M. holsaticum

Biology portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q194309 EoL: 83101 EPPO: 1MYCBG GBIF: 3225061 ITIS: 189415 NCBI: 1763 W

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