* 1 National music * 2 Traditional music
* 3 Popular music after independence
* 3.1 1950s and 1960s * 3.2 1970s and 1980s * 3.3 1990s to the present
* 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links
During the colonial ages
The national anthem of Senegal, "Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons" ("Pluck all your koras , strike the balafons "), was adopted in 1960. Its lyrics, by president Senghor, refer to the Malian music tradition, while its music was composed by Herbert Pepper.
Ethnically the population of
Mbalax (meaning "rhythm" in Wolof),derives its from accompanying
rhythms used in sabar music of the
The Njuup was also the progenitor of Tassu, used when chanting ancient religious verses. The griots of Senegambia still use it at marriages, naming ceremonies or when singing the praises of patrons. Most Senegalese and Gambian artists use it in their songs. Each motif has a purpose and is used for different occasions. Individual motifs may represent the history and genealogy of a particular family and are used during weddings, naming ceremonies, funerals etc.
POPULAR MUSIC AFTER INDEPENDENCE
1950S AND 1960S
Senegalese popular music can be traced back to the 1960s, when
nightclubs hosted dance bands (orchestres ) that played Western music.
Ibra Kasse 's
Star Band was the most famous orchestre. After beginning
by playing American, Cuban and French songs,
Star Band gradually added
more indigenous elements, including the talking tama drum and Wolof-
or Mandinka-language lyrics.
Star Band disintegrated into numerous
groups, with Pape Seck 's Number One du
The south of Senegal, called Casamance , has a strong Mandinka minority, and began producing masters of the kora in the late 1950s. The band Touré Kunda was the most popular group to arise from this scene, and they soon began playing large concerts across the world.
1970S AND 1980S
In 1977, the entire rhythm section and many other performers in the Star Band left to form Étoile de Dakar , who quickly eclipsed their compatriots, and launched the careers of El Hadji Faye and Youssou N\'Dour . Faye and N'Dour were Senegal's first pop stars, but the stress of fame soon drove the band apart. Faye and guitarist Badou N\'diaye formed Étoile 2000 , releasing a hit with "Boubou N'Gary", but soon disappearing from the pop scene.
N'Dour, however, went on to form Super Étoile de Dakar , and his career continued. He was soon by far the most popular performer in the country, and perhaps in all of West Africa. He introduced more traditional elements to his Senegalized Cuban music, including traditional rapping (tassou ), njuup , bakou music (a kind of trilling that accompanies Serer wrestling ) and instruments like the sabar .
While N'Dour Africanized Cuban music, another influential band, Xalam
, was doing the same with American funk and jazz . They formed in
1970, led then by drummer Prosper Niang , but their controversial
lyrics and unfamiliar jazz sound led to a lack of popularity, and the
group moved to Paris in 1973. There, they added Jean-Philippe Rykiel
on keyboards. Xalam toured with groups such as
The new century has seen the rise of Viviane Ndour, who got her first
break as a backing vocalist to Youssou Ndour with Super Etoile. She is
well known in
Acoustic folk music has also left its mark on Senegal's music culture. Artists that have contributed to this genre include TAMA from Rufisque, Pape Armand Boye , les Freres Guisse, Pape et Cheikh, and Cheikh Lo.
The biggest trend in 1990s Senegal, however, was hip hop .
Traditional culture includes rapping traditions, such as the formal
tassou , performed by women of the Laobe woodworking class the morning
after marriages. Modern Senegalese hip hop is mostly in Wolof,
alongside some English and French.
Positive Black Soul is the
best-known group in the country,
Daara j , Gokh-Bi System and Wageble
too. Senegalese-French rapper
* ^ https://USA CIA World Fact Book
* ^ Patricia Tang. Masters of the Sabar: Wolof griot percussionists
of Senegal, p-p32, 34. Temple University Press, 2007. ISBN
* ^ (in French) Ferloo
* ^ Mangin, Timothy R. "Notes on
* Hudson, Mark, Jenny Cathcart and Lucy Duran. "Senegambian Stars Are Here to Stay". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 617–633. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0