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Muscat
Muscat
(Arabic: مسقط‎, Masqaṭ pronounced [ˈmasqatˤ]) is the capital and largest metropolitan city of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. Muscat
Muscat
is also considered as a Global City. According to the National Centre for Statistics and Information (NCSI), the total population of Muscat Governorate reached 1.28 million as of September 2015.[2] The metropolitan area spans approximately 3,500 km2 (1,400 sq mi)[3] and includes six provinces called wilayats.[citation needed] Known since the early 1st century CE as an important trading port between the west and the east, Muscat
Muscat
was ruled by various indigenous tribes as well as foreign powers such as the Persians, the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at various points in its history. A regional military power in the 18th century, Muscat's influence extended as far as East Africa
East Africa
and Zanzibar. As an important port-town in the Gulf of Oman, Muscat
Muscat
attracted foreign tradesmen and settlers such as the Persians and the Balochis. Since the ascension of Qaboos bin Said
Qaboos bin Said
as Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
in 1970, Muscat
Muscat
has experienced rapid infrastructural development that has led to the growth of a vibrant economy and a multi-ethnic society. The rocky Western Al Hajar Mountains
Al Hajar Mountains
dominate the landscape of Muscat. The city lies on the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
along the Gulf of Oman
Oman
and is in the proximity of the strategic Straits of Hormuz. Low-lying white buildings typify most of Muscat's urban landscape, while the port-district of Muttrah, with its corniche and harbour, form the north-eastern periphery of the city. Muscat's economy is dominated by trade, petroleum and porting.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Notable landmarks 8 Notable people 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] Ptolemy's Map of Arabia identifies the territories of Cryptus Portus[4] and Moscha Portus.[5] Scholars are divided in opinion on which of the two related to the city of Muscat. Similarly, Arrianus references Omana and Moscha in Voyage of Nearchus. Interpretations of Arrianus' work by William Vincent
William Vincent
and Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville conclude that Omana was a reference to Oman, while Moscha referred to Muscat.[6] Similarly, other scholars identify Pliny the Elder's reference to Amithoscuta to be Muscat.[4] The origin of the word Muscat
Muscat
is disputed. Some authors claim that the word has Arabic origins – from moscha, meaning an inflated hide or skin.[7] Other authors claim that the name Muscat
Muscat
means anchorage or the place of "letting fall the anchor".[8] Other derivations include muscat from Old Persian, meaning strong-scented,[9] or from Arabic, meaning falling-place,[10] or hidden.[11] Cryptus Portus is synonymous with Oman
Oman
("hidden land"). But "Ov-man" (Omman), and the old Sumerian name Magan (Maa-kan), means sea-people in Arabic. An inhabitant is a Muscatter, Muscatian, Muscatite or Muscatan. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Muscat, Oman

Muscat
Muscat
harbour, ca. 1903. Visible in the background is Fort Al Jalali.

Muscat
Muscat
in 2013

A view of Muscat
Muscat
ca. 1902

Evidence of communal activity in the area around Muscat
Muscat
dates back to the 6th millennium BCE in Ras al-Hamra, where burial sites of fishermen have been found. The graves appear to be well formed and indicate the existence of burial rituals. South of Muscat, remnants of Harappan pottery indicate some level of contact with the Indus Valley Civilisation.[12] Muscat's notability as a port was acknowledged as early as the 1st century CE by the Greek geographer Ptolemy, who referred to it as Cryptus Portus (the Hidden Port), and by Pliny the Elder, who called it Amithoscuta.[13] The port fell to a Sassanid invasion in the 3rd century CE, under the rule of Shapur I,[14] while conversion to Islam
Islam
occurred during the 7th century. Muscat's importance as a trading port continued to grow in the centuries that followed, under the influence of the Azd dynasty, a local tribe. The establishment of the First Imamate
Imamate
in the 9th century CE was the first step in consolidating disparate Omani tribal factions under the banner of an Ibadi
Ibadi
state. However, tribal skirmishes continued, allowing the Abbasids of Baghdad
Baghdad
to conquer Oman. The Abbasids occupied the region until the 11th century, when they were driven out by the local Yahmad tribe. Power over Oman shifted from the Yahmad tribe to the Azdi Nabahinah clan, during whose rule, the people of coastal ports such as Muscat
Muscat
prospered from maritime trade and close alliances with the Indian subcontinent, at the cost of the alienation of the people of the interior of Oman.

Al Alam Palace
Al Alam Palace
in Muscat

The Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
sailed to Muscat
Muscat
in 1507, in an attempt to establish trade relations. As he approached the harbor, his ships were fired on. He then decided to conquer Muscat. Most of the city burned to the ground during and after the fighting. The Portuguese maintained a hold on Muscat
Muscat
for over a century, despite challenges from Persia
Persia
and a bombardment of the town by the Ottoman Turks in 1546.[15] The Turks twice captured Muscat
Muscat
from the Portuguese, in the Capture of Muscat (1552)
Capture of Muscat (1552)
and 1581-88. The election of Nasir bin Murshid
Nasir bin Murshid
Al-Ya'rubi as Imam of Oman
Oman
in 1624 changed the balance of power again in the region, from the Persians and the Portuguese to local Omanis. On August 16, 1648 the Imam dispatched an army to Muscat, which captured and demolished the high towers of the Portuguese, weakening their grip over the town. Decisively, in 1650, a small but determined body of the Imam's troops attacked the port at night, forcing an eventual Portuguese surrender on January 23, 1650.[16] A civil war and repeated incursions by the Persian king Nader Shah
Nader Shah
in the 18th century destabilised the region, and further strained relations between the interior and Muscat. This power vacuum in Oman
Oman
led to the emergence of the Al Bu Sa‘id dynasty, which has ruled Oman
Oman
ever since.[17]

" Muscat
Muscat
is a large and very populous town, flanked on both sides with high mountains and the front is close to the water's edge; behind, towards the interior, there is a plain as large as the square of Lisbon, all covered with salt pans. [T]here are orchards, gardens, and palm groves with wells for watering them by means of swipes and other engines. The harbour is small, shaped like a horse-shoe and sheltered from every wind."

—Afonso de Albuquerque, after the fall of Muscat, in 1507.[18]

Muscat's naval and military supremacy was re-established in the 19th century by Said bin Sultan, who signed a treaty with U.S. President Andrew Jackson's representative Edmund Roberts on September 21, 1833.[19] Having gained control over Zanzibar, in 1840 Said moved his capital to Stone Town, the ancient quarter of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City; however, after his death in 1856, control over Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was lost when it became an independent sultanate under his sixth son, Majid bin Said (1834/5–1870), while the third son, Thuwaini bin Said, became the Sultan
Sultan
of Oman. During the second half of the 19th century, the fortunes of the Al Bu Sa`id declined and friction with the Imams of the interior resurfaced. Muscat
Muscat
and Muttrah
Muttrah
were attacked by tribes from the interior in 1895 and again in 1915.[20] A tentative ceasefire was brokered by the British, which gave the interior more autonomy. However, conflicts among the disparate tribes of the interior, and with the Sultan
Sultan
of Muscat
Muscat
and Oman
Oman
continued into the 1950s, and eventually escalated into the Dhofar Rebellion
Dhofar Rebellion
(1962). The rebellion forced the Sultan
Sultan
Said bin Taimur
Said bin Taimur
to seek the assistance of the British in quelling the uprisings from the interior. The failed assassination attempt of April 26 1966 on Said bin Taimur
Said bin Taimur
led to the further isolation of the Sultan, who had moved his residence from Muscat
Muscat
to Salalah, amidst the civilian armed conflict. On July 23, 1970, Qaboos bin Said, son of the Sultan, staged a bloodless[21] coup d'état in the Salalah
Salalah
palace with the assistance of the British, and took over as ruler.

Muscat
Muscat
harbor during World War I

With the assistance of the British, Qaboos bin Said
Qaboos bin Said
put an end to the Dhofar uprising and consolidated disparate tribal territories. He renamed the country the Sultanate of Oman
Oman
(called Muscat
Muscat
and Oman hitherto), in an attempt to end to the interior's isolation from Muscat. Qaboos enlisted the services of capable Omanis to fill positions in his new government,[22] drawing from such corporations as Petroleum Development Oman
Oman
(PDO). New ministries for social services such as health and education were established. The construction of Mina Qaboos, a new port conceived initially by Sa`id bin Taimur, was developed during the early days of Qaboos' rule. Similarly, a new international airport was developed in Muscat's Seeb district. A complex of offices, warehouses, shops and homes transformed the old village of Ruwi
Ruwi
in Muttrah
Muttrah
into a commercial district.[23] The first five-year development plan in 1976 emphasised infrastructural development of Muscat, which provided new opportunities for trade and tourism in the 1980s – 1990s, attracting migrants from around the region. On June 6, 2007, Cyclone Gonu
Cyclone Gonu
hit Muscat
Muscat
causing extensive damage to property, infrastructure and commercial activity. Muscat might hold the 2016 Arab League Summit. Early photographs of the city and harbor, taken in the early 20th century by German explorer and photographer, Hermann Burchardt, are now held at the Ethnological Museum of Berlin.[24] Geography[edit]

Muscat
Muscat
by SPOT Satellite

Muscat's rugged terrain, with plutonic Western Al Hajar Mountains dotting the landscape

Muscat
Muscat
is located in northeast Oman, at 24°00′N 57°00′E / 24.000°N 57.000°E / 24.000; 57.000. The Tropic of Cancer passes south of the area. It is bordered to its west by the plains of the Al Batinah Region
Al Batinah Region
and to its east by Ash Sharqiyah Region. The interior plains of the Ad Dakhiliyah Region
Ad Dakhiliyah Region
border Muscat
Muscat
to the south, while the Gulf of Oman
Oman
forms the northern and western periphery of the city. The water along to coast of Muscat
Muscat
runs deep, forming two natural harbours, in Muttrah
Muttrah
and Muscat. The Western Al Hajar Mountains run through the northern coastline of the city. Volcanic rocks are apparent in the Muscat
Muscat
area, and are composed of serpentine and diorite, extending along the Gulf of Oman
Oman
coast for ten or twelve 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from the district of Darsait to Yiti.[25] Plutonic rocks constitute the hills and mountains of Muscat and span approximately 30 miles (48 km) from Darsait to Ras Jissah. These igneous rocks consists of serpentine, greenstone and basalt, typical of rocks in southeastern regions of the Arabian Peninsula. South of Muscat, the volcanic rock strata are broken up and distorted, rising to a maximum height of 6,000 feet (1,800 m), in Al Dakhiliyah, a region which includes Jebel Akhdar, the country's highest range. The hills in Muscat
Muscat
are mostly devoid of vegetation but are rich in iron. The halophytic sabkha type desert vegetation is predominant in Muscat.[26] The Qurum
Qurum
Nature Reserve contains plants such as the Arthrocnemum Macrostachyum and Halopeplis Perfoliata. Coral reefs are common in Muscat. Acropora
Acropora
reefs exist in the sheltered bays of the satellite towns of Jussah and Khairan.[27] Additionally, smaller Porites
Porites
reef colonies exist in Khairan, which have fused to form a flat-top pavement is visible at low tide. Crabs and spiny crayfish are found in the waters of the Muscat
Muscat
area, as are sardines and bonito.[28] Glassfish are common in freshwater estuaries, such as the Qurum
Qurum
Nature Reserve.[29] The Al Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos Street forms the main artery of Muscat, running west-to-east through the city. The street eventually becomes Al Nahdah Street near Al Wattayah. Several inter-city roads such as Nizwa Road and Al Amrat Road, intersect with Al Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos Road (in Rusail and Ruwi, respectively). Muttrah, with the Muscat
Muscat
Harbour, Corniche, and Mina Qaboos is located in the north-eastern coastline of the city, adjacent to the Gulf of Oman. Other coastal districts of Muscat include Darsait, Mina Al Fahal, Ras Al Hamar, Al Qurum
Qurum
Heights, Al Khuwair and Al Seeb. Residential and commercial districts further inland include Al Hamriyah, Al Wadi Al Kabir, Ruwi, Al Wattayah, Madinat Qaboos, Al Azaiba and Al Ghubra. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Muscat Muscat
Muscat
features a hot, arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long and very hot summers and warm "winters". Annual rainfall in Muscat
Muscat
is about 10 cm (4 in), falling mostly from December to April. In general precipitation is scarce in Muscat, with several months on average seeing only a trace of rainfall. However, in recent years, heavy precipitation events from tropical systems originating in the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
have affected the city. Cyclone Gonu in June 2007 and Cyclone Phet
Cyclone Phet
in June 2010 affected the city with damaging winds and rainfall amounts exceeding 100 mm (4 in) in just a single day. The climate generally is very hot and also very humid in the summer, with temperatures frequently reaching as high as 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer.

Climate data for Muscat

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 34.6 (94.3) 38.2 (100.8) 41.5 (106.7) 44.9 (112.8) 48.3 (118.9) 48.5 (119.3) 49.1 (120.4) 49.2 (120.6) 47.2 (117) 43.6 (110.5) 39.4 (102.9) 37.8 (100) 49.2 (120.6)

Average high °C (°F) 25.5 (77.9) 26.1 (79) 29.8 (85.6) 34.7 (94.5) 39.5 (103.1) 40.4 (104.7) 38.6 (101.5) 36.2 (97.2) 36.3 (97.3) 35.0 (95) 30.5 (86.9) 27.1 (80.8) 33.31 (91.96)

Daily mean °C (°F) 21.3 (70.3) 21.9 (71.4) 25.2 (77.4) 29.8 (85.6) 34.2 (93.6) 35.2 (95.4) 34.3 (93.7) 32.0 (89.6) 31.4 (88.5) 29.7 (85.5) 25.7 (78.3) 22.6 (72.7) 28.61 (83.5)

Average low °C (°F) 17.3 (63.1) 17.6 (63.7) 20.7 (69.3) 24.7 (76.5) 29.1 (84.4) 30.6 (87.1) 30.4 (86.7) 28.4 (83.1) 27.5 (81.5) 24.9 (76.8) 20.9 (69.6) 18.9 (66) 24.25 (75.65)

Record low °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 2.3 (36.1) 7.0 (44.6) 10.3 (50.5) 17.2 (63) 21.6 (70.9) 23.5 (74.3) 21.3 (70.3) 19.0 (66.2) 14.3 (57.7) 9.4 (48.9) 4.5 (40.1) 1.6 (34.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.8 (0.504) 24.5 (0.965) 15.9 (0.626) 17.1 (0.673) 7.0 (0.276) 0.9 (0.035) 0.2 (0.008) 0.8 (0.031) 0.0 (0) 1.0 (0.039) 6.8 (0.268) 13.3 (0.524) 100.3 (3.949)

Average relative humidity (%) 63 64 58 45 42 49 60 67 63 55 60 65 57.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 268.6 244.8 278.3 292.5 347.4 325.7 277.7 278.6 303.9 316.9 291.9 267.0 3,493.3

Source: NOAA [30]

Economy[edit]

Stadium Racing in Muscat

Muscat's economy, like that of Oman, is dominated by trade. The more traditional exports of the city included dates, mother of pearl, and fish. Many of the souks of Muttrah
Muttrah
sell these items and traditional Omani
Omani
artefacts. Petroleum Development Oman
Oman
(PDO) has been central to Muscat's economy since at least 1962 and is the country's second largest employer, after the government. PDO's major shareholders include Royal Dutch/Shell, Total, and Partex and its production is estimated to be about 720,000 barrels per day (114,000 m3/d). Muscat
Muscat
also has major trading companies such as Suhail Bahwan Group, which is a trading partner for corporations such as Toshiba, Subaru, Seiko, Hewlett Packard, General Motors, RAK Ceramics; Saud Bahwan Group whose trading partners are Toyota, Daihatsu, KIA and Hertz Rent-a-Car; Zubair Automotive whose trading partners include Mitsubishi, and Chrysler
Chrysler
brands such as Dodge; and Moosa AbdulRahman Hassan which operates as one of the oldest automotive agencies in the entire region being established in 1927.[citation needed] The private Health Care sector of Muscat, Oman
Oman
has numerous hospitals and clinics. The Muscat Securities Market
Muscat Securities Market
is the principal stock exchange of Oman. It is located in Central Business District of Muscat
Muscat
and it was established in 1988, and has since distinguished itself as a pioneer among its regional peers in terms of transparency and disclosure regulations and requirements.

Ruwi, the main business district of Muscat

Mina'a Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos, Muscat's main trading port, is a trading hub between the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and the Far East with an annual volume of about 1.6 million tons. However, the emergence of the Jebel Ali Free Zone in neighboring Dubai, United Arab Emirates, has made that port the premier maritime trading port of the region with about 44 million tons traded in cargo annually. Many infrastructural facilities are owned and operated by the government of Oman. Omantel is the major telecommunications organization in Oman
Oman
and provides local, long-distance and international dialing facilities and operates as the country's only ISP. Recent liberalization of the mobile telephone market has seen the establishment of a second provider — Nawras.[citation needed] Muscat
Muscat
is home to multibillion-dollar conglomerate Ck Industries with their headquarters located in Ruwi.[31] Ajman
Ajman
based Amtek Industries also have a couple of offices around the city.[31] It is also home to Galfar Engineering,[32] headed by P. Mohammed Ali. The airline Oman
Oman
Air has its head office on the grounds of Muscat International Airport.[33] Demographics[edit] According to the 2003 census conducted by the Oman
Oman
Ministry of National Economy, the population of Muscat
Muscat
is over 630,000, which included 370,000 males and 260,000 females.[34] Muscat
Muscat
formed the second largest governorate in the country, after Al Batinah, accounting for 27% of the total population of Oman. As of 2003, Omanis constituted 60% of the total population of Muscat, while expatriates accounted for about 40%.[35] The population density of the city was 162.1 per km2.[citation needed] The governorate of Muscat
Muscat
comprises six wilayats: Muttrah, Bawshar, Seeb, Al Amrat, Muscat
Muscat
and Qurayyat. Of the wilayats, Seeb, located in the western section of the governorate, was the most populous (with over 220,000 residents), while Muttrah
Muttrah
had the highest number of expatriates (with over 100,000).[34] Approximately 71% of the population was within the 15–64 age group, with the average Omani age being 23 years.[36] About 10% of the population is illiterate, an improvement when compared to the 18% illiteracy rate recorded during the 1993 census. Expatriates accounted for over 60% of the labour force, dominated by males, who accounted for 80% of the city's total labour. A majority of expatriates (34%) engineering-related occupations, while most Omanis worked in engineering, clerical, scientific or technical fields. The defense sector was the largest employer for Omanis, while construction, wholesale and retail trade employed the largest number of expatriates. The ethnic makeup of Muscat
Muscat
has historically been influenced by people not native to the Arabian Peninsula. British Parliamentary papers dating back to the 19th century indicate the presence of a significant Hindu Gujarati merchants in the city[37] Indeed, four Hindu temples existed in Muscat
Muscat
ca. 1760.[38] Christianity
Christianity
flourished in Oman (Bēṯ Mazūnāyē "land of the Maganites"; a name deriving from its Sumerian designation) from the late 4th century to early 5th century. Missionary activity by the Assyrians of the Church of the East resulted in a significant Christian population living in the region, with a bishop being attested by 424 AD under the Metropolitan of Fars and Arabia. The rise of Islam
Islam
saw the Syriac and Arabic-speaking Christian population eventually disappear. It is thought to have been brought back in by the Portuguese in 1507.[39] Protestant
Protestant
missionaries established a hospital in Muscat
Muscat
in the 19th century. Like the rest of Oman, Arabic is the predominant language of the city. In addition, English, Balochi, Swahili and South Asian languages such as Hindi, Konkani, Marathi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil and Urdu[40] are spoken by the residents of Muscat. Islam
Islam
is the predominant religion in the city, with most followers being Ibadi
Ibadi
Muslims. Non-Muslims are allowed to practice their religion, but may not proselytize publicly or distribute religious literature. Notable landmarks[edit]

The Port Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos

The city has numerous mosques including the Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos Grand Mosque, Ruwi
Ruwi
Mosque, Saeed bin Taimoor and Zawawi Mosque. A few Shi'ite mosques also exist here. Muscat
Muscat
has a number of museums. These include Museum of Omani Heritage, National Museum of Oman, Oman
Oman
Children's Museum, Bait Al Zubair, Oman
Oman
Oil and Gas Exhibition Centre, Omani
Omani
French Museum, Sultan's Armed Forces Museum
Sultan's Armed Forces Museum
and the Omani
Omani
Aquarium and Marine Science and Fisheries Centre.[41] The Bait Al Falaj
Falaj
Fort played an important role in Muscat's military history. Recent projects include an opera house which opened on October 14, 2011. One of the most notable new projects is the Oman
Oman
National Museum. It is expected to be an architectural jewel along with the Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos Grand Mosque. Visitors are also encouraged to visit Old Muscat
Old Muscat
and the Old Palace. The main shopping district is situated in Al Qurum
Qurum
Commercial Area, however shopping malls are spread out throughout the city. One of the largest malls in Oman
Oman
is Oman
Oman
Avenues Mall, located in Ghubra. The main airport is Muscat International Airport
Muscat International Airport
around 25 km (16 mi) from the city's business district of Ruwi
Ruwi
and 15 to 20 km from the main residential localities of Al-Khuwair, Madinat Al Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos, Shati Al-Qurm and Al-Qurm. Muscat
Muscat
is the headquarters for the local Oman
Oman
Air, which flies to several destinations within the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, East Africa and Europe. Other airlines such as Qatar
Qatar
Airways, Turkish Airlines, KLM, SriLankan, Royal Jordanian, British Airways, PIA, Jet Airways, Lufthansa, Emirates, Swiss International Air Lines, Kuwait Airways, Air India
Air India
and Thai Airways
Thai Airways
also fly through Muscat International Airport.

Muscat
Muscat
International Airport

The Muscat
Muscat
area is well serviced by paved roads and dual-carriageway connects most major cities and towns in the country. Since November 2015, Public transportation in Muscat
Muscat
has been revamped with a bus network connecting most important parts of the city with a modern Mwasalat (earlier Oman
Oman
National Transport Company (ONTC) buses. Mwasalat buses were procured from VDL Company of The Netherlands and they have several hi-tech features. Route 1 (Ruwi-Mabela) serves people travelling major shopping destinations ( Oman
Oman
Avenues Mall, Muscat
Muscat
Grand Mall, Qurum
Qurum
City Centre, Muscat
Muscat
City Centre, Markaz al Bhaja) and Muscat
Muscat
Airport. Route 2 (Ruwi-Wadi Kabir) serves the residential and industrial district of Wadi Kabir. Route 3 (Ruwi-Wadi Adei) serves the downmarket residential belt of Wadi Adei. Route 4 (Ruwi-Mattrah) serves the tourist destination of Muttrah
Muttrah
Corniche, Al Alam Palace, National Museum and Port Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos. Route 5 (Ruwi-Amerat) serves the rapidly developing Amerat suburb. Route 6 (Ruwi-SQU&KOM) serves the student community of Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos University (SQU) and the office commuters of Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM). There is no rail or metro network in the country. Several forms of public transport are popular in Oman. Most popular are the "Baiza" buses, so named for the lower denomination of the Omani
Omani
rial, the baiza (an adaptation of the Indian lower denomination paisa). These are relatively inexpensive and service all major roadways, as well as a wide and loose network of smaller byways in the greater Muscat metropolitan area, opportunistically dropping off and picking up passengers at any location. Less popular and slightly more expensive are large public buses, coloured red and green, whose service is limited to major roadways and point-to-point travel routes between Oman's major cities and towns. Taxis, also colour-coded orange and white, provide semi-personal transportation in the form of both individual hire and the same opportunistic roadway service as Baiza buses. Baiza buses and colour-coded orange-and-white taxis are unmetered, after several government initiatives to introduce meters were rejected. The fare is set by way of negotiation, although taxi drivers usually adhere to certain unwritten rules for fares within the city. In many countries, one is advised to negotiate a fare with the driver before getting into a taxi. However, in Oman, asking for the fare beforehand often demonstrates a passenger's newness and unfamiliarity with the area. One should always find out the normally accepted fare for one's journey from one's hotel or host before looking for a taxi. Taxis will also generally take passengers to locations out of the city, including Sohar, Buraimi
Buraimi
and Dubai. A rail network named Oman
Oman
Rail is expected to be completed by 2018. This will connect Oman
Oman
with the GCC countries. Notable people[edit]

Mahesh Bhupathi
Mahesh Bhupathi
(b. 1974), Indian tennis player, studied at the Indian School, Muscat Sarah-Jane Dias
Sarah-Jane Dias
(b. 1974), Indian Actress, studied at the Indian School, Muscat Isla Fisher
Isla Fisher
(b. 1976), Australian actress, born to Scottish parents and lived in Australia Ali Al-Habsi
Ali Al-Habsi
(b. 1981), Omani
Omani
professional footballer, captain of the Oman
Oman
national and goalkeeper for English club Reading Sneha Ullal
Sneha Ullal
(b. 1987), Indian Bollywood Actress, studied at the Indian School, Muscat

See also[edit]

Old Muscat

References[edit]

^ "UNdata - country profile - Oman".  ^ "The population of the Sultanate by the end of May 2015".  ^ الدراسات الاجتماعية. Ministry of Education, Sultanate of Oman.  ^ a b Foster (1844), p.231. ^ Foster (1844), p.241. ^ Foster (1844), p.173. ^ Foster (1844), p.173 ^ Miles (1997), p.468. ^ Hailman (2006), p.49. ^ Philips (1966), p.4. ^ Room (2003), p.246. ^ Rice (1994), p.255-256 ^ Foster (1844), p.234. ^ Potter (2002), p.41. ^ Miles (1997), p.167 ^ Miles (1997), p. 196. ^ Miles (1997), p.256. ^ Miles (1997), p.147. ^ Cotheal, Alexander I. (2008-01-17). "Treaty between the United States of America and the Sultân of Masḳaṭ: The Arabic Text". Journal of the American Oriental Society
Journal of the American Oriental Society
(free)format= requires url= (help). JSTOR. 4 (1854): 341–343. JSTOR 592284.  ^ JE Peterson's Britannica entry (1990), p.6. ^ Long (2007), p.188. ^ Middle East
Middle East
Policy (2004), p.126. ^ Middle East
Middle East
Policy (2004), p.128 ^ View of the city and city walls in 1904 (Click on photo to enlarge); Muscat's wall and gate. ^ Miles (1997), p. 399. ^ Ghazanfar (1998), p. 80. ^ Salm (1993), p. 52 ^ Miles (1997), p. 410. ^ Barth (2002), p. 292. ^ " Seeb Climate Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^ a b "Amtek". Amtek.ae. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  ^ "Contact". Galfar.com. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  ^ "Contact Us". Omanair.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-20.  ^ a b Oman
Oman
Census
Census
(2003), p.6. ^ Oman
Oman
Census
Census
(2003), p.9. ^ Oman
Oman
Census(2003), Data and Other Indicators ^ British Parliamentary Papers (1876), p. 189. ^ Kechichian (1995), p. 215. ^ Fahlbusch (1999), p. 829. ^ Peterson (2004), p. 34. ^ "Museums". Omanet.om. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Muscat, Oman

omancensus.net (PDF) Miles, Samuel Barrett; Robin Bidwell (1997). The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf. Garnet & Ithaca Press. ISBN 978-1-873938-56-0.  Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Martin Fisher (1998). Vegetation of the Arabian Peninsula. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-5015-6.  Salm, Rodney V.; Rolf A.C. Jensen; Vassili Papastavrou (1993). Marine Fauna of Oman. IUCN. ISBN 978-2-8317-0180-6.  2010 Preliminary Results (PDF) Phillips, Wendell (1966). Unknown Oman. D. McKay Co. p. 4.  Room, Adrian (2003). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic Sites. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1814-5.  Barth, Hans-Jörg; Benno Böer (2002). Sabkha
Sabkha
Ecosystems: The Arabian Peninsula and Adjacent Countries. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-0504-6.  Census
Census
Administration. "Final Results of the Census
Census
2003" (PDF). Ministry of the National Economy, Government of Oman. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  Census
Census
Administration. "Data & Indicators of the Population". Ministry of the National Economy, Government of Oman. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  Parliamentary Papers. London: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament. 1876.  Kechichian, Joseph A. (1995). Oman
Oman
and the World: The Emergence of an Independent Foreign Policy. Great Britain: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-2332-2.  Fahlbusch, Erwin; Geoffrey William Bromiley; David B. Barrett (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2415-8.  Rice, Michael (1994). The Archeology of the Arabian Gulf. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-03268-1.  Potter, Lawrence; Sick, Gary (2002). Security in the Persian Gulf. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23950-3.  Long, David E.; Reich, Bernard; Gasiorowski, Mark (2007). The Government and Politics of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-4361-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscat.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Muscat.

Middle East
Middle East
portal

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official Ministry Of Tourism site omancensus.net (PDF) Oman
Oman
Avenues Mall

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait City
Kuwait City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East
Middle East
[Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Muscat
Muscat
Governorate

Capital: Muscat

Abu Nukhayl Ad Duwaykah Al Amarat Al Bustan Al Jafnayn Al Khawd Ash Shutayfi Bandar Jissah Bandar Khayran Bawshar Bayt al Falaj Bin `Umran Falaj Falaj
Falaj
ash Sham Fath al Bu Sa`id Ghallah Ghubrah Ghursheba Halban Hamriyah Haramil Hayl al `Umayr Jal Jifar Kalbuh Lansab Ma`abilah Manumah Muscat Matrah Mawalih Mu`skar al Murtafi`ah Qantab Riyam Rusayl Ruwi Sad Saruq Sayh al Malih Seeb Sidab Suraj Tawiyan Tawiyan
Tawiyan
Yiti Taww Wadi Kabir Wutayyah Yenkit Yiti

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130198269 LCCN: n81110529 GND: 4239248-2 BNF: cb1223


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