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A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets .

The term _municipality_ may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district .

The term is derived from French _municipalité_ and Latin _municipalis_. The English word _municipality_ derives from the Latin social contract _municipium _ (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenshipto the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

* only one populated place such as a city , town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S. state of New Jersey(1798–1899) as townships governing several villages, Municipalities of Mexico) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile.

CONTENTS

* 1 Political powers

* 2 In various countries

* 2.1 English-speaking * 2.2 Chinese-speaking

* 3 Municipalities by country * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

POLITICAL POWERS

The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state . Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax , property tax , and corporate income tax , but may also receive substantial funding from the state.

IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

Coat of arms of the town Svätý Jurin Western Slovakia.

In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as French _commune_ ( France, French-speaking areas of Belgiumand Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin ), Italian _comune _, Romanian _comună_, and Spanish _comuna_ ( Chile), and in Germanic languages such as German _Kommune_ (in political parlance, the official term being _Gemeinde_), Swedish _kommun_, Faroese _kommuna_, and Norwegian, Danish _kommune_. However, in Moldovaand Romaniaexists both _municipalities_ (_municipiu_; urban administrative units) and _communes_ (_comună_; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality (see more: communes of Moldova, communes of Romania).

Similar terms include Spanish _ayuntamiento _, also called _municipalidad _ (cognate to "municipality"), Polish _gmina _, Dutch/Flemish _Gemeente_ and Luxembourgish _Gemeng_.

ENGLISH-SPEAKING

* In Australia, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." * In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canadainclude cities , district municipalities , municipal districts , municipalities, parishes , rural municipalities , towns , townships , villages , and villes among others. The Provinceof Ontariohas different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontarioinclude counties and regional municipalities. Nova Scotiaalso has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. * In India, a Nagar Palika or Municipalityis an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Nagar Palikas were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Nagar Palikaa were reclassified as Nagar Palikas even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Rajsystem, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992 . * In the United Kingdom , the term was used until 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotlandand 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Walesis known as a _district_, and in Scotlandas a _council area_. A _district_ may be awarded _borough_ or _city_ status, or can retain its _district_ title. * In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. statecodes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places. (See also Political divisions of the United States .)

CHINESE-SPEAKING

* In the People\'s Republic of China, a direct-controlled municipality (直辖市 in pinyin : zhíxiáshì) is a city with equal status to a province : Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing (see Municipality of China). * In Taiwan (Republic of China) , a special municipality (直轄市 in pinyin : zhíxiáshì ) is a city with equal status to a province: Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipeiand Taoyuan (see Special municipality of Taiwan).

MUNICIPALITIES BY COUNTRY

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COUNTRY TERM EXAMPLE SUBDIVISION OF QUANTITY NOTES FURTHER READING

Albania _bashki_ (urban) or _komunë_ (rural)

61

Municipalities of Albania

Algeria _baladiyah _

daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province) 1,541

Municipalities of Algeria

Andorra _parròquia_ Sant Julià de Lòria

7

Argentina municipalidad Puerto Madryn Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments 2,100 Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township Municipalities of Argentina

Austria _Gemeinde_ pa district (_Bezirk_), which is in turn part of a state (_Bundesland_). 1,725 The entire area of Austriais divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population. Municipalities of Austria

Bangladesh _Pouroshabha / Pouroshava_

Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district 311

Municipalities of Bangladesh

Belgium _gemeente /commune _ Montigny-le-Tilleul a province (_provincie/province _) or of the Brussels-Capital Region 589 The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities Municipalities in Belgium

Bolivia _municipio _ Arani Municipality province , which is part of a departamento . 327 (2005)

Municipalities of Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina _općina_ or _opština_

in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: of a canton (_kanton _). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government. 144

Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brazil _município _ São Paulo(most populous), Borá(least populous) states (_estados _) 5,564 Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal Districtor the Fernando de Noronhaand St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide Municipalities of Brazil

Bulgaria Bulgarian : община, _obshtina_ Aksakovo Municipality an oblast 264

Municipalities of Bulgaria

Kingdom of Cambodia (ស឵ល឵ក្រុង) refers to city hall

1446

Chile _municipalidad_

provinces

Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas ; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more

China _直辖市_ Beijing

4 Status equal to a province Municipalities of China

Colombia _municipio _

a department (_departamento_) 1,102 It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoodsin urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities Municipalities of Colombia

Costa Rica _ Municipalidad_

Province(_Provinces of Costa Rica_)

Cantones of Costa Rica

Croatia _općina _

county (_županija _) 428

Municipalities of Croatia

Czech Republic obec Karlovy Vary a kraj (_kraj_) 6250

Denmark _kommune_ Aabenraa Municipality a region 98 Counties (_amter _) were abandoned in 2007 Municipalities of Denmark

Dominican Republic _municipio _

province

Municipalities of the Dominican Republic

El Salvador _municipio _ Ahuachapán, Ahuachapán _departamentos_ 262

Municipalities of El Salvador

Estonia _omavalitsus_ Are vald ( Are Parish) county (_maakond_) 215 Can be either towns (_linn_) or parishes (_vald_) Municipalities of Estonia

Finland _kunta_/_kommun_ Helsinki region 311 Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (_kaupunki_). Municipalities of Finland

France _commune _

canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department (_département _) which is part of a region (_région _) 36,600

Germany _ Gemeinde_

district (_Kreis _, literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called _Stadt_, plural _Städte_ (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a _Kreis_ (they are _kreisangehörig_, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (_kreisfrei_, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities (_ Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeindeor Amtsgemeinde _) 12,013

Municipalities of Germany

Georgia _munits'ipaliteti_

76 self-governing towns/cities (_k'alak'i_) and communities (_t'emi_) Municipalities of Georgia

Greece _demos_ (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or _koinoteta_ (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)

325 Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous Municipalities and communities of Greece

Greenland kommunea Kujalleq

4 First-level administrative division Municipalities of Greenland

Haiti _commune_

an arrondissement , which is part of a department (_département _).

Honduras _municipio _

was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (_distrito_), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (_departamento_). 298

Municipalities of Honduras

Hungary _település_

a county (_megye_). 3,168 (in 2005)

Iceland _sveitarfélag_ Reykjavík Regions 74 The country's only self-governing local administrative units Municipalities of Iceland

India _Nagaraatchi _ _nagar palika _

Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand Municipalities of India

Israel

Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)

Italy _comune _

a province (_provincia _) which is part of a region (_regione _). 7,982 Solely used for subdivisions of larger _comuni_, especially in Rome; _municipio_ indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (_comunità montane_) List of comuni of Italy

Japan

1,719 Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities) , cho (towns) , and son (villages) Municipalities of Japan

Kenya

a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.

Latvia singular: _novads_, plural: _novadi_ Aglonas novads ( Aglona Municipality)

110 A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: _pagasts_, plural: _pagasti_). Municipalities of Latvia

Lebanon

a district ( Arabic: Qadaa‎‎) which is part of a Governorate ( Regionor Province, Arabic: _Mouhafazah_).

Libya

the municipality level is that of the Basic People\'s Congress . Large cities are subdivided. Municipalities of Libya

Lithuania _savivaldybė_ Kalvarijos savivaldybė ( Kalvarija Municipality) a district (_apskritis _) and is subdivided into elderates (_seniūnija _).

Municipalities of Lithuania

Luxembourg commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)

part of a _canton_ (Luxembourgish: _Kantoun_) which itself is part of a _district_ 105 are the lowest divisions

Macedonia _opština _ Aračinovo Municipality the country (top-level) or the Cityof Skopje 84 (2004) current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996. Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia

Malta _Kunsill Lokali_ (Local Council) VallettaLocal Council none 68 established 1993, one new council created since then ( Mtarfa) Local councils of Malta

Mauritius

a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritiusis done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipalityof Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.

Mexico _municipio _ / delegación Asientos Municipality a state (estado ) or the DF

a borough (_delegación _) is a subdivision of the Federal District

Municipalities of Mexicoand boroughs of the Mexican Federal District

Moldova _municipiu _ Municipiul Chișinău

32 is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level. Moldova#Administrative divisions

Montenegro _opština _ Andrijevica Municipality the country (top-level)

Municipalities of Montenegro

Nepal Nagarpalika

58 (after the census in 2001) a municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.

Netherlands _gemeente_

a province (_provincie _) 388 + 3 special municipalities

Municipalities in the Netherlands

New Zealand

a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealandsince about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)

Nicaragua _municipio _

a department (_departamento_) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions , North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Regionand South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.

Municipalities of Nicaragua

Norway _kommune_ Røykenkommune a county (_fylke _) 430 (2009)

Municipalities of Norway

Palestinian National Authority

105 municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members. Municipality (Palestinian Authority)

Pakistan

of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district ". 149

Local government in Pakistan

Paraguay _municipalidad_

a departament (_departamento_)

Peru _municipio _

a province (_provincia_), which is part of a department (_departamento_). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).

is another term for district (_distrito_) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.

Philippines _bayan _ or munisipyo

a province

is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor and is part of a province (_lalawigan _ or probinsya ) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manilain the National Capital Region). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays .

Poland _gmina _ GminaAnnopol county (_powiat _).

Portugal _concelho _ or _município _

_Concelho_ is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo , however, _municípios_ are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the _freguesia _ (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts (_distritos _). In Portugal, a municipality (_município _/_concelho _) is the primary local administrative unit . Although part of a district (_distrito _) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more _freguesias _. Municipalities of Portugal

Puerto Rico _municipio _

municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding _barrios _ comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction. Municipalities of Puerto Rico

Romania _municipiu _ / _oraș _ / _comună _ Deva County(_județ _) 103 + 217 + 2856 A municipality (_municipiu_) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" (_orașe _) or "communes" (_comune _). Municipalities of Romania Cities of Romania Communes of Romania

Russia

several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia

San Marino

there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.

Serbia _opština _

a district (_okrug _)

Slovakia _obec _

district (_okres_) which is part of a kraj (_kraj_) 2,891

Slovenia _občina _

region (_regija_) 212 a municipality (_občina _) is the primary local administrative unit . There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy. Municipalities of Slovenia

South Africa

district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces , and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.

Spain _municipio _ / _municipi_ / _concello_ / _udalerria_

8,122 a municipality (_municipio _) is the primary local administrative unit . It is a part of a province (_provincia _) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, _concellos_, and in the Principalityof Asturias region, a municipality is called a _concejo_ (in Spanish language ) or a _conceyu_ (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more _parroquias _ (parishes). Municipalities of Spain

Sweden _kommun_ Stockholm Municipality

Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality CountyCouncils of Sweden(Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities. 290 is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (_stad_), a _köping _ or a rural municipality (_landskommun_); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Swedenis also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016. Municipalities of Sweden

Switzerland _commune / Gemeinde/comune _

a canton (_canton/Kanton/cantone _) and defined by cantonal law. 2,596

Municipalities in Switzerland

Thailand _thesaban _

None 1,602 There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkokand Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkokbecame self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978. Thesaban

Turkey _belediye _ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality _il _(province) 2,920 is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.

Ukraine

there are two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.

United Arab Emirates

an emirate

is defined by the law of the specific emirates.

Uruguay _municipio _

89

Municipalities of Uruguay

Venezuela _municipio _ Anaco Municipality a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District(_estado _)

Municipalities of Venezuela

Vietnam _ Direct-controlled municipality_ Ho Chi Minh City(largest)

5 A direct-controlled municipality (_Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương_) is a city with equal status to a province Municipalities of Vietnam

* In Portuguese languageusage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word _CONCELHO _ is used, when referring to the organ of State , the word _MUNICíPIO_ is used. This differentiation is still in use in Portugaland some of its former overseas provinces, but it’s no longer in use in Brazil.

SEE ALSO

* Council of European Municipalities and Regions * Council-manager government * Creature of statute * Lists of municipalities * Mayor-council government * Municipal corporation * Municipal government

REFERENCES

* ^ "Municipality". Merriam-Webster. * ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com. * ^ " Santiagode Chile– Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda. * ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. * ^ "Municipal Government". _The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government_. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ "List of OntarioMunicipalities". OntarioMinistry of Municipal Affairs and Housing . 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova ScotiaHouse of Assembly. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality * ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law". FindLaw. * ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia. * ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama. * ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". _Diritto&Giustizia edizione online_. – via Questia(subscription required) * ^ _Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio._ Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011. * ^ _Autonomous Municipalities Law._ (in Spanish) Retrieved 24 October 2011. * ^ SFS 2015:493, Svensk författningssamling: _Förordning om distrikt_.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up MUNICIPALITY _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* _ Elton, Charles Isaac (1884). "Municipality". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 17

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