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(i)

A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets .

The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district .

The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco , to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York .

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

* only one populated place such as a city , town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S. state of New Jersey
New Jersey
(1798–1899) as townships governing several villages, Municipalities of Mexico ) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago
Santiago
, Chile.

CONTENTS

* 1 Political powers

* 2 In various countries

* 2.1 English-speaking * 2.2 Chinese-speaking

* 3 Municipalities by country * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

POLITICAL POWERS

The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state . Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax , property tax , and corporate income tax , but may also receive substantial funding from the state.

IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

Coat of arms of the town Svätý Jur in Western Slovakia
Slovakia
.

In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as French commune ( France
France
, French-speaking areas of Belgium
Belgium
and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin ), Italian comune , Romanian comună, and Spanish comuna ( Chile
Chile
), and in Germanic languages such as German Kommune (in political parlance, the official term being Gemeinde), Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, and Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova
Moldova
and Romania
Romania
exists both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality (see more: communes of Moldova
Moldova
, communes of Romania
Romania
).

Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento , also called municipalidad (cognate to "municipality"), Polish gmina , Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.

ENGLISH-SPEAKING

* In Australia
Australia
, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." * In Canada
Canada
, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada
Canada
include cities , district municipalities , municipal districts , municipalities, parishes , rural municipalities , towns , townships , villages , and villes among others. The Province of Ontario
Ontario
has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario
Ontario
include counties and regional municipalities. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. * In India
India
, a Nagar Palika or Municipality
Municipality
is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Nagar Palikas were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Nagar Palikaa were reclassified as Nagar Palikas even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992 . * In the United Kingdom , the term was used until 1974 in England and Wales
Wales
, and until 1975 in Scotland
Scotland
and 1976 in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales
Wales
is known as a district, and in Scotland
Scotland
as a council area. A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title. * In Jersey
Jersey
, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In the United States
United States
, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state
U.S. state
codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places. (See also Political divisions of the United States .)

CHINESE-SPEAKING

* In the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
, a direct-controlled municipality (直辖市 in pinyin : zhíxiáshì) is a city with equal status to a province : Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing (see Municipality of China ). * In Taiwan (Republic of China) , a special municipality (直轄市 in pinyin : zhíxiáshì ) is a city with equal status to a province: Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, New Taipei
New Taipei
, Taichung
Taichung
, Tainan
Tainan
, Taipei
Taipei
and Taoyuan (see Special municipality of Taiwan ).

MUNICIPALITIES BY COUNTRY

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COUNTRY TERM EXAMPLE SUBDIVISION OF QUANTITY NOTES FURTHER READING

Albania
Albania
bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)

61

Municipalities of Albania
Albania

Algeria
Algeria
baladiyah

daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province) 1,541

Municipalities of Algeria
Algeria

Andorra
Andorra
parròquia Sant Julià de Lòria

7

Argentina
Argentina
municipalidad Puerto Madryn Provinces of Argentina
Argentina
, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments 2,100 Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township Municipalities of Argentina
Argentina

Austria
Austria
Gemeinde

district (Bezirk), which is in turn part of a state (Bundesland). 1,725 The entire area of Austria
Austria
is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population. Municipalities of Austria
Austria

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Pouroshabha / Pouroshava

Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district 311

Municipalities of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

Belgium
Belgium
gemeente /commune Montigny-le-Tilleul a province (provincie/province ) or of the Brussels-Capital Region 589 The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities Municipalities in Belgium
Belgium

Bolivia
Bolivia
municipio Arani Municipality province , which is part of a departamento . 327 (2005)

Municipalities of Bolivia
Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
općina or opština

in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
: of a canton (kanton ). In Republika Srpska , municipality is first order of government after entity government. 144

Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brazil
Brazil
município São Paulo
São Paulo
(most populous), Borá (least populous) states (estados ) 5,564 Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District
District
or the Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha
and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide Municipalities of Brazil
Brazil

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgarian : община, Bulgarian : obshtina Aksakovo Municipality an oblast 264

Municipalities of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Kingdom of Cambodia (ស឵ល឵ក្រុង) refers to city hall

1446

Chile
Chile
municipalidad

provinces

Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas ; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more

China
China
直辖市 Beijing
Beijing

4 Status equal to a province Municipalities of China
China

Colombia
Colombia
municipio

a department (departamento) 1,102 It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods
Neighborhoods
in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities Municipalities of Colombia
Colombia

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Municipalidad

Province (Provinces of Costa Rica
Costa Rica
)

Cantones of Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Croatia
Croatia
općina

county (županija ) 428

Municipalities of Croatia
Croatia

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
obec Karlovy Vary a kraj (kraj) 6250

Denmark
Denmark
kommune Aabenraa Municipality a region 98 Counties (amter ) were abandoned in 2007 Municipalities of Denmark
Denmark

Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
municipio

province

Municipalities of the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic

El Salvador
El Salvador
municipio Ahuachapán, Ahuachapán departamentos 262

Municipalities of El Salvador
El Salvador

Estonia
Estonia
omavalitsus Are vald ( Are Parish ) county (maakond) 215 Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald) Municipalities of Estonia
Estonia

Finland
Finland
kunta/kommun Helsinki
Helsinki
region 311 Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki). Municipalities of Finland
Finland

France
France
commune

canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department (département ) which is part of a region (région ) 36,600

Germany
Germany
Gemeinde

district (Kreis , literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities ( Verbandsgemeinde , Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde ) 12,013

Municipalities of Germany
Germany

Georgia munits'ipaliteti

76 self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi) Municipalities of Georgia

Greece
Greece
demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)

325 Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous Municipalities and communities of Greece
Greece

Greenland
Greenland
kommunea Kujalleq

4 First-level administrative division Municipalities of Greenland
Greenland

Haiti
Haiti
commune

an arrondissement , which is part of a department (département ).

Honduras
Honduras
municipio

was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento). 298

Municipalities of Honduras
Honduras

Hungary
Hungary
település

a county (megye). 3,168 (in 2005)

Iceland
Iceland
sveitarfélag Reykjavík Regions 74 The country's only self-governing local administrative units Municipalities of Iceland
Iceland

India
India
Nagaraatchi nagar palika

Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand Municipalities of India
India

Israel
Israel

Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)

Italy
Italy
comune

a province (provincia ) which is part of a region (regione ). 7,982 Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane) List of comuni of Italy
Italy

Japan
Japan

1,719 Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities) , cho (towns) , and son (villages) Municipalities of Japan
Japan

Kenya
Kenya

a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.

Latvia
Latvia
singular: novads, plural: novadi Aglonas novads ( Aglona Municipality )

110 A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti). Municipalities of Latvia
Latvia

Lebanon
Lebanon

a district ( Arabic
Arabic
: Qadaa‎) which is part of a Governorate ( Region
Region
or Province, Arabic
Arabic
: Mouhafazah).

Libya
Libya

the municipality level is that of the Basic People\'s Congress . Large cities are subdivided. Municipalities of Libya
Libya

Lithuania
Lithuania
savivaldybė Kalvarijos savivaldybė ( Kalvarija Municipality ) a district (apskritis ) and is subdivided into elderates (seniūnija ).

Municipalities of Lithuania
Lithuania

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)

part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district 105 are the lowest divisions

Macedonia opština Aračinovo Municipality the country (top-level) or the City
City
of Skopje 84 (2004) current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996. Municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia

Malta
Malta
Kunsill Lokali (Local Council) Valletta
Valletta
Local Council none 68 established 1993, one new council created since then ( Mtarfa ) Local councils of Malta
Malta

Mauritius
Mauritius

a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius
Mauritius
is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality
Municipality
of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.

Mexico
Mexico
municipio / delegación Asientos Municipality a state (estado ) or the DF

a borough (delegación ) is a subdivision of the Federal District
District
Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
District

Moldova
Moldova
municipiu Municipiul Chișinău

32 is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level. Moldova#Administrative divisions

Montenegro
Montenegro
opština Andrijevica Municipality the country (top-level)

Municipalities of Montenegro
Montenegro

Nepal
Nepal
Nagarpalika

58 (after the census in 2001) a municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.

Netherlands
Netherlands
gemeente

a province (provincie ) 388 + 3 special municipalities

Municipalities in the Netherlands
Netherlands

New Zealand
New Zealand

a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand
New Zealand
since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand
New Zealand
.)

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
municipio

a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions , North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region .

Municipalities of Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Norway
Norway
kommune Røyken kommune a county (fylke ) 430 (2009)

Municipalities of Norway
Norway

Palestinian National Authority

105 municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members. Municipality (Palestinian Authority)

Pakistan
Pakistan

of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district ". 149

Local government in Pakistan
Pakistan

Paraguay
Paraguay
municipalidad

a departament (departamento)

Peru
Peru
municipio

a province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).

is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.

Philippines
Philippines
bayan or munisipyo or munisipalidad

a province

is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor and is part of a province (lalawigan or probinsya ) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manila in the National Capital Region
Region
). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays .

Poland
Poland
gmina Gmina
Gmina
Annopol county (powiat ).

Portugal
Portugal
concelho or município

Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo , however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts (distritos ). In Portugal
Portugal
, a municipality (município /concelho ) is the primary local administrative unit . Although part of a district (distrito ) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias . Municipalities of Portugal
Portugal

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
municipio

municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction. Municipalities of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico

Romania
Romania
municipiu / oraș / comună Deva County
County
(județ ) 103 + 217 + 2856 A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" (orașe ) or "communes" (comune ). Municipalities of Romania
Romania
Cities of Romania
Romania
Communes of Romania
Communes of Romania

Russia
Russia

several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia
Russia

San Marino
San Marino

there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.

Serbia
Serbia
opština

a district (okrug )

Slovakia
Slovakia
obec

district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj) 2,891

Slovenia
Slovenia
občina

region (regija) 212 a municipality (občina ) is the primary local administrative unit . There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy. Municipalities of Slovenia
Slovenia

South Africa
South Africa

district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces , and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.

Spain
Spain
municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria

8,122 a municipality (municipio ) is the primary local administrative unit . It is a part of a province (provincia ) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language
Galician language
, concellos, and in the Principality
Principality
of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language ) or a conceyu (in Asturian language
Asturian language
). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes). Municipalities of Spain
Spain

Sweden
Sweden
kommun Stockholm Municipality

Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality County
County
Councils of Sweden
Sweden
(Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities. 290 is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden
Sweden
is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016. Municipalities of Sweden
Sweden

Switzerland
Switzerland
commune / Gemeinde /comune

a canton (canton/Kanton/cantone ) and defined by cantonal law. 2,596

Municipalities in Switzerland
Switzerland

Thailand
Thailand
thesaban

None 1,602 There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok
Bangkok
and Pattaya
Pattaya
. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok
Bangkok
became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978. Thesaban

Turkey
Turkey
belediye Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality il (province) 2,920 is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.

Ukraine
Ukraine

there are two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

an emirate

is defined by the law of the specific emirates.

Uruguay
Uruguay
municipio

89

Municipalities of Uruguay
Uruguay

Venezuela
Venezuela
municipio Anaco Municipality a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District
District
(estado )

Municipalities of Venezuela
Venezuela

Vietnam
Vietnam
Direct-controlled municipality Ho Chi Minh City
City
(largest)

5 A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a province Municipalities of Vietnam
Vietnam

* In Portuguese language
Portuguese language
usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word CONCELHO is used, when referring to the organ of State , the word MUNICíPIO is used. This differentiation is still in use in Portugal
Portugal
and some of its former overseas provinces, but it’s no longer in use in Brazil.

SEE ALSO

* Council of European Municipalities and Regions * Council-manager government * Creature of statute * Lists of municipalities * Mayor-council government * Municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
* Municipal government
Municipal government

REFERENCES

* ^ "Municipality". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
. * ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com. * ^ " Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
– Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda. * ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)". Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics
. * ^ "Municipal Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ A B "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada
Canada
. April 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ A B "List of Ontario
Ontario
Municipalities". Ontario
Ontario
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing . 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
House of Assembly. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2011-07-17. * ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality * ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law". FindLaw . * ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia. * ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama. * ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio. Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011. * ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) Retrieved 24 October 2011. * ^ SFS 2015:493, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om distrikt.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up MUNICIPALITY in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Elton, Charles Isaac (1884). "Municipality". Encyclopædia Britannica . 17 (9th

.