A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division
having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction
as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It
is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural
territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and
The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a
given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose
administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district .
The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.
The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract
municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to
the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for
their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman
citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to
retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign
state, such as the
Principality of Monaco , to a small village, such
West Hampton Dunes, New York .
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may
* only one populated place such as a city , town, or village
* several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the U.S.
New Jersey (1798–1899) as townships governing several
Municipalities of Mexico )
* only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as
the 34 municipalities of
Santiago , Chile.
* 1 Political powers
* 2 In various countries
* 2.1 English-speaking
* 2.2 Chinese-speaking
* 3 Municipalities by country
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete
subordination to the state . Municipalities may have the right to tax
individuals and corporations with income tax , property tax , and
corporate income tax , but may also receive substantial funding from
IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES
Coat of arms of the town
Svätý Jur in Western
In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as
"communes", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as
French commune (
France , French-speaking areas of
Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin ),
Italian comune , Romanian comună, and Spanish comuna (
Chile ), and in
Germanic languages such as German Kommune (in political parlance, the
official term being Gemeinde), Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, and
Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in
Romania exists both
municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes
(comună; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality
(see more: communes of
Moldova , communes of
Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento , also called
municipalidad (cognate to "municipality"), Polish gmina ,
Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
Australia , the term local government area (LGA) is used in
place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers
only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally
designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated
local governing bodies have responsibility."
Canada , municipalities are local governments established
through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general
municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within
cities , district municipalities , municipal districts ,
municipalities, parishes , rural municipalities , towns , townships ,
villages , and villes among others. The
different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single
tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in
Ontario include counties
and regional municipalities.
Nova Scotia also has regional
municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as
India , a Nagar Palika or
Municipality is an urban local body
that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there
are exceptions to that, as previously Nagar Palikas were constituted
in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies
which were previously classified as Nagar Palikaa were reclassified as
Nagar Palikas even if their population was under 100,000. Under the
Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state
government, though it is administratively part of the district it is
located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a
Nagar Palika. Nagar Palikas are also a form of local self-government
entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the
Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992 .
* In the United Kingdom , the term was used until 1974 in England
Wales , and until 1975 in
Scotland and 1976 in
Northern Ireland ,
"both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under
a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such
a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or
provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since
local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland
Wales is known as a district, and in
Scotland as a council area. A
district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its
Jersey , a municipality refers to the honorary officials
elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction.
* In the
United States , "municipality" is usually understood as a
city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by
municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a
state law context, some
U.S. state codes define "municipality" more
widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given
jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places
and unpopulated places. (See also Political divisions of the United
* In the People\'s
Republic of China
Republic of China , a direct-controlled
municipality (直辖市 in pinyin : zhíxiáshì) is a city with equal
status to a province :
Beijing , Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing
Municipality of China ).
* In Taiwan (Republic of China) , a special municipality (直轄市
in pinyin : zhíxiáshì ) is a city with equal status to a province:
New Taipei ,
Taipei and Taoyuan (see
Special municipality of Taiwan ).
MUNICIPALITIES BY COUNTRY
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bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)
daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province)
Sant Julià de Lòria
Argentina , in some provinces they are a subdivision
Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township
district (Bezirk), which is in turn part of a state (Bundesland).
The entire area of
Austria is divided into municipalities, with no
non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large
despite having a small population.
Pouroshabha / Pouroshava
Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district
a province (provincie/province ) or of the
The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and
Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities
province , which is part of a departamento .
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
općina or opština
in Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton (kanton ). In
Republika Srpska , municipality is first order of government after
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
São Paulo (most populous),
Borá (least populous)
states (estados )
Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal
District or the
Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul
archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide
Bulgarian : община, Bulgarian : obshtina
Kingdom of Cambodia
(ស឵ល឵ក្រុង) refers to city hall
Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are
comunas ; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but
occasional municipalities administer more
Status equal to a province
a department (departamento)
It is also subdivided into Localities and
Neighborhoods in urban
municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural
Province (Provinces of
Costa Rica )
county (županija )
a kraj (kraj)
Counties (amter ) were abandoned in 2007
Municipalities of the
Are vald (
Are Parish )
Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald)
Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki).
canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a
department (département ) which is part of a region (région )
district (Kreis , literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same
level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can
be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a
Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning
"free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities
are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities
Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde )
self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi)
Municipalities of Georgia
demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta
(κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)
Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter
are less populous
Municipalities and communities of
First-level administrative division
an arrondissement , which is part of a department (département ).
was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito),
but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of
the department (departamento).
a county (megye).
3,168 (in 2005)
The country's only self-governing local administrative units
Nagaraatchi nagar palika
Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than
twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand
Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils
(small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities;
a province (provincia ) which is part of a region (regione ).
Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome;
municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in
mountain communities (comunità montane)
List of comuni of
Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities) , cho (towns) , and son
a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50
major towns are given the municipality status.
singular: novads, plural: novadi
Aglonas novads (
Aglona Municipality )
A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular:
pagasts, plural: pagasti).
a district (
Arabic : Qadaa) which is part of a Governorate
Region or Province,
Arabic : Mouhafazah).
the municipality level is that of the Basic People\'s Congress .
Large cities are subdivided.
Kalvarijos savivaldybė (
Kalvarija Municipality )
a district (apskritis ) and is subdivided into elderates
commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)
part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a
are the lowest divisions
the country (top-level) or the
City of Skopje
current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996.
Municipalities of the
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Kunsill Lokali (Local Council)
Valletta Local Council
established 1993, one new council created since then (
Local councils of
a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in
Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of
the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital
city, Port-Louis is managed by the
Municipality of Port-Louis, found
in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are
administered by are called district councils.
municipio / delegación
a state (estado ) or the DF
a borough (delegación ) is a subdivision of the Federal
Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal
is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at
the country (top-level)
58 (after the census in 2001)
a municipality is a town not large enough in population or
infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.
a province (provincie )
388 + 3 special municipalities
Municipalities in the
a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a
"district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in
New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial
New Zealand .)
a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions
, North Caribbean Coast
Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast
Autonomous Region .
a county (fylke )
Palestinian National Authority
municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have
13-15 council members.
Municipality (Palestinian Authority)
of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district ".
Local government in
a departament (departamento)
a province (provincia), which is part of a department
(departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region
is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level
bayan or munisipyo or munisipalidad
is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor
and is part of a province (lalawigan or probinsya ) (except for the
independent municipality of
Pateros, Metro Manila in the National
Region ). Municipalities are not the smallest division of
local government and are composed of barangays .
county (powiat ).
concelho or município
Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally
consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with
wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality
of Corvo , however, municípios are not the smallest administrative
unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central
government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into
districts (distritos ). In
Portugal , a municipality (município
/concelho ) is the primary local administrative unit . Although part
of a district (distrito ) for certain national administrative
purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and
decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality
contains one or more freguesias .
municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus
all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a
popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of
the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the
entire municipal jurisdiction.
municipiu / oraș / comună
County (județ )
103 + 217 + 2856
A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities
which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and
development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National
Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the
criteria are designated "cities" (orașe ) or "communes" (comune ).
Communes of Romania
Communes of Romania
several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see
there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.
a district (okrug )
district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj)
a municipality (občina ) is the primary local administrative unit
. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status
with additional autonomy.
district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are
subdivisions of the provinces , and local municipalities are
subdivisions of district municipalities.
municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria
a municipality (municipio ) is the primary local administrative
unit . It is a part of a province (provincia ) for all national
administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are
Galician language , concellos, and in the
Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish
language ) or a conceyu (in
Asturian language ). In these two regions
a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes).
County Councils of
Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local
authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the
is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and
constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be
called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun);
present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly
Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish:
distrikt) since 1 January 2016.
a canton (canton/Kanton/cantone ) and defined by cantonal law.
There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are
not self-governed except for
Pattaya . Municipalities
introduced in 1935,
Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya
became self-governed in 1978.
Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
is a local government authority and there are two types of
municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district
there are two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are
referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada,
selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest
administrative division in the country and better known as the local
government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into
city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna
rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional
significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
is defined by the law of the specific emirates.
a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital
District (estado )
Ho Chi Minh
A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung
ương) is a city with equal status to a province
Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish
the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the
territory, the word CONCELHO is used, when referring to the organ of
State , the word MUNICíPIO is used. This differentiation is still in
Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it’s
no longer in use in Brazil.
Council of European Municipalities and Regions
Creature of statute
Lists of municipalities
* ^ "Municipality".
* ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com.
* ^ "
Chile – Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux
* ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)".
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics .
* ^ "Municipal Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government
> Government, General > Municipal Government. Historica Foundation of
Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
* ^ A B "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status,
and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF).
Canada . April 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
* ^ A B "List of
Ontario Ministry of
Municipal Affairs and Housing . 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
* ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative
Nova Scotia House of Assembly. 2010-01-07. Retrieved
* ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality
* ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law".
* ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia.
* ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama.
* ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the
office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of
one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001).
"Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana".
Diritto&Giustizia edizione online. – via
* ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de
Elecciones – Municipio. Comision Estatal de Elecciones.
Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6
* ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) Retrieved 24
* ^ SFS 2015:493, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om
Look up MUNICIPALITY in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
* Elton, Charles Isaac (1884). "Municipality". Encyclopædia
Britannica . 17 (9th