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A municipality is usually a single
administrative division
administrative division
having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a
special-purpose district Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such a ...
. The term is derived from
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
''municipalité'' and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
''municipalis''. The
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
word ''municipality'' derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
social contract ''
municipium Municipium (pl. municipia) is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
'' (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting
Roman citizenship Citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nation ...
to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy). A municipality can be any political
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
from a sovereign state, such as the
Principality of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', whic ...
, to a small village, such as
West Hampton Dunes, New York West Hampton Dunes is an incorporated village in Suffolk County, New York, United States, on the South Shore of Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, in the northeaster ...
. The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass * only one
populated place In biology, a population is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represen ...
such as a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...

city
, town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
of
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ...
(1798–1899) as
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
governing several villages,
Municipalities of Mexico Municipalities (''municipios'' in Spanish language, Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the ''states of Mexico, state'' (Spanish: estado). They should not be confused ...

Municipalities of Mexico
,
Municipalities of Colombia The Municipalities of Colombia are decentralized subdivisions of the Republic of Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North America. ...
) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of
Santiago Santiago (, ; ), also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's most densely populated region, the Santiago Metropolitan Region Sa ...

Santiago
, Chile.


Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with
income tax An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) in respect of the income or profits earned by them (commonly called taxable income). Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times the taxable income. Taxa ...
,
property tax A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...
, and
corporate income tax A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities. Many countries impose such taxes at the national level, and a similar tax may be imposed at s ...
, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to
supply public services Supply may refer to: *The amount of a resource that is available **Supply (economics), the amount of a product which is available to customers **Materiel, the goods and equipment for a military unit to fulfill its mission *Supply, as in confidence ...

supply public services
through municipally-owned public utility companies.


Terms in various countries

File:Suomen kaupungit 2020.svg, upA
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...

city
or
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ...

town
municipalities (red-colored) with other non-town municipalities in Finland (2020)


Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure, are Spanish ' (Spain) and ' (Chile), and Catalan '.


Communes

In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms: * in Romance languages, such as French ' (
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g.
Benin Benin ( , ; french: Bénin ), officially the Republic of Benin (french: République du Bénin) and formerly known as Republic of Dahomey, Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina ...
), Italian ', Romanian ', and Spanish ' (
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
); * in Germanic languages such as German ' (in political parlance), Swedish ', Faroese ', Norwegian, Danish '; * the more remote cognates ' in Dutch, ' in Luxembourgish and in German (the official term); * Finnish '. * Ukrainian '. * and Polish '. The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.


Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound ''democracy'' (rule of the people). In some countries, the Spanish term ', referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via
synecdoche A synecdoche ( , from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
to denote the municipality itself. In
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to a ...
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...
, both ''municipalities'' (''municipiu''; urban administrative units) and ''communes'' (''comună''; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality. In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.


English-speaking

*In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
, the term
local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...
(LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." *In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...

Canada
, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
, district municipalities,
municipal district A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population. It can refer to a city, a town, a village, a small grouping of them, or a rural area. Canada In Canada, municipal districts are a type of r ...
s, municipalities,
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
, rural municipalities,
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ...

town
s,
township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grou ...

township
s,
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
s, and
ville ''Ville'' () is the French language, French word nowadays meaning "city" or "town", but its meaning in the Middle Ages was "farm" (from Gallo-Romance VILLA < Latin ''villa rustica'') and then "village". The derivative suffix ''-ville'' is common ...

ville
s among others. The Province of
Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , capital = Toronto , larges ...

Ontario
has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities.
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. *In
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the
Panchayati Raj The Panchayat raj (''panchayat'' "village council", ''wikt:raj, raj'' "rule") is a political system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Panchayat (Nepal), Nepal. It is the oldes ...
system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Seventy-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of India, Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992. *In the Local government in the United Kingdom, United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a ''district'', and in Scotland as a ''council area''. A ''district'' may be awarded ''borough'' or ''city'' status, or can retain its ''district'' title. *In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 Parishes of Jersey, parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on, may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago, San Fernando, Port of Spain, Arima and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. *In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places (see also: Local government in the United States#Municipal governments).


Chinese-speaking

*In the China, People's Republic of China, a administrative divisions of China, direct-administered municipality (直辖市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a provinces of China, province: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, Chongqing, Chongqing Municipality, Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, and Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality (see also: Direct-administered municipalities of China). *In the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan), a administrative divisions of Taiwan, special municipality (直轄市 in pinyin: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a province: Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, and Taoyuan, Taiwan, Taoyuan (see also: Special municipality (Taiwan)).


Municipalities by country

*In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word ''concelho'' is used, when referring to the Organs of state, organ of State, the word ''município'' is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.


See also

*Council of European Municipalities and Regions *Council–manager government *Creature of statute *Lists of municipalities *Mayor–council government *Municipal corporation *Municipal government * ''''


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of administrative division Municipalities, Municipality Types of populated places