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Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail
Monorail
is a monorail system in the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra, built as part of a major expansion of public transport in the city. The project is implemented by the Mumbai
Mumbai
Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). It is the first monorail in India
India
since the Kundala Valley Railway
Kundala Valley Railway
and Patiala State Monorail
Monorail
Trainways were closed in the 1920s.[3][4] The system started commercial operation after partially opening its Phase 1 to the public in 2014. Upon the completion of entire Phase 1 in mid-2017, the Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail
Monorail
is set to become the fifth-largest monorail system in the world.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Construction 1.3 Opening

2 Plan

2.1 Line 1

3 Infrastructure

3.1 Rolling stock 3.2 Stations 3.3 Depot and control centre 3.4 Safety and security

4 Operations

4.1 Fares 4.2 Noise 4.3 Speed 4.4 Capacity and frequency

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Background[edit] The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) first proposed a monorail in 2005.[5] According to the MMRDA, the bus service operating in the city plied crowded and narrow areas at very slow speeds, thus offering no benefits to the commuters and adding to the traffic congestion. The MMRDA stated that the monorail would connect many parts of the city which were not connected by suburban rail system or the proposed metro rail system. The agency also stated that the monorail would be an efficient feeder transit to the metro and suburban rail systems offering efficient, safe, air-conditioned, comfortable and affordable public transport to commuters.[6] Then Chief Minister of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Vilasrao Deshmukh
Vilasrao Deshmukh
cleared the notification for the construction of the first monorail line in Mumbai on 18 August 2008. The line would connect Jacob Circle, Wadala
Wadala
and Mahul
Mahul
via Chembur, providing a feeder service to the existing Mumbai Suburban Railway. The notification formally appointed the MMRDA as the system administrator for the monorail project. It would be responsible for land acquisition along the route, and the construction, allied structures, signalling and safety of the monorail system.[7] On 11 November 2008, Larsen and Toubro, along with the Malaysian partners Scomi
Scomi
Engineering Bhd, were awarded a ₹24.6 billion (US$380 million) contract to build and operate the monorail until 2029.[8] The cost of the monorail service was estimated in 2010 to be ₹2.0 billion (roughly ₹850 million (US$13 million) per km). Approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) of line is planned to be built in phases between 2011 and 2031.[9] Construction[edit] Then Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Chief Minister Ashok Chavan
Ashok Chavan
laid the foundation stone in a ceremony at the Acres Club, Chembur
Chembur
on 9 February 2009.[10] The MMRDA commissioned the construction of the line in two phases. The first stretch linked Wadala
Wadala
on the outskirts of the island city with Chembur
Chembur
in the north-east, and the second connected Wadala
Wadala
with Jacob Circle in South Mumbai.[11] The original deadline for the project was April 2011.[12] The project was delayed by issues involving land, removal of encroachments, delays in getting permissions from the civic body and railways,[13] and missed several deadlines for completion. The following months had all been announced as deadlines for the first phase - December 2010, May 2011, November 2011, May 2012, December 2012, June 2013, August 2013, 15 September 2013,[14] October 2013 and December 2013. Deadlines announced for the second phase were May 2011, December 2011, May 2012, December 2012, December 2013, June 2014, December 2014 and March 2015.[15] A Right to Information (RTI) request filed by RTI activist Anil Galgali revealed that the three-year delay in commissioning the monorail was primarily due to change of alignment of its route, which led to further cost escalation of the project.[16] A 108-meter test run was successfully conducted on 26 January 2010.[17] A one-kilometer test run from Wadala
Wadala
to the Bhakti Park monorail station was undertaken on 18 February 2012.[18] The first test run of the entire route was conducted by the MMRDA in November 2012.[12] In late December 2013, the MMRDA announced that it had submitted an application to Safety Certification Authority (Engineer) for the Chembur- Wadala
Wadala
stretch. The Safety Certification Authority goes through the documents, and physically inspects the corridor, and commercial operations can commence only after receiving its approval.[19] The electrical systems were certified by the Electrical Inspector General.[18] The contractor, the consortium of L&T and Scomi
Scomi
Engineering, had safety checks performed by an independent inspector. Official safety checks were performed by SMRT Corp of Singapore and R.C. Garg, retired Commissioner of Railway Safety.[20] The final safety certificate was issued on 20 January.[21][22] The safety certificate was then forwarded to the State Government, which issued a notification for commissioning the system. The notification contains norms for operation and maintenance of the system, which requires approval from the Chief Minister.[23] Opening[edit] Line 1 was inaugurated by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan on 1 February 2014 at the Wadala
Wadala
Depot monorail station. After flagging off the first monorail train at 3:47 pm, Chavan along with Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar, and other officials rode the entire route, arriving at Chembur
Chembur
monorail station, 20 minutes later.[24][25][26][27] The party then proceeded to Gandhi Maidan, 15th Road, Chembur
Chembur
(East), where the Chavan declared the monorail "open".[28] The monorail was opened to the public the following day,[29] with the first trip commencing from Wadala
Wadala
Depot at 7:08 am.[30] According to the MMRDA, it had very few passengers, as the gates were opened to the public only at 7:10 am, when the train had already left.[31] Nallasopara resident Sunil Appa Khade claimed to be the first ever commuter on the monorail. However, Abhishek Chopra claimed that though he was second in queue, he had managed to enter the monorail first.[31][32] The first train from the opposite side, departed Chembur
Chembur
at 7:10am[33] Services had been scheduled to operate until 3:00pm, however, station doors were closed by 2:30pm due to larger than expected ridership. Services were operated until 4:30pm, in order to provide a ride to everyone who had purchased a ticket.[34] On opening day, 19,678 passengers travelled on the line. Sixty-six services were operated on the first day,[35] netting a revenue of ₹2.2 lakh (US$3,400) through the sale of tickets and smart cards.[30][32][36] In the first week of operations (2–8 February 2014), the monorail transported 1,36,865 passengers in about 512 trips, earning a total revenue of ₹14,24,810. A total of 1,32,523 tokens and 1409 smart cards were also sold during the first week.[37][38][39] According to the MMRDA, between 2 February and 1 March, a total of 4,58,871 commuters used the monorail, generating a total revenue ₹44,66,522.[40] The monorail was closed for the first time on 17 March 2014 due to Holi.[41] Plan[edit] The Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail
Monorail
master plan proposed the construction of 8 lines at a cost of ₹202.96 billion (US$3.1 billion).[42]

Phase Line Corridor Length (km) Estimated cost

Phase I 1 Chembur– Wadala
Wadala
Depot–Jacob Circle 19.54 ₹27.16 billion (US$420 million)

2 Mulund–Goregaon–Borivali 30 ₹41.7 billion (US$640 million)

4 Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg 13.14 ₹18,265 million (US$280 million)

5 Thane
Thane
Mira-Bhayandar
Mira-Bhayandar
– Dahisar 24.25 ₹33,708 million (US$520 million)

Phase II 6 Kalyan–Ulhasnagar–Dombivli 26.40 ₹36,696 million (US$560 million)

7 Chembur–Ghatkopar–Kopar Khairane 16.72 ₹36,863 million (US$560 million)

8 Mahape–Shil Phata–Kalyan 21.10 ₹29,329 million (US$450 million)

In September 2011, the MMRDA said that did not have an immediate plan to begin construction of a second monorail line in the region.[43] They clarified that although it did not mean that they are not interested in carrying out the project, it may not follow the currently planned schedule. An MMRDA official stated, "There is no point in going for new routes. As long as the first route is not commissioned and the results are not out, we would not commission any new routes". MMRDA feels the need for a monorail would arise after all the proposed metro rail routes were commissioned with the monorail serving as a feeder service."[44] In 2009, the MMRDA proposed the construction of an additional line on the Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan route. The route was proposed to have a station at every kilometer, cost ₹3,750 crore (equivalent to ₹67 billion or US$1.0 billion in 2017) and be implemented on public-private partnership basis. It was further proposed to extend the corridor from Kalyan to Badlapur in the next phase.[45] This project was shelved by the MMRDA in February 2014. The proposed corridor would have been 23.75 km long, and cost approximately ₹3,169 crore.[46] Further development of the monorail system is on hold, and questions have been raised as to whether the proposed monorail corridors will have sufficient capacity to meet Mumbai's requirements.[47] The monorail may not be further extended by the MMRDA, as it may prove inadequate for Mumbai's population density. Foreign consultants have suggested a Metro or LRT system over a monorail for many Indian cities, e.g. Bangalore.[48][49][50] On 16 April 2015, The Economic Times
The Economic Times
reported that the State Government had decided to scrap all future monorail projects. The paper quoted an MMRDA official as saying, "There was a proposal for a Monorail
Monorail
from Thane
Thane
to Kalyan and Bhiwandi, and also a line from Thane to Wadala. However, all those plans have been scrapped. There won't be any new Monorail
Monorail
projects."[51][52][53] Line 1[edit]

Line 1 on Mumbai
Mumbai
map

Main article: Line 1 ( Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail) Line 1 connects Jacob Circle
Jacob Circle
in South Mumbai
Mumbai
with Chembur
Chembur
in eastern Mumbai.[54] It was built at a cost of approximately ₹3,000 crore (US$460 million). The 20.21 km line is fully elevated. Line 1 is owned and operated by the MMRDA.[55] The monorail supplements service of the Mumbai
Mumbai
Suburban Railway in some heavily populated areas.[56] The first phase, built at a cost of ₹1,100 crore (US$170 million),[57] consists of 7 stations from Chembur
Chembur
to Wadala
Wadala
Depot, and was opened to the public on 2 February 2014. An extension for Line 1 consisting of 11 stations from Wadala
Wadala
Depot to Jacob Circle
Jacob Circle
will be built at a cost of ₹1,900 crore (US$290 million).[24] It is scheduled to open in September 2016.[58] Infrastructure[edit] Rolling stock[edit]

Monorail
Monorail
arrival inside station

The monorail uses Scomi
Scomi
SUTRA systems built in Malaysia by Scomi
Scomi
Rail Bhd. The first car was shipped to India
India
on 2 January 2010, marking the first time that rail cars manufactured by the company were exported overseas.[59] Six trains currently operate in the first phase of the line. Ten more will be added in the second phase.[60] Monorail
Monorail
trains are royal pink, apple green, and ice blue in colour,[61] with black and white stripes.[56] Each monorail train consists of 4 coaches having a combined passenger capacity of 568.[62] There are roughly 18 seated and 142 standing passengers at an average of seven persons per square metre per carriage (the end cars have a different capacity due to the driving position).[63] The low number of seats was to ensure that the flow of people in and out of the coach was not hampered.[64] Some sections of seats are reserved for pregnant women, the elderly and the differently-abled.[65] Handrails and handgrips are installed in coaches, within easy reach of all standing passengers. A 4-coach monorail train has a total length of 44.8 metres, and each coach weighs 15 tonnes.[66] All coaches are air-conditioned.[64] There are 2 CCTV cameras installed in each coach.[67] Stations[edit]

Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail
Monorail
Bhakti Park Station

The elevated stations can be reached via staircases and escalators.[56] Each station will soon have a total of four escalators - two from ground level to concourse, and two more from concourse to the platform.[68][69] Stations do not have any public toilets.[70] MMRDA Commissioner UPS Madan said, "Nowhere in the world are there public toilets at monorail stations. The monorail journey is a short one, so the provision of public toilets was not made when the plan for stations was chalked out."[71] All stations are equipped with baggage scanners, armed security guards at all stations entry points and CCTV cameras.[72] Personnel of the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Security Corporation (MSSC) are deployed at the stations.[73] As part of the Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS), the MMRDA announced in April 2017 that it would move all bus and taxi stands to a distance of about 40–50 metres away from the monorail stations. The MMRDA believes that the current location of the stand just next the stations results in traffic congestion and restricts movement of pedestrians.[74] Depot and control centre[edit] At Wadala, facilities were built on a 6.5-hectare site for administration and other operational needs.[75] The operation control centre is equipped with surveillance video feeds from CCTVs and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition), which monitors the power supply.[5] Vehicle and train washing specialist Smith Bros & Webb was awarded a contract to provide Britannia Train Wash plants for the Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail. Smith Bros & Webb designs and manufactures its own wash equipment under the brand name of Britannia.[76] Safety and security[edit] Every station on the line is equipped with Door Frame Metal Detectors (DFMDs),[77] X-ray baggage scanners, CCTV cameras[78] and comply with NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) 130 norms.[5] Around 500 armed personnel and private guards are deployed at the 7 stations of the first phase. Officers in plainclothes are present inside trains, and real-time checks are conducted to curb trouble-makers, pickpockets and molesters.[78] All stations have armed security guards at all entry points,[72] and personnel of the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Security Corporation (MSSC) are deployed at the stations.[73] All personnel manning the station premises are equipped with hand-held detectors. A bomb detection and disposal squad and a dog squad are also deployed at all stations.[78] The doors of coaches will not open when the train is in motion.[66] Train operators will be given breath analyser tests when they report for duty. Violations will be met with disciplinary action, fines, and possible civil charges.[79] Operations[edit] Fares[edit] On 1 February 2014, at the time of inauguration the minimum fare on Line 1 was ₹5 Noise[edit] According to studies conducted by the Mumbai
Mumbai
Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) during the monorail trial run, it was found that the monorail produces between 65 – 85 decibels of noise, significantly lower than the 95 decibel noise level of a BEST Bus.[80] Speed[edit] The monorail will have a top speed of 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph), an average speed of 65 kilometres per hour (40 mph)[4] and the overall speed including dwell time at stations would be around 31 kilometres per hour (19 mph).[9] Capacity and frequency[edit] The capacity of each four-car consist is 568 commuters under a 'crush load'[81] and 852 passengers for a six-car consist.[82] There are roughly 20 seated and 124 standing passengers per carriage (the end cars have a different capacity due to the driving position).[83] The system has been designed for a 3-minute headway with operation from 05:00 to 24:00. The projected peak-hour traffic is 7,400 passengers per hour per direction with 125,000 passengers per day; this is projected to rise to 8,300 and 300,000 respectively by 2013.[84] The monorail initially operated from 7 am and 3 pm.[85] This was later expanded to 7 am to 7 pm. The full operating hours will be from 5am to midnight, starting by February 2015.[86] The MMRDA announced that Mumbai
Mumbai
monorail from Wadala
Wadala
depot to Chembur
Chembur
will be running for 14 hours straight. The services would run from 6am to 8pm with a frequency of 15 minutes. Extended timing will also result in increase in number of monorail services per day from 64 to 112. See also[edit]

Transport in Mumbai Mumbai
Mumbai
Metro Mumbai
Mumbai
Suburban Railway M-Indicator

References[edit]

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Agra Metro Bhopal Metro Chandigarh Metro Guwahati Metro Indore Metro Jabalpur Metro Kanpur Metro Ludhiana Metro Meerut Metro Patna Metro Surat Metro Varanasi Metro Vijayawada Metro Visakhapatnam Metro

Proposed

Allahabad Metro Bareilly Metro Coimbatore Metro Greater Gwalior Metro Greater Nasik Metro Ranchi Metro Srinagar Metro Western railway elevated corridor

Monorail

Operational

Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail

Planned

Chennai Monorail Coimbatore Monorail

Proposed

Ahmedabad Monorail Aizawl Monorail Bengaluru Monorail Bhubaneswar Monorail Delhi Monorail Indore Monorail Kanpur Monorail Kolkata Monorail Navi Mumbai
Mumbai
Monorail Patna Monorail Pune Monorail Tiruchirappalli Monorail

Light rail

Proposed

Delhi Light Rail Transit Kolkata Light Rail Transit Kozhikode Light Metro Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro

Tram

Operational

Trams in Kolkata

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Mumbai
Mumbai
topics

History

Timeline Silhara dynasty Bombay Presidency Seven Islands of Bombay Elephanta Caves Banganga Tank Old Bombay Worli Fort Girangaon Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Movement Tanks Growth of Mumbai 1992–93 riots 1993 bombings 2008 attacks Terrorism

Geography

Powai Lake Vihar Lake Tulsi Lake Thane
Thane
Creek Mahim Bay Back Bay Mithi River Ulhas River Gilbert Hill Malabar Hill Salsette Island Mumbai
Mumbai
Harbour Middle Ground Climate Beaches Eastern Suburbs Western Suburbs South Mumbai Neighbourhoods

Buildings

Architecture of Mumbai Gateway of India Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Naval Dockyard Bombay Stock Exchange Hutatma Chowk General Post Office Shreepati Arcade Regal Cinema Mount Mary's Church Haji Ali Dargah Flora Fountain David Sassoon Library Mumba Devi Temple Mahalaxmi Temple Prince of Wales Museum National Gallery of Modern Art Asiatic Society of Mumbai Jehangir Art Gallery Gowalia Tank Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Mahim Church

Transport

Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
(BEST) Mumbai
Mumbai
Suburban Railway Central Railway Western Railway Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Juhu Aerodrome Auto rickshaw Metro Monorail Skywalk Western railway elevated corridor Water transport Mumbai
Mumbai
Bus Rapid Transit System Mumbai
Mumbai
Urban Transport Project

Roads

Airoli Bridge Altamount Road Bandra–Worli Sea Link Carmichael Road Colaba Causeway Currey Road Bridge Dadabhai Naoroji Road Eastern Express Highway Eastern Freeway Fashion Street Hughes Road Jeejabai Bhosle Marg JVLR Linking Road Lady Jamshetjee Road LBS Marg Lamington Road Mahim Causeway Marine Drive MTHL Nepean Sea Road P D'Mello Road Pedder Road Princess Street SCLR SV Road Sahar Elevated Access Road Sion Panvel Highway Vashi Bridge Veera Desai Road Western Express Highway

Economy

Bombay Stock Exchange National Stock Exchange of India Reserve Bank of India Mint Dalal Street Nariman Point

Education and Research

Universities & Colleges

University of Mumbai
Mumbai
(MU) SNDT Women's University Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay (IIT-B) Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
(VJTI) Mulund
Mulund
College of Commerce ICT (formerly UDCT) NITIE Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
(JBIMS) SP Jain Institute of Management and Research NMIMS St. Xavier's College Sathaye College Ramnarain Ruia College DG Ruparel College Ramniranjan Anandilal Podar College of Commerce and Economics V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce

Schools

Bombay Scottish School Campion School Cathedral and John Connon School Dhirubhai Ambani International School Dr. Antonio Da Silva High School Jamnabai Narsee School Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan King George High School, Dadar(E) St. Theresa's Boys High School

Institutes for Science & Learning

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
(TIFR) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
(BARC) Nehru Planetarium Nehru Science Centre Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CBS)

Civic

Mayor Police Commissioner Municipal Commissioner Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation Mumbai
Mumbai
Police Wards Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport Demographics Water sources Bombay High
Bombay High
Court Sheriff

Culture

Marathi Mumbaiya/Bombaiya/Bambaiya Dabbawalas Mumbaikar Street food Vada pav Bhelpuri Sevpuri Dahi puri Panipuri Ragda pattice Cultural centres Cinemas Kala Ghoda festival Mumbai
Mumbai
Marathon Tourist attractions Little Bombay, Jersey City, USA

Religion in Mumbai

Jainism in Mumbai Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bombay History of the Jews in Mumbai List of churches in Mumbai Anglican Diocese of Bombay Mumbai
Mumbai
Orthodox Diocese

Other topics

Bombay High Kamathipura Dharavi People from Mumbai

Category Commons Mumbai
Mumbai
portal

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Railways in Western India

National network / trunk lines

New Delhi– Mumbai
Mumbai
main line Konkan Railway Howrah–Allahabad– Mumbai
Mumbai
line Howrah–Nagpur– Mumbai
Mumbai
line Mumbai–Chennai line Jaipur–Ahmedabad line Ahmedabad– Mumbai
Mumbai
main line

Branch lines / sections

Mathura–Vadodara Section Akola–Ratlam line Ahmedabad–Viramgam section Bhusawal–Kalyan section Gandhidham–Ahmedabad main line Gandhidham–Bhuj section Gandhidham–Kandla Port section Gandhidham–Palanpur section Gandhidham–Samakhiali section Jodhpur–Bathinda line Maliya Miyana–Wankaner section Marwar Junction–Munabao line Mumbai
Mumbai
Dadar–Solapur section Nagpur–Bhusawal section Samakhiali–Maliya Miyana section Solapur–Guntakal section Surendranagar–Bhavnagar line Viramgam–Mahesana section Viramgam–Maliya Miyana section Viramgam–Okha line Viramgam–Surendra Nagar section Wankaner–Surendra Nagar section

Suburban lines

Ahmedabad (Planned) Mumbai
Mumbai
(Western line Central line Harbour line Trans-Harbour line Nerul-Uran line (Under construction)) Pune

Metro rail

Mumbai
Mumbai
Metro Navi Mumbai
Mumbai
Metro Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad Greater Nashik Metro Surat Metro Pune Metro Nagpur Metro

Monorail

Ahmedabad (Planned) Mumbai
Mumbai
(Line 1 Navi Mumbai) Pune

Defunct lines revived / under revival

Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway Barsi Light Railway

Defunct lines

Salsette–Trombay Railway Bhavnagar State Railway Gaekwar's Baroda State Railway West of India
India
Portuguese Railway Bombay, Baroda and Central India
India
Railway Cutch State Railway

Railway divisions

Bhusawal Pune

Railway companies

Central Railway Western Railway West Central Railway Konkan Railway
Konkan Railway
Corporation Great Indian Peninsula Railway Saurashtra Railway Mumbai
Mumbai
Port Trust Railway

See also

Indian Railways Bholu (mascot) Urban rail transit in India Delhi– Mumbai
Mumbai
Industrial Corridor Project Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor Bhor Ghat

Railways in

.