Mpumalanga /əmˌpuːməˈlɑːŋɡə/ ( listen) is a
province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the
place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu
Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, bordering
Swaziland and Mozambique. It constitutes 6.5% of South Africa's land
area. It shares borders with the South African provinces of
Gauteng to the west, the Free State to the southwest, and
KwaZulu-Natal to the south. The capital is Nelspruit.
1.2 Fauna and flora
2 Law and government
5 See also
Mpumalanga was part of the now-defunct Transvaal
Province. The province's name was Eastern Transvaal, from the its
initial establishment in 1994 until 24 August 1995. Prior to the
establishment of the province, the term "Eastern Transvaal" was used
to refer to the eastern part of Transvaal Province.
Drakensberg escarpment divides
Mpumalanga into a westerly half
consisting mainly of high-altitude grassland called the
an eastern half situated in low-altitude subtropical Lowveld/Bushveld,
mostly savanna habitat. The southern half of the Kruger National Park
is in the latter region. The
Drakensberg exceeds heights of
2000 m in most places, with this central region of Mpumalanga
being very mountainous. These regions have alpine grasslands and small
pockets of Afromontane forest. The
Lowveld is relatively flat with
interspersed rocky outcrops. The
Lebombo Mountains form a low range in
the far east, on the border with Mozambique.
Some of the oldest rocks on earth have been found in the Barberton
area; these ancient greenstones and metamorphosed granites form the
Crocodile River Mountains in the southeast of the province. The
Lowveld is underlaid by African Cratonic Basement rocks of ages in
excess of 2 billion years. The
Highveld is mostly Karoo Sequence
sedimentary rock of a younger,
Mpumalanga is the only South African province to border two provinces
Gaza Province to the northeast and
Maputo Province to
the east), as well as all four districts of
Hhohho, Manzini, and
Lowveld is subtropical, due to its latitude and proximity to the
warm Indian Ocean. The
Highveld is comparatively much cooler, due to
its altitude of 2300 m to 1700 m above sea level. The
Drakensberg escarpment receives the most precipitation, with all other
areas being moderately well-watered by mostly summer thunderstorms.
Highveld often experiences severe frost, while the
mostly frost-free. Winter rainfall is rare, except for some drizzle on
the escarpment. The differences in climate are demonstrated below by
the capital, Nelspruit, which is in the Lowveld, an hour from Belfast
on the Highveld.
Nelspruit averages: January maximum: 29 °C (min: 19 °C),
July maximum: 23 °C (min: 6 °C), annual precipitation:
Belfast averages: January maximum: 23 °C (min: 12 °C),
June maximum: 15 °C (min: 1 °C), annual precipitation:
Fauna and flora
The diverse and special flora and fauna of the province enjoys
protection in a range of nature reserves, including:
Blyderivierspoort Nature Reserve
Limpopo Transfrontier Park, previously known as
Gaza-Kruger-Gonarezhou Transfrontier Park. This international game
park brings together some of the best and most established wildlife
areas in southern Africa. The park is managed as an integrated unit
across an unprecedented three international boundaries which includes
Kruger National Park
Kruger National Park (South Africa),
Limpopo National Park
Gonarezhou National Park
Gonarezhou National Park (Zimbabwe).
Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which is built up of numerous private
reserves: Nottens Bush Camp, Idube Safari Lodge, Chitwa Chitwa Game
Lodge, Djuma Game Reserve, Exeter Game Lodge, Inyati Private Game
Reserve, Leopard Hills Private Game Reserve, Lion Sands Private Game
Reserve, Londolozi Game Reserve, Mala Mala Game Reserve, Savanna
Private Game Reserve and Ulusaba Game Lodge.
Flag of Mpumalanga
Law and government
Main article: Politics of Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga Province's legislation is an amalgam of national and
regional legislation promulgated before the establishment of the
province on 27 April 1994 and legislation which it has itself
promulgated since it came into existence. Lists of and the original
texts of this legislation are available through South African
governmental websites. Amended and updated versions of the legislation
is available through commercial vendors on subscription and at a
price. See External links for more information.
Mpumalanga Province is divided into three municipal districts, which
are further subdivided into 18 local municipalities:
Gert Sibande District
Pixley ka Seme
Dr JS Moroka
The climatic contrasts between the drier
Highveld region, with its
cold winters, and the hot, humid
Lowveld allow for a variety of
agricultural activities. 68% of
Mpumalanga is used by agriculture.
Crops include maize, wheat, sorghum, barley, sunflower seed, soybeans,
macadamia's, groundnuts, sugar cane, vegetables, coffee, tea, cotton,
tobacco, citrus, subtropical and deciduous fruit.
Forestry is extensive around
Sabie in the far north east of the
province. Located near the forests,
Ngodwana is the site of one of
South Africa's largest paper mills (Sappi).
Natural grazing covers approximately 14% of Mpumalanga. The main
products are beef, mutton, wool, poultry and dairy.
Extensive mining is done and the minerals found include gold, platinum
group metals, silica, chromite, vanadiferous magnetite, argentiferous
zinc, antimony, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, tin, coal,
andalusite, chrysotile asbestos, kieselguhr, limestone, magnesite,
talc and shale.
Gold was first discovered in
Mpumalanga province in 1883 by Auguste
Roberts in the mountains surrounding what is now Barberton. Gold is
still mined in the Barberton area today.
Mpumalanga accounts for 83% of South Africa's coal production. 90% of
South Africa's coal consumption is used for electricity generation and
the synthetic fuel industry. Coal power stations are in proximity to
the coal deposits. A coal liquefaction plant in Secunda (Secunda CTL)
is one of the country's two petroleum-from-coal extraction plants,
which is operated by the synthetic fuel company Sasol.
Mpumalanga is popular with tourists. Kruger National Park, established
in 1898 for the protection of
Lowveld wildlife, covering 20,000 square
kilometres (7,700 sq mi), is a popular destination. The
other major tourist attractions include the
Sudwala Caves and the
Blyde River Canyon.
Many activities including the big jump, mountain and quad biking,
horse trails, river rafting and big game viewing are endemic to the
region. This is "Big Five" territory. Towns in the
Barberton, Mbombela, White River, Sabie, Graskop, Hazyview, Malelane,
Lydenburg and Nkomazi.
In 2008, a
Haute Cuisine route was formed, trickling from Nelspruit
down to Hazyview. The
Lowveld Gourmet Route covers the four top fine
dining restaurants the area has to offer. The restaurants include
Summerfields Kitchen, Oliver’s Restaurant, Orange and Salt.
The Wakkerstroom area in the Southern
Mpumalanga highlands is a
world-renowned birding hot spot.[according to whom?] The special birds
that tourists travel to see are Rudd's lark, Botha's lark, wattled
crane and yellow-breasted pipit, among over 300 grassland species.
Population density in Mpumalanga
Dominant home languages in Mpumalanga
No language dominant
Some 30% of the people speak siSwati, the language of neighbouring
Swaziland, with 26% speaking isiZulu, 10.3% isiNdebele, 10.2% Northern
Sotho and 11.6% Xitsonga.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mpumalanga.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mpumalanga.
List of Speakers of the
Mpumalanga Provincial Legislature
^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics
South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the
original on 13 May 2015.
^ "Mid-year population estimates, 2017" (PDF). Statistics South
Africa. 31 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ "Private Safari Lodge". nottens.co.za.
Mpumalanga in brief: The economy of the province Archived 13 May
2006 at the Wayback Machine. (URL accessed 30 April 2006)
Mpumalanga South Africa, ExploreSouthAfrica.net. (URL
accessed 30 April 2006)
South Africa Country Analysis Brief, Energy Information
Administration. (URL accessed 30 April 2006)
^ "Kruger National Park",
South Africa Explored.
Mpumalanga news". mpumalanga.co.za.
Mpumalanga Haute Cuisine[permanent dead link]
Mpumalanga Provincial Government
Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Agency
Administrative divisions of South Africa
Cape Town (legislative)
List of municipalities in South Africa
Province of Mpumalanga
Capital and largest city: Nelspruit
Population: 3,657,181 (2011)
Land area: 76,495 km2
Coordinates: 26°S 30°E / 26°S