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Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
/əmˌpuːməˈlɑːŋɡə/ ( listen) is a province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu languages. Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
lies in eastern South Africa, bordering Swaziland
Swaziland
and Mozambique. It constitutes 6.5% of South Africa's land area. It shares borders with the South African provinces of Limpopo
Limpopo
to the north, Gauteng
Gauteng
to the west, the Free State to the southwest, and KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
to the south. The capital is Nelspruit.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate 1.2 Fauna and flora

2 Law and government

2.1 Municipalities

3 Economy

3.1 Farming 3.2 Mining 3.3 Attractions

4 Demographics 5 See also 6 References 7 Links

Geography[edit] Before 1994, Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
was part of the now-defunct Transvaal Province. The province's name was Eastern Transvaal, from the its initial establishment in 1994 until 24 August 1995. Prior to the establishment of the province, the term "Eastern Transvaal" was used to refer to the eastern part of Transvaal Province. The Drakensberg
Drakensberg
escarpment divides Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
into a westerly half consisting mainly of high-altitude grassland called the Highveld
Highveld
and an eastern half situated in low-altitude subtropical Lowveld/Bushveld, mostly savanna habitat. The southern half of the Kruger National Park is in the latter region. The Drakensberg
Drakensberg
exceeds heights of 2000 m in most places, with this central region of Mpumalanga being very mountainous. These regions have alpine grasslands and small pockets of Afromontane forest. The Lowveld
Lowveld
is relatively flat with interspersed rocky outcrops. The Lebombo Mountains
Lebombo Mountains
form a low range in the far east, on the border with Mozambique. Some of the oldest rocks on earth have been found in the Barberton area; these ancient greenstones and metamorphosed granites form the Crocodile River Mountains in the southeast of the province. The Lowveld
Lowveld
is underlaid by African Cratonic Basement rocks of ages in excess of 2 billion years. The Highveld
Highveld
is mostly Karoo Sequence sedimentary rock of a younger, Carboniferous
Carboniferous
to Permian
Permian
age. Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
is the only South African province to border two provinces of Mozambique
Mozambique
( Gaza Province
Gaza Province
to the northeast and Maputo Province
Maputo Province
to the east), as well as all four districts of Swaziland
Swaziland
(Lubombo, Hhohho, Manzini, and Shiselweni
Shiselweni
Districts). Climate[edit] The Lowveld
Lowveld
is subtropical, due to its latitude and proximity to the warm Indian Ocean. The Highveld
Highveld
is comparatively much cooler, due to its altitude of 2300 m to 1700 m above sea level. The Drakensberg
Drakensberg
escarpment receives the most precipitation, with all other areas being moderately well-watered by mostly summer thunderstorms. The Highveld
Highveld
often experiences severe frost, while the Lowveld
Lowveld
is mostly frost-free. Winter rainfall is rare, except for some drizzle on the escarpment. The differences in climate are demonstrated below by the capital, Nelspruit, which is in the Lowveld, an hour from Belfast on the Highveld.

Nelspruit
Nelspruit
averages: January maximum: 29 °C (min: 19 °C), July maximum: 23 °C (min: 6 °C), annual precipitation: 767 mm Belfast averages: January maximum: 23 °C (min: 12 °C), June maximum: 15 °C (min: 1 °C), annual precipitation: 878 mm

Fauna and flora[edit] The diverse and special flora and fauna of the province enjoys protection in a range of nature reserves, including:

Blyderivierspoort Nature Reserve Great Limpopo
Limpopo
Transfrontier Park, previously known as Gaza-Kruger-Gonarezhou Transfrontier Park. This international game park brings together some of the best and most established wildlife areas in southern Africa. The park is managed as an integrated unit across an unprecedented three international boundaries which includes the Kruger National Park
Kruger National Park
(South Africa), Limpopo
Limpopo
National Park (Mozambique) and Gonarezhou National Park
Gonarezhou National Park
(Zimbabwe). Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which is built up of numerous private reserves: Nottens Bush Camp,[3] Idube Safari Lodge, Chitwa Chitwa Game Lodge, Djuma Game Reserve, Exeter Game Lodge, Inyati Private Game Reserve, Leopard Hills Private Game Reserve, Lion Sands Private Game Reserve, Londolozi Game Reserve, Mala Mala Game Reserve, Savanna Private Game Reserve and Ulusaba Game Lodge.

Flag of Mpumalanga

Law and government[edit] Main article: Politics of Mpumalanga The Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Province's legislation is an amalgam of national and regional legislation promulgated before the establishment of the province on 27 April 1994 and legislation which it has itself promulgated since it came into existence. Lists of and the original texts of this legislation are available through South African governmental websites. Amended and updated versions of the legislation is available through commercial vendors on subscription and at a price. See External links for more information. Municipalities[edit] Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Province is divided into three municipal districts, which are further subdivided into 18 local municipalities:

Ehlanzeni District

Bushbruckridge Mbombela Nkomazi Thaba Chweu Umjindi

Gert Sibande District

Albert Luthuli Dipaleseng Govan Mbeki Lekwa Mkhondo Msukaligwa Pixley ka Seme

Nkangala District

Delmas Dr JS Moroka Emalahleni Highlands Steve Tshwete Thembisile

Economy[edit] Farming[edit] The climatic contrasts between the drier Highveld
Highveld
region, with its cold winters, and the hot, humid Lowveld
Lowveld
allow for a variety of agricultural activities. 68% of Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
is used by agriculture. Crops include maize, wheat, sorghum, barley, sunflower seed, soybeans, macadamia's, groundnuts, sugar cane, vegetables, coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, citrus, subtropical and deciduous fruit.[citation needed] Forestry
Forestry
is extensive around Sabie
Sabie
in the far north east of the province. Located near the forests, Ngodwana
Ngodwana
is the site of one of South Africa's largest paper mills (Sappi).[4] Natural grazing covers approximately 14% of Mpumalanga. The main products are beef, mutton, wool, poultry and dairy. Mining[edit] Extensive mining is done and the minerals found include gold, platinum group metals, silica, chromite, vanadiferous magnetite, argentiferous zinc, antimony, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, tin, coal, andalusite, chrysotile asbestos, kieselguhr, limestone, magnesite, talc and shale. Gold was first discovered in Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
province in 1883 by Auguste Roberts in the mountains surrounding what is now Barberton. Gold is still mined in the Barberton area today.[5] Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
accounts for 83% of South Africa's coal production. 90% of South Africa's coal consumption is used for electricity generation and the synthetic fuel industry. Coal power stations are in proximity to the coal deposits. A coal liquefaction plant in Secunda (Secunda CTL) is one of the country's two petroleum-from-coal extraction plants, which is operated by the synthetic fuel company Sasol.[6] Attractions[edit] Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
is popular with tourists. Kruger National Park, established in 1898 for the protection of Lowveld
Lowveld
wildlife, covering 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi), is a popular destination.[7] The other major tourist attractions include the Sudwala Caves
Sudwala Caves
and the Blyde River Canyon. Many activities including the big jump, mountain and quad biking, horse trails, river rafting and big game viewing are endemic to the region. This is "Big Five" territory. Towns in the Lowveld
Lowveld
are Barberton, Mbombela, White River, Sabie, Graskop, Hazyview, Malelane, Pilgrim's Rest, Lydenburg
Lydenburg
and Nkomazi.[8] In 2008, a Haute Cuisine
Haute Cuisine
route was formed, trickling from Nelspruit down to Hazyview. The Lowveld
Lowveld
Gourmet Route covers the four top fine dining restaurants the area has to offer. The restaurants include Summerfields Kitchen, Oliver’s Restaurant, Orange and Salt.[9] The Wakkerstroom area in the Southern Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
highlands is a world-renowned birding hot spot.[according to whom?] The special birds that tourists travel to see are Rudd's lark, Botha's lark, wattled crane and yellow-breasted pipit, among over 300 grassland species. Demographics[edit]

Population density in Mpumalanga

  <1 /km²   1–3 /km²   3–10 /km²   10–30 /km²   30–100 /km²

  100–300 /km²   300–1000 /km²   1000–3000 /km²   >3000 /km²

Dominant home languages in Mpumalanga

  Afrikaans   English   Ndebele   Xhosa   Zulu

  Northern Sotho   Tswana   Swazi   Tsonga   No language dominant

Some 30% of the people speak siSwati, the language of neighbouring Swaziland, with 26% speaking isiZulu, 10.3% isiNdebele, 10.2% Northern Sotho and 11.6% Xitsonga.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mpumalanga.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mpumalanga.

See also[edit]

List of Speakers of the Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Provincial Legislature

References[edit]

^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.  ^ "Mid-year population estimates, 2017" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 31 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ "Private Safari Lodge". nottens.co.za.  ^ Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
in brief: The economy of the province Archived 13 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (URL accessed 30 April 2006) ^ "Barberton", Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
South Africa, ExploreSouthAfrica.net. (URL accessed 30 April 2006) ^ "Coal", South Africa
South Africa
Country Analysis Brief, Energy Information Administration. (URL accessed 30 April 2006) ^ "Kruger National Park", South Africa
South Africa
Explored. ^ " Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
news". mpumalanga.co.za.  ^ Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Haute Cuisine[permanent dead link]

Links[edit]

Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Provincial Government Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Tourism and Parks Agency

v t e

Administrative divisions of South Africa

Capitals: Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive) Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial) Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)

Provinces

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

Municipalities

List of municipalities in South Africa

By province

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

Types

Metropolitan Local District Transitional

Settlements

By province

Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape

v t e

Province of Mpumalanga

Capital and largest city: Nelspruit Population: 3,657,181 (2011) Land area: 76,495 km2 Flag

Topics

History Government Politics Economy Climate Ecology

Government

Premier Legislature
Legislature
(Speakers) High Court Municipalities

Cities and major towns

Witbank Middelburg Ermelo Bethal Nelspruit Piet Retief Standerton Lydenburg Secunda Volksrust

Coordinates: 26°S 30°E / 26°S

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