Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the
system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable
components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual
letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
The world's first movable type printing press technology for printing
paper books was made of porcelain materials and was invented around AD
1040 in China during the
Northern Song Dynasty
Northern Song Dynasty by the inventor Bi
Sheng (990–1051). Subsequently in 1377, the world's oldest extant
movable metal print book, Jikji, was printed in
Korea during the
Goryeo dynasty. Because of this, the diffusion of both movable-type
systems was, to some degree, limited to primarily East Asia, although
various sporadic reports of movable type technology were brought back
to Europe by Christian missionaries, traders and business people who
were returning to Europe after having worked in China for several
years and influenced the development of printing technology in Europe.
Some of these medieval European accounts are still preserved in the
library archives of the Vatican and Oxford University among many
others. Around 1450,
Johannes Gutenberg introduced the metal
movable-type printing press in Europe, along with innovations in
casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. The small number of
alphabetic characters needed for European languages was an important
factor. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an
alloy of lead, tin, and antimony—and these materials remained
standard for 550 years.
For alphabetic scripts, movable-type page setting was quicker than
woodblock printing. The metal type pieces were more durable and the
lettering was more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The high
quality and relatively low price of the
Gutenberg Bible (1455)
established the superiority of movable type in Europe and the use of
printing presses spread rapidly. The printing press may be regarded as
one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance and due to its
effectiveness, its use spread around the globe.
The 19th-century invention of hot metal typesetting and its successors
caused movable type to decline in the 20th century.
1 Precursors to movable type
1.1 Letter punch and coins
1.2 Seals and stamps
1.3 Woodblock printing
2.1 Ceramic movable type
2.2 Wooden movable type
2.3 Metal movable type in China
2.4 Metal movable type in Korea
2.5 Metal movable type in Europe
5 Metal type combined with other methods
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Precursors to movable type
Letter punch and coins
Movable type traces its origins to the punches used to make coins: the
reverse face of a
Tetradrachm Greek coin from Athens, 5th century BC,
featuring various letters and the owl symbol of Athena.
The technique of imprinting multiple copies of symbols or glyphs with
a master type punch made of hard metal first developed around 3000 BC
in ancient Sumer. These metal punch types can be seen as precursors of
the letter punches adapted in later millennia to printing with movable
metal type. Cylinder seals were used in
Mesopotamia to create an
impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay. They were
used to "sign" documents and mark objects as the owner's property.
Cylinder seals were a related form of early typography capable of
printing small page designs in relief (cameo) on wax or clay—a
miniature forerunner of rotogravure printing used by wealthy
individuals to seal and certify documents. By 650 BC the ancient
Greeks were using larger diameter punches to imprint small page images
onto coins and tokens.
The designs of the artists who made the first coin punches were
stylized with a degree of skill that could not be mistaken for common
handiwork—salient and very specific types designed to be reproduced
ad infinitum. Unlike the first typefaces used to print books in the
13th century, coin types were neither combined nor printed with ink on
paper, but "published" in metal—a more durable medium—and survived
in substantial numbers. As the portable face of ruling authority,
coins were a compact form of standardized knowledge issued in large
editions, an early mass medium that stabilized trade and civilization
throughout the Mediterranean world of antiquity.
Seals and stamps
Main articles: Mudbrick stamp, Cylinder seal, and Phaistos Disc
Brick "stamp mold" for the King of Larsa, Sin-Iddinam. (for Sun God,
Utu, foundation deposit of temple)
A replica of the Phaistos Disc
Seals and stamps may have been precursors to movable type. The uneven
spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian
Uruk and Larsa, dating from the 2nd millennium BC, has been
conjectured by some archaeologists as evidence that the stamps were
made using movable type. The enigmatic Minoan
Phaistos Disc of
1800–1600 BC has been considered by one scholar as an early example
of a body of text being reproduced with reusable characters: it may
have been produced by pressing pre-formed hieroglyphic "seals" into
the soft clay. A few authors even view the disc as technically meeting
all definitional criteria to represent an early incidence of
movable-type printing. Recently it has been alleged by Jerome
Eisenberg that the disk is a forgery.
Prüfening dedicatory inscription
Prüfening dedicatory inscription is medieval example of movable
type stamps being used.
Main article: Woodblock printing
The intricate frontispiece of the
Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty
China, an early woodblock-printed book, AD 868 (British Museum)
Following the invention of paper in the 2nd century AD during the
Chinese Han Dynasty, writing materials became more portable and
economical than the bones, shells, bamboo slips, metal or stone
tablets, silk, etc. previously used. Yet copying books by hand was
still labour-consuming. Not until the Xiping Era (172–178 AD),
towards the end of the Eastern
Han Dynasty did sealing print and
monotype appear. It was soon used for printing designs on fabrics, and
later for printing texts.
Woodblock printing, invented by about the 8th century during the Tang
Dynasty, worked as follows. First, the neat hand-copied script was
stuck on a relatively thick and smooth board, with the front of the
paper, which was so thin that it was nearly transparent, sticking to
the board, and characters showing in reverse, but distinctly, so that
every stroke could be easily recognized. Then carvers cut away the
parts of the board that were not part of the character, so that the
characters were cut in relief, completely differently from those cut
intaglio. When printing, the bulging characters would have some ink
spread on them and be covered by paper. With workers' hands moving on
the back of paper gently, characters would be printed on the paper. By
the Song Dynasty, woodblock printing came to its heyday. Although
woodblock printing played an influential role in spreading culture,
there remained some apparent drawbacks. Firstly, carving the printing
plate required considerable time, labour and materials; secondly, it
was not convenient to store these plates; and finally, it was
difficult to correct mistakes.
With woodblock printing, one printing plate could be used for tens of
hundreds of books, playing a magnificent role in spreading culture.
Yet carving the plate was time and labour consuming. Huge books cost
years of effort. The plates needed a lot of storage space, and were
often damaged by deformation, worms and corrosion. If books had a
small print run, and were not reprinted, the printing plates would
become nothing but waste; and worse, if a mistake was found, it was
difficult to correct it without discarding the whole plate.
Letterpress printing and
History of printing
History of printing in
Ceramic movable type
Bi Sheng (毕昇/畢昇) (990–1051) developed the first known
movable-type system for printing in China around 1040 AD during the
Northern Song dynasty, using ceramic materials. As described
by the Chinese scholar
Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031–1095):
When he wished to print, he took an iron frame and set it on the iron
plate. In this he placed the types, set close together. When the frame
was full, the whole made one solid block of type. He then placed it
near the fire to warm it. When the paste [at the back] was slightly
melted, he took a smooth board and pressed it over the surface, so
that the block of type became as even as a whetstone.
For each character there were several types, and for certain common
characters there were twenty or more types each, in order to be
prepared for the repetition of characters on the same page. When the
characters were not in use he had them arranged with paper labels, one
label for each rhyme-group, and kept them in wooden cases.
If one were to print only two or three copies, this method would be
neither simple nor easy. But for printing hundreds or thousands of
copies, it was marvelously quick. As a rule he kept two forms going.
While the impression was being made from the one form, the type was
being put in place on the other. When the printing of the one form was
finished, the other was then ready. In this way the two forms
alternated and the printing was done with great rapidity.
In 1193, Zhou Bida, an officer of
Southern Song Dynasty, made a set of
clay movable-type method according to the method described by Shen Kuo
in his Dream Pool Essays, and printed his book Notes of The Jade Hall
The claim that Bi Sheng's clay types were "fragile" and "not practical
for large-scale printing" and "short lived" was refuted by facts
and experiments. Bao Shicheng (1775–1885) wrote that baked clay
moveable type was "as hard and tough as horn"; experiments show that
clay type, after being baked in an oven, becomes hard and difficult to
break, such that it remains intact after being dropped from a height
of two metres onto a marble floor. The length of clay movable types in
China was 1 to 2 centimetres, not 2mm, thus hard as horn.
There has been an ongoing debate regarding the success of ceramic
printing technology as there have been no printed materials found with
ceramic movable types. However, it is historically recorded to have
been used as late as 1844 in China from the
Song dynasty through the
Wooden movable type
Bi Sheng (990–1051) also pioneered the use of wooden movable type
around 1040 AD, as described by the Chinese scholar Shen Kuo
(1031–1095). However, this technology was abandoned in favour of
clay movable types due to the presence of wood grains and the
unevenness of the wooden type after being soaked in ink.
A revolving typecase for wooden type in China, from Wang Zhen's book
published in 1313
In 1298, Wang Zhen (王祯/王禎), a
Yuan dynasty governmental
official of Jingde County,
Anhui Province, China, re-invented a method
of making movable wooden types. He made more than 30,000 wooden
movable types and printed 100 copies of Records of Jingde County
(《旌德縣志》), a book of more than 60,000 Chinese characters.
Soon afterwards, he summarized his invention in his book A method of
making moveable wooden types for printing books. Although the wooden
type was more durable under the mechanical rigors of handling,
repeated printing wore the character faces down, and the types could
only be replaced by carving new pieces. This system was later enhanced
by pressing wooden blocks into sand and casting metal types from the
depression in copper, bronze, iron or tin. This new method overcame
many of the shortcomings of woodblock printing. Rather than manually
carving an individual block to print a single page, movable type
printing allowed for the quick assembly of a page of text.
Furthermore, these new, more compact type fonts could be reused and
stored. The set of wafer-like metal stamp types could be
assembled to form pages, inked, and page impressions taken from
rubbings on cloth or paper. In 1322，a
Fenghua county officer Ma
Chengde (馬称德) in Zhejiang, made 100,000 wooded movable types and
printed the 43-volume Daxue Yanyi (《大學衍義》). Wooden movable
types were used continually in China. Even as late as 1733, a
2300-volume Wuying Palace Collected Gems Edition
(《武英殿聚珍版叢書》) was printed with 253,500 wooden
movable types on order of the Yongzheng Emperor, and completed in one
A number of books printed in
Tangut script during the Western Xia
(1038–1227) period are known, of which the Auspicious Tantra of
All-Reaching Union that was discovered in the ruins of Baisigou Square
Pagoda in 1991 is believed to have been printed sometime during the
reign of Emperor Renzong of
Western Xia (1139–1193). It is
considered by many Chinese experts to be the earliest extant example
of a book printed using wooden movable type.
The logistical problems of handling the several thousand logographs
(required for full literacy in Chinese language) posed a particular
difficulty. It was faster to carve one woodblock per page than to
composit a page from so many different types. However, if one used
movable type to produce multiple copies of the same document, the
speed of printing would increase relatively.:201
Metal movable type in China
At least 13 material finds in China indicate the invention of bronze
movable type printing in China no later than the 12th century,
with the country producing large-scale bronze-plate-printed paper
money and formal official documents issued by the Jin (1115–1234)
Southern Song (1127–1279) dynasties with embedded bronze metal
types for anti-counterfeit markers. Such paper-money printing might
date back to the 11th-century jiaozi of Northern Song
Copperplate of 1215–1216 5000-cash
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) paper
money with bronze movable type counterfeit markers
The typical example of this kind of bronze movable type embedded
copper-block printing is a printed "check" of the Jin Dynasty with two
square holes for embedding two bronze movable-type characters, each
selected from 1,000 different characters, such that each printed paper
note has a different combination of markers. A copper-block printed
note dated between 1215–1216 in the collection of Luo Zhenyu's
Paper Money of the Four Dynasties, 1914, shows two special
characters – one called Ziliao, the other called Zihao – for the
purpose of preventing counterfeiting; over the Ziliao there is a small
character (輶) printed with movable copper type, while over the Zihao
there is an empty square hole – apparently the associated copper
metal type was lost. Another sample of
Song dynasty money of the same
period in the collection of the
Shanghai Museum has two empty square
holes above Ziliao as well as Zihou, due to the loss of the two copper
Song dynasty bronze block embedded with bronze metal
movable type printed paper money was issued on a large scale and
remained in circulation for a long time.
The 1298 book Zao Huozi Yinshufa
(《造活字印书法》/《造活字印書法》) by the Yuan
dynasty (1271–1368) official Wang Zhen mentions tin movable type,
used probably since the
Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), but this
was largely experimental. It was unsatisfactory due to its
incompatibility with the inking process.:217
Mongol Empire (1206–1405), printing using movable type
spread from China to Central Asia.[clarification needed] The Uyghurs
of Central Asia used movable type, their script type adopted from the
Mongol language, some with Chinese words printed between the pages –
strong evidence that the books were printed in China.
A page from bronze movable-type book by Hua Sui, printed in 1490
Ming Dynasty (1368–1644),
Hua Sui in 1490 used bronze
type in printing books.:212 In 1574 the massive 1000-volume
encyclopedia Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era
(《太平御览》/《太平御覧》) was printed with bronze
In 1725 the
Qing Dynasty government made 250,000 bronze movable-type
characters and printed 64 sets of the encyclopedic Gujin Tushu Jicheng
Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current
Times). Each set consisted of 5,040 volumes, making a total of 322,560
volumes printed using movable type.
Metal movable type in Korea
Korean movable type from 1377 used for the Jikji;
In 1234 the first books known to have been printed in metallic type
set were published in
Goryeo Dynasty Korea. They form a set of ritual
books, Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun, compiled by Choe Yun-ui. 
While these books have not survived, the oldest book in the world
printed in metallic movable types is Jikji, printed in
1377. The Asian Reading Room of the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress in
Washington, D.C. displays examples of this metal type. Commenting
on the invention of metallic types by Koreans, French scholar
Henri-Jean Martin described this as "[extremely similar] to
The techniques for bronze casting, used at the time for making coins
(as well as bells and statues) were adapted to making metal type. The
Joseon dynasty scholar Seong Hyeon (성현, 成俔, 1439–1504)
records the following description of the Korean font-casting process:
At first, one cuts letters in beech wood. One fills a trough level
with fine sandy [clay] of the reed-growing seashore. Wood-cut letters
are pressed into the sand, then the impressions become negative and
form letters [moulds]. At this step, placing one trough together with
another, one pours the molten bronze down into an opening. The fluid
flows in, filling these negative moulds, one by one becoming type.
Lastly, one scrapes and files off the irregularities, and piles them
up to be arranged.
A potential solution to the linguistic and cultural bottleneck that
held back movable type in
Korea for 200 years appeared in the early
15th century—a generation before Gutenberg would begin working on
his own movable-type invention in Europe—when Sejong the Great
devised a simplified alphabet of 24 characters (hangul) for use by the
common people, which could have made the typecasting and compositing
process more feasible. But Korea's cultural elite, "appalled at the
idea of losing hanja, the badge of their elitism", stifled the
adoption of the new alphabet.
A "Confucian prohibition on the commercialization of printing" also
obstructed the proliferation of movable type, restricting the
distribution of books produced using the new method to the
government. The technique was restricted to use by the royal
foundry for official state publications only, where the focus was on
reprinting Chinese classics lost in 1126 when Korea's libraries and
palaces had perished in a conflict between dynasties.
Scholarly debate and speculation has occurred as to whether Eastern
movable type spread to Europe between the late 14th century and early
Metal movable type in Europe
History of Western typography
History of Western typography and Spread of European
movable type printing
Printing Revolution in the 15th century: Within several decades
around 270 European towns took up movable type printing.
European output of movable type printing from Gutenberg to 1800
Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany is acknowledged as the first to
invent a metal movable-type printing system in Europe, the printing
press. Gutenberg was a goldsmith familiar with techniques of cutting
punches for making coins from moulds. Between 1436 and 1450 he
developed hardware and techniques for casting letters from matrices
using a device called the hand mould. Gutenberg's key invention
and contribution to movable-type printing in Europe, the hand mould,
was the first practical means of making cheap copies of letterpunches
in the vast quantities needed to print complete books, making the
movable-type printing process a viable enterprise.
Before Gutenberg, books were copied out by hand on scrolls and paper,
or printed from hand-carved wooden blocks. It was extremely
time-consuming; even a small book could take months to complete, and
because the carved letters or blocks were flimsy and the wood
susceptible to ink the blocks had a limited lifespan.
Gutenberg and his associates developed oil-based inks ideally suited
to printing with a press on paper, and the first Latin typefaces. His
method of casting type may have been different from the hand mould
used in subsequent decades. Detailed analysis of the type used in his
42-line Bible has revealed irregularities in some of the characters
that cannot be attributed to ink spread or type wear under the
pressure of the press. Scholars conjecture that the type pieces may
have been cast from a series of matrices made with a series of
individual stroke punches, producing many different versions of the
Editing with movable metal – cca. 1920
 It has also been suggested that the method used by Gutenberg
involved using a single punch to make a mould, but the mould was such
that the process of taking the type out disturbed the casting,
creating variants and anomalies, and that the punch-matrix system came
into use possibly around the 1470s. This raises the possibility
that the development of movable type in the West may have been
progressive rather than a single innovation.
Gutenberg's movable-type printing system spread rapidly across Europe,
from the single
Mainz printing press in 1457 to 110 presses by 1480,
of which 50 were in Italy.
Venice quickly became the center of
typographic and printing activity. Significant were the contributions
of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo, Aldus Manutius, and other
printers of late 15th-century Europe.
A piece of cast metal type,
Garamond style long s i ligature. See
Type-founding as practiced in Europe and the west consists of three
If the glyph design includes enclosed spaces (counters) then a
counterpunch is made. The counter shapes are transferred in relief
(cameo) onto the end of a rectangular bar of mild steel using a
specialized engraving tool called a graver. The finished counterpunch
is hardened by heating and quenching (tempering), or exposure to a
cyanide solution (case hardening). The counterpunch is then struck
against the end of a similar rectangular steel bar—the
letterpunch—to impress the counter shapes as recessed spaces
(intaglio). The outer profile of the glyph is completed by scraping
away with a graver the material outside the counter spaces, leaving
only the stroke or lines of the glyph. Progress toward the finished
design is checked by successive smoke proofs; temporary prints made
from a thin coating of carbon deposited on the punch surface by a
candle flame. The finished letter punch is finally hardened to
withstand the rigors of reproduction by striking. One counterpunch and
one letterpunch are produced for every letter or glyph making up a
The letterpunch is used to strike a blank die of soft metal to make a
negative letter mould, called a matrix.
The matrix is inserted into the bottom of a device called a hand
mould. The mould is clamped shut and molten type metal alloy
consisting mostly of lead and tin, with a small amount of antimony for
hardening, is poured into a cavity from the top.
Antimony has the rare
property of expanding as it cools, giving the casting sharp edges.
When the type metal has sufficiently cooled, the mould is unlocked and
a rectangular block approximately 4 centimeters long, called a sort,
is extracted. Excess casting on the end of the sort, called the tang,
is later removed to make the sort the precise height required for
printing, known as "type height".
The type-height was quite different in different countries. The
Monotype Corporation Limited in London UK produced moulds in various
0.918 inches (23.3 mm) : United Kingdom, Canada, U.S.
0.928 inches (23.6 mm) : France, Germany, Switzerland and
most other European countries
0.933 inches (23.7 mm) : Belgium height
0.9785 inches (24.85 mm) : Dutch height
A Dutch printers manual mentions a tiny difference between French and
62.027 points Didot = 23.30 millimetres (0.917 in) = English
62.666 points Didot = 23.55 millimetres (0.927 in) = French
62.685 points Didot = 23.56 millimetres (0.928 in) = German
66.047 points Didot = 24.85 millimetres (0.978 in) = Dutch Height
Tiny differences in type-height will cause quite bold images of
A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing
Typesetting and Type case
Modern, factory-produced movable type was available in the late 19th
century. It was held in the printing shop in a job case, a drawer
about 2 inches high, a yard wide, and about two feet deep, with
many small compartments for the various letters and ligatures. The
most popular and accepted of the job case designs in America was the
California Job Case, which took its name from the Pacific coast
location of the foundries that made the case popular.
Traditionally, the capital letters were stored in a separate drawer or
case that was located above the case that held the other letters; this
is why capital letters are called "upper case" characters while the
non-capitals are "lower case".
Compartments also held spacers, which are blocks of blank type used to
separate words and fill out a line of type, such as em and en quads
(quadrats, or spaces. A quadrat is a block of type whose face is lower
than the printing letters so that it does not itself print.). An em
space was the width of a capital letter "M" – as wide as it was high
– while an en space referred to a space half the width of its height
(usually the dimensions for a capital "N").
Individual letters are assembled into words and lines of text with the
aid of a composing stick, and the whole assembly is tightly bound
together to make up a page image called a forme, where all letter
faces are exactly the same height to form a flat surface of type. The
forme is mounted on a printing press, a thin coating of viscous ink is
applied and impressions made on paper under great pressure in the
press. "Sorts" is the term given to special characters not freely
available in the typical type case, such as the "@" mark.
Metal type combined with other methods
Ceramic type from the collections of University of Reading.
Sometimes it is erroneously stated that printing with metal type
replaced the earlier methods. In the industrial era printing methods
would be chosen to suit the purpose. For example, when printing large
scale letters in posters etc. the metal type would have proved too
heavy and economically unviable. Thus, large scale type was made as
carved wood blocks as well as ceramics plates. Also in many cases
where large scale text was required, it was simpler to hand the job to
a sign painter than a printer. Images could be printed together with
movable type if they were made as woodcuts or wood engravings as long
as the blocks were made to the same type height. If intaglio methods,
such as copper plates, were used for the images, then images and the
text would have required separate print runs on different machines.
History of printing
History of printing in East Asia
History of Western typography
Odhecaton – the first sheet music printed with movable type
Spread of European movable type printing
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Tin Movable type, and linked them with iron
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from Gutenberg to the Internet, Polity, Cambridge, pp. 15–23,
^ a b Burke
^ a b von Polenz, Peter (1991). Deutsche Sprachgeschichte vom
Spätmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart: I. Einführung, Grundbegriffe,
Deutsch in der frühbürgerlichen Zeit (in German). New York/Berlin:
Walter de Gruyter GmbH.
Juan González de Mendoza
Juan González de Mendoza (1585). Historia de las cosas más
notables, ritos y costumbres del gran reyno de la China (in
^ Thomas Franklin Carter, The Invention of
Printing in China and its
Spread Westward, The Ronald Press, NY 2nd ed. 1955, pp. 176–178
^ "Incunabula Short Title Catalogue". British Library. Retrieved 2
^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2009). "Charting the 'Rise
of the West': Manuscripts and Printed
Books in Europe, A Long-Term
Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries". The Journal
of Economic History. 69 (2): 409–445.
JSTOR 40263962p. 417, table 2.
^ Agüera y Arcas, Blaise; Paul Needham (November 2002).
"Computational analytical bibliography". Proceedings Bibliopolis
Conference The future history of the book.
The Hague (Netherlands):
^ "What Did Gutenberg Invent?—Discovery". BBC / Open University.
2006. Retrieved 2006-10-25. [dead link]
^ Adams, James L. (1991). Flying Buttresses, Entropy and O-Rings: the
World of an Engineer. Harvard University Press.
^ "Answers.com page on antimony". McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science
and Technology. McGraw-Hill. 2005-01-01. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
^ Blankenstein A.H.G., Wetser Ad: Zetten, uitgebreide leerstof, deel
1, p. 26, Edecea, Hoorn, The Netherlands, 5th edition, (~1952)
^ National Amateur Press Association, Monthly Bundle Sample, Campane
194, The California Typecase by Lewis A. Pryor (Edited)
^ Glossary of
Typesetting Terms, by Richard Eckersley, Charles
Ellerston, Richard Hendel, Page 18
^ Meggs, Philip B., Purvis, Alston W. "Graphic Design and the
Industrial Revolution" History of Graphic Design. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley,
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Nesbitt, Alexander. The History and Technique of Lettering (c) 1957,
Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-40281-9, Library of Congress
Catalogue Card Number: 57-13116. The Dover edition is an abridged and
corrected republication of the work originally published in 1950 by
Prentice-Hall, Inc. under the title Lettering: The History and
Technique of Lettering as Design.
The classic manual of hand-press technology is
Moxon, Joseph (1683–84). "Mechanick Exercises on the Whole Art of
Printing" (ed. Herbert Davies & Harry Carter. New York: Dover
Publications, 1962, reprint ed.).
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