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1840 by Paweł Edmund Strzelecki
Paweł Edmund Strzelecki
(European)[2][4] Ancient Times by Indigenous Australians

Easiest route Walk (dirt road)

Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
/ˌkɒziˈʌskoʊ/[5] is Australia’s highest mountain, at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level. It is located on the Main Range of the Snowy Mountains
Snowy Mountains
in Kosciuszko National Park, part of the Australian Alps
Australian Alps
National Parks and Reserves, in New South Wales, Australia
Australia
and is located west of Crackenback and close to Jindabyne. Various measurements of the peak originally called Kosciuszko showed it to be slightly lower than its neighbour, Mount Townsend. The names of the mountains were swapped by the New South Wales
New South Wales
Lands Department in 1892 so that Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
remains the name of the highest peak of Australia, and Mount Townsend
Mount Townsend
ranks as second.[6] The 1863 picture by Eugene von Guerard
Eugene von Guerard
hanging in the National Gallery of Australia titled "Northeast view from the northern top of Mount Kosciusko" is actually from Mount Townsend.[7][8][9]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Formation 3 Reaching the summit

3.1 Recreation

4 Higher Australian mountains 5 In popular culture 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] It was named by the Polish explorer Pawel Edmund Strzelecki in 1840, in honour of the Polish-Lithuanian national hero, General Tadeusz Kościuszko,[note 1] because of its perceived resemblance to the Kościuszko Mound
Kościuszko Mound
in Kraków.[10] The name of the mountain was previously spelt "Mount Kosciusko", an Anglicisation, but the spelling "Mount Kosciuszko" was officially adopted in 1997 by the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales.[4] The traditional English pronunciation of Kosciuszko is /kɒziːˈʌskoʊ/, but the pronunciation /kɒˈʃʊʃkoʊ/ is now sometimes used,[11] which is substantially closer to the Polish pronunciation [kɔɕˈt͡ɕuʂkɔ] ( listen). There are several native Aboriginal (Ngarigo) names associated with the mountain, with some confusion as to the exact sounds. These are Jagungal, Jar-gan-gil, Tar-gan-gil, Tackingal; however, all of them mean "Table Top Mountain."[1] Formation[edit] The mountain was formed by geologic uplift.[12] It was not formed by any recent volcanic activity.[13] Eroded granite intrusions remain at the summit as large boulders above the more heavily eroded sedimentary rocks.[13] Reaching the summit[edit] Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
is the highest summit in mainland Australia. Until 1977 it was possible to drive from Charlotte Pass
Charlotte Pass
to within a few metres of the summit, but in 1977 the road was closed to public motor vehicle access due to environmental concerns. The road is open from Charlotte Pass
Charlotte Pass
for walkers and cyclists for 7.6 kilometres (5 mi)[14] to Rawson Pass, at an elevation of 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) above sea level. From there a 1.4-kilometre (1 mi) walking path leads to the summit. Cyclists must leave their bicycles at a bicycle rack at Rawson Pass and continue to the summit on foot. Anyone with a modest level of fitness can walk to the top. The peak may also be approached from Thredbo, taking 3 to 3.5 hours for a round trip. This straightforward walk starts from the top of the Thredbo
Thredbo
Kosciuszko Express chairlift, which operates all year-round. The walking path is popular in summer, and is a mesh walkway to protect the native vegetation and prevent erosion. It is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to Rawson Pass, where it meets the track from Charlotte Pass, and from where it is a further 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) to the summit. The walk to the summit is the easiest of all the Seven Summits.[15] The third and often overlooked route up Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
is up the very challenging and historic Hannel's Spur Track (15.5km) which approaches from the NW and is the only route to pass though the Western Fall Wilderness Zone - passing though 4 different bio-diversity bands along the ascent. The Hannel's Spur Track is officially Australia's biggest vertical ascent of 1800m. This is the same route that explorer Paul Strzelecki climbed and 'discovered' Kosciuszko in 1840 and also the same annual route that the stockmen once brought the cattle up/down from the valley almost 2km below to graze in the alpine meadows of Kosi throughout the summer. The various aboriginal tribes from the Murray valley also used this same route annually for 1000s of years to access Kosciuszko to harvest the delicacies of Bogong Moths that were in abundance throughout the summer months and to socialise with other tribes from the coast and northern plains. The Hannel's Spur Track trailhead (sign) is about a 1.4km hike SSE of the Geehi Rest Area on the Alpine Way
Alpine Way
road between the towns of Thredbo
Thredbo
and Khancoban. Note: Difficult Australia's highest public toilet was built at this pass in 2007, to cope with the more than 100,000 people visiting the mountain each summer.[16] The peak and the surrounding areas are snow-covered in winter and spring (usually beginning in June and continuing until October or later). The road from Charlotte Pass
Charlotte Pass
is marked by snow poles and provides a guide for cross-country skiers and the track from Thredbo is easily followed until covered by snow in winter.

1

2

3

4

5

6

6

6

1

North Ramshead

2

Kosciuszko summit, obscured by clouds

3

Etheridge Range

4

Mount Clarke ( Mount Townsend
Mount Townsend
is behind it)

5

Kangaroo Ridge

6

Snowy River
Snowy River
headwaters

Looking north from the summit towards Mount Townsend

Recreation[edit]

Topographic map
Topographic map
of Mt Kosciuszko including the approaches from Charlotte Pass
Charlotte Pass
and Thredbo.

Kosciuszko National Park
Kosciuszko National Park
is also the location of the downhill ski slopes closest to Canberra
Canberra
and Sydney, containing the Thredbo, Charlotte Pass, and Perisher ski resorts. Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
may have been ascended by Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
long before the first recorded ascent by Europeans. Each year in December, an ultramarathon running race called the Coast to Kosciuszko ascends to the top of Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
after starting at the coast 240 kilometres (150 mi) away. Paul Every, who is credited as being the one who thought of holding such a race, was the inaugural co-winner in 2004.[17] Higher Australian mountains[edit] Higher peaks exist within territory administered or claimed by Australia, but outside the continent are Mawson Peak
Mawson Peak
(2,745 m or 9,006 ft) on Heard Island and Dome Argus
Dome Argus
(4,030 m or 13,220 ft), Mount McClintock
Mount McClintock
(3,490 m or 11,450 ft) and Mount Menzies (3,355 m or 11,007 ft) in the Australian Antarctic Territory. Higher peaks in the region, but outside the mainland continent include:

Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
(4,884 m or 16,024 ft) in New Guinea. It is the highest island mountain in the world, the highest mountain in Indonesia
Indonesia
and the highest in the Australian continent
Australian continent
and Oceania Puncak Mandala
Puncak Mandala
(4,760 m or 15,620 ft) in the Papua province of Indonesia. It is the second highest mountain of the Australian continent, Oceania, Australasia, New Guinea
New Guinea
and Indonesia Puncak Trikora
Puncak Trikora
(4,750 m or 15,580 ft) in the Papua province of Indonesia. Mount Wilhelm
Mount Wilhelm
(4,509 m or 14,793 ft) in Papua New Guinea. It is the highest mountain in that country. Mount Victoria (4,072 m or 13,360 ft) in Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Mount Giluwe
Mount Giluwe
(4,368 m or 14,331 ft) a volcanic mountain in Papua New Guinea. It is the highest volcanic summit in the Australian continent.

In popular culture[edit] Australian rock band Midnight Oil
Midnight Oil
performed a song called "Kosciusko" on its 1984 album Red Sails in the Sunset, referring to the mountain. The spelling was updated to "Kosciuszko" for the group's 1997 compilation album, 20,000 Watt R.S.L. Gallery[edit]

Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
from south side

Mount Etheridge from south side showing high elevation toilet at Rawson Pass

East side of the mountain

The plate at the top

The base of a survey trig marker at the top

Lake Cootapatamba, the lake on the highest place in the Australian continent

A view from the track to Mount Kosciuszko

Thredbo
Thredbo
from the Australian Alps
Australian Alps
Walking Track

View of Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
and the Etheridge Range from the headwaters of the Snowy River

See also[edit]

Australia
Australia
portal Geography portal Mountains portal

Australian Alps Australian Alps
Australian Alps
National Parks and Reserves List of mountains of Australia

Notes[edit]

^ Kościuszko was also a national hero in Lithuania, and Belarus, and hero of the American Revolutionary War

References[edit]

^ a b "James M. Spencer, The Highest Point in Australia". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. 18 February 1885. p. 7. Retrieved 22 February 2014. ; cited in Alan E.J. Andrews, Kosciusko: The Mountain
Mountain
in History, O'Connor, A.C.T, Tabletop Press, 1991, p. 50. ^ a b c d " Mountain
Mountain
Kosciuszko, Australia". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ "Kosciuszko National Park". Australian Alps
Australian Alps
National Parks. Australian Government. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ a b c "Mount Kosciuszko". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Kosciuszko: Reflections on YouTube ^ " Mountain
Mountain
systems of Australia". Year Book Australia, 1901-1909. Australian Bureau of Statistics.  ^ "Eugene von Guérard: North-east view from the northern top of Mount Kosciusko 1863". National Gallery of Australia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2008.  ^ http://www.jokar.com.au/projects/Ten-Mile%20Stare/slides/Mt_Townsend_Panorama1.html ^ "Strzelecki's Kosciusko by E. Axford". mtkosciuszko.org.au. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ "Australian Geographical Name Derivations". Wikiski.com. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ Yallop, Colin, ed. (2005). Macquarie Dictionary
Macquarie Dictionary
(4th ed.). Melbourne: The Macquarie Library. ISBN 1-876429-14-3.  ^ Geology Page: Geologists discover how Australia's highest mountain was created Geology Page, accessdate: February 17, 2017 ^ a b Erfurt-Cooper, Patricia (2014). Volcanic Tourist Destinations. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 273. ISBN 9783642161919. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ National Parks' 'Southern Kosciuszko walking tracks factsheet' ^ Hamill, Mike (2014). Climbing the Seven Summits: A Comprehensive Guide to the Continents' Highest Peaks. The Mountaineers Books. p. 275. ISBN 9781594856495. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ "The rush to complete Australia's highest dunny" (PDF). Department of Environment and Climate Change, NSW. 3 May 2007. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2014.  ^ "Coast to Kosciuszko". Coast2kosci.com. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Kosciusco.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mount Kosciuszko.

Mt Kosciuszko Inc. — page for information about explorer P.E. Strzelecki – and news about Mount Kosciuszko Peakware – World Mountain
Mountain
Encyclopaedia — photo

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Highest peaks in the States and territories of Australia

Australian Capital Territory: Bimberi Peak
Bimberi Peak
(1,912 m or 6,273 ft) New South Wales: Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
(2,228 m or 7,310 ft) Northern Territory: Mount Zeil
Mount Zeil
(1,531 m or 5,023 ft) Queensland: Mount Bartle Frere
Mount Bartle Frere
(1,622 m or 5,322 ft) South Australia: Mount Woodroffe
Mount Woodroffe
(1,435 m or 4,708 ft) Tasmania: Mount Ossa (1,617 m or 5,305 ft) Victoria: Mount Bogong
Mount Bogong
(1,986 m or 6,516 ft) Western Australia: Mount Meharry
Mount Meharry
(1,253 m or 4,111 ft)

Category Commons

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Seven Summits

Asia

Everest (8,848 m or 29,029 ft)

South America

Aconcagua
Aconcagua
(6,962 m or 22,841 ft)

North America

Denali
Denali
(6,198 m or 20,335 ft)

Africa

Kilimanjaro (5,893 m or 19,334 ft)

Europe

Elbrus (5,642 m or 18,510 ft) or Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
(4,810 m or 15,781 ft)

Antarctica

Vinson Massif
Vinson Massif
(4,892 m or 16,050 ft)

Oceania

Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
(4,884 m or 16,024 ft) or Mount Wilhelm
Mount Wilhelm
(4,509 m or 14,793 ft)

Oceania
Oceania
(Australia)

Mount Kosciuszko
Mount Kosciuszko
(2,228 m or 7,310 ft)

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Mountains in New South Wales, Australia

Coastal mountain ranges (not part of the Great Dividing Range)

Mid North Coast

Middle Brother (554 m or 1,818 ft) South Brother (487 m or 1,598 ft) North Brother (476 m or 1,562 ft)

Allyn, Barrington & Mount Royal

Brumlow Tops
Brumlow Tops
(1,586 m or 5,203 ft) Polblue (1,575 m or 5,167 ft) Barrington (1,555 m or 5,102 ft) Careys Peak
Careys Peak
(1,544 m or 5,066 ft) Eremeren Point (1,537 m or 5,043 ft) Royal (1,185 m or 3,888 ft) Allyn (1,125 m or 3,691 ft) Cabrebald (1,000 m or 3,281 ft) Ben Bullen Gunama Lumeah

Gibraltar and Sugarloaf

Summit
Summit
(1,170 m or 3,839 ft) Sugarloaf (412 m or 1,352 ft) Bulahdelah Manning

Blue Mountains

Coricudgy (1,255 m or 4,117 ft) unnamed peak (1,189 m or 3,901 ft) Pomany (1,109 m or 3,638 ft) Piddington (1,094 m or 3,589 ft) Boyce (1,093 m or 3,586 ft) York (1,061 m or 3,481 ft) Victoria (1,059 m or 3,474 ft) Banks (1,049 m or 3,442 ft) Tomah (1,016 m or 3,333 ft) Wilson (1,008 m or 3,307 ft) Kings Tableland
Kings Tableland
(1,000 m or 3,281 ft) Narrow Neck Plateau
Narrow Neck Plateau
(1,000 m or 3,281 ft) Castle Cliff (986 m or 3,235 ft) Solitary (950 m or 3,117 ft) Hay (944 m or 3,097 ft) Podgers (890 m or 2,920 ft) Irvine (850 m or 2,789 ft) Debert (840 m or 2,756 ft) Camp Cave (800 m or 2,625 ft) Warrigal (760 m or 2,493 ft) Notts (750 m or 2,461 ft) Harris (736 m or 2,415 ft) Centre (620 m or 2,034 ft) Hall (617 m or 2,024 ft) Gibson (608 m or 1,995 ft) Scorpion (558 m or 1,831 ft) Linda Rock (599 m or 1,965 ft) Cookem (569 m or 1,867 ft) Gospers Bedford Cameron Coriaday Erskine Mistake Monundilla Whaite Wirraba Pearces Wedding Cake

Illawarra

Bells (803 m or 2,635 ft) Knights Hill (709 m or 2,326 ft) Noorinan (663 m or 2,175 ft) Saddleback (600 m or 1,969 ft) Wanyambilli Hill (564 m or 1,850 ft) Kembla (534 m or 1,752 ft) Burelli (531 m or 1,742 ft) Kembla West (512 m or 1,680 ft) Brisbane (469 m or 1,539 ft) Keira (464 m or 1,522 ft) Warra (464 m or 1,522 ft) Brokers Nose
Brokers Nose
(440 m or 1,444 ft) Nebo (252 m or 827 ft)

The Budawangs

Budawang (1,129 m or 3,704 ft) Currockbilly (1,087 m or 3,566 ft) Wog Wog (893 m or 2,930 ft) Cole (876 m or 2,874 ft) Sturgiss (858 m or 2,815 ft) Fosters (857 m or 2,812 ft) Barneys Hill (855 m or 2,805 ft) The Castle (831 m or 2,726 ft) Shrouded Gods (809 m or 2,654 ft) Donjon (786 m or 2,579 ft) Clyde (781 m or 2,562 ft) Quiltys (775 m or 2,543 ft) Wirritin (674 m or 2,211 ft) Pigeon House / Didthul (720 m or 2,362 ft) Bushwalker (640 m or 2,100 ft) Byangee (500 m or 1,640 ft) Coolangatta Tarn

Great Dividing Range

Tweed

Warning (1,156 m or 3,793 ft) Bar (1,130 m or 3,707 ft) Glenugie (316 m or 1,037 ft) Chincogan (260 m or 853 ft) Gladstone Goobergooberyam Moombil

McPherson and Nightcap

Barney (1,359 m or 4,459 ft) Burrell 933 m or 3,061 ft) Neville (919 m or 3,015 ft) Nardi (812 m or 2,664 ft) Matheson (804 m or 2,638 ft) Peates (604 m or 1,982 ft)

Mid North Coast

Banda Banda (1,258 m or 4,127 ft)

Nandewar

Kaputar (1,489 m or 4,885 ft) Dowe (1,457 m or 4,780 ft) Mount Coryah (1,409 m or 4,623 ft) Lindesay (1,373 m or 4,505 ft) Grattai (1,301 m or 4,268 ft) Bushy (1,260 m or 4,134 ft) Round (1,250 m or 4,101 ft) Yulludunida (1,225 m or 4,019 ft) Castle Top (1,120 m or 3,675 ft) Gins (1,120 m or 3,675 ft) Ningadhun (1,013 m or 3,323 ft)

Liverpool and Watagan

unnamed (1,300 m or 4,265 ft) Pandoras Pass
Pandoras Pass
(788 m or 2,585 ft) Warrawolong (641 m or 2,103 ft)

New England and Moonbi

Round (1,585 m or 5,200 ft) Point Lookout (1,564 m or 5,131 ft) Ben Lomond (1,512 m or 4,961 ft) Grundy (1,463 m or 4,800 ft) Barren (1,437 m or 4,715 ft) Hyland (1,434 m or 4,705 ft) Duval (1,393 m or 4,570 ft) Black Jack (1,300 m or 4,265 ft) Gulligal (1,230 m or 4,035 ft) Oaky (1,070 m or 3,510 ft) Cooee (1,020 m or 3,346 ft) Flaggy (984 m or 3,228 ft) Big Billy (884 m or 2,900 ft) Dorrigo (762 m or 2,500 ft) Burning (520 m or 1,706 ft) Yarrowyck

Central Tablelands

Canobolas (1,395 m or 4,577 ft) Shooters Hill (1,394 m or 4,573 ft) Bindo (1,363 m or 4,472 ft) Trickett (1,362 m or 4,469 ft) Blaxland Hopeless

The Brindabellas and Scabby

Bimberi (1,913 m or 6,276 ft) Gingera (1,857 m or 6,093 ft) Kelly (1,829 m or 6,001 ft) Ginini (1,762 m or 5,781 ft) Franklin (1,646 m or 5,400 ft) Aggie (1,421 m or 4,662 ft) Coree (1,421 m or 4,662 ft) Bramina (1,392 m or 4,567 ft) Bulls Head (1,375 m or 4,511 ft) Black Bottle (1,356 m or 4,449 ft) Lickhole (1,188 m or 3,898 ft) Brindabella (972 m or 3,189 ft)

Monaro

Big Badja (1,363 m or 4,472 ft) Brown (1,243 m or 4,078 ft) Gibraltar (Bungendore) (887 m or 2,910 ft) Gibraltar Hill

Snowies

Main

Kosciuszko (2,228 m or 7,310 ft) Townsend (2,209 m or 7,247 ft) unnamed peak on Etheridge Ridge (2,180 m or 7,152 ft) Alice Rawson Peak (2,160 m or 7,087 ft) Byatts Camp (2,159 m or 7,083 ft) Carruthers (2,145 m or 7,037 ft) Abbott Peak (2,145 m or 7,037 ft) Mount Northcote (2,131 m or 6,991 ft) Muellers Peak (2,120 m or 6,955 ft) Clark (2,100 m or 6,890 ft) Lee (2,100 m or 6,890 ft) Gungartan
Gungartan
(2,068 m or 6,785 ft) Tate (2,068 m or 6,785 ft) Jagungal (2,061 m or 6,762 ft) Perisher (2,054 m or 6,739 ft) Stilwell (2,040 m or 6,693 ft) Watsons Crags (2,020 m or 6,627 ft) Back Perisher (2,014 m or 6,608 ft) Anton (2,000 m or 6,562 ft) Anderson (1,997 m or 6,552 ft) Blue Cow (1,994 m or 6,542 ft) The Granite Peaks (1,980 m or 6,496 ft) Dicky Cooper Bogong (1,980 m or 6,496 ft) Gills Knobs (1,940 m or 6,365 ft) Guthega Peak (1,924 m or 6,312 ft) Blue Calf (1,905 m or 6,250 ft) Sentinel (1,900 m or 6,234 ft) Mount Piper (1,830 m or 6,004 ft) Round (1,756 m or 5,761 ft)

Ramshead

Rams Head
Rams Head
(2,190 m or 7,185 ft) Twynam (2,178 m or 7,146 ft) Rams Head
Rams Head
North (2,177 m or 7,142 ft) Little Twynam (2,120 m or 6,955 ft)

Other mountains in the GDR

Yengo (668 m or 2,192 ft)

Inland mountain ranges

Barrier

Lewis Peak (297 m or 974 ft)

Warrumbungles

Exmouth (1,206 m or 3,957 ft) Woorut (1,165 m or 3,822 ft) Needle

Other inland mountains

Grenfell Gibralter Hill

Island mountain ranges

Lord Howe

Gower (875 m or 2,871 ft) Lidgbird (777 m or 2,549 ft)

Mountains not within a specific range

Gibraltar (863 m or 2,831 ft) Gulaga (806 m or 2,644 ft) Ulandra (761 m or 2,497 ft) Tilga (329 m or 1,079 ft) Oxley (307 m or 1,007 ft)

v t e

Snowy Monaro Region, New South Wales, Australia

Townships and Villages

Adaminaby Berridale Bombala Bredbo Cooma Delegate Thredbo
Thredbo
Village Tyrolean

Localities and rural places

Anglers Reach Arable Avonside Beloka Blue Cow Mountain Bobundara Braemar Bay Buckenderra Bullocks Flat Charlotte Pass Coolringdon Cootralantra Crackenback Dalgety Dry Plain East Jindabyne Eucumbene Cove Frying Pan Grosses Plain Guthega Hill Top Ingebirah Ironmungy Jimenbuen Jindabyne Kalkite Michelago Middlingbank Moonbah Myalla Nimmitabel Nimmo Numbla Vale Old Adaminaby Paupong Perisher Valley Pine Valley Providence Portal Rhine Falls Rocky Plain Shannons Flat Smiggin Holes Snowy Plain The Brothers Wambrook

National parks and other natural features

Kosciuszko NP Valentine Falls

Rivers and other watercourses

Berrima Burrungubugge Cooma Back Eucumbene Goorudee Gungarlin Ingeegoodbee Jacobs Little Thredbo Mowamba Pinch Snowy River Thredbo

Dams and/or associated reservoirs

Eucumbene Guthega Island Bend Jindabyne Jounama Rainbow Lake Three Mile

Mountain
Mountain
ranges

Snowy Mountains Charcoal Rams Head Suggan Buggan

Attractions

Alpine Way Barry Way Big Trout Blue Lake Friday Flat Camp Kiandra Lake Albina Lake Cootapatamba Mount Kosciuszko Mount Townsend Perisher Ski Resort Selwyn Snowfields Skitube Alpine Railway Smiggin Holes Snowy Mountains
Snowy Mountains
Highway Snowy Scheme Museum

Main Article: Local government areas

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