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Crown Cercopithecoidea (Old World Monkeys)

    Bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata)

  • Callimico goeldii

    Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii)

  • Common squirrel monkey

    Common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

  • Crab-eating macaque

    Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

  • Japanese macaque
    Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii)

  • Common squirrel monkey
    Common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

  • Crab-eating macaque

    Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

  • Japanese macaqueJapanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)

  • Relationship with humans

    The many species of monkey have varied relationships with humans. Some are kept as pets, others used as model organisms in laboratories or in space missions. They may be killed in monkey drives (when they threaten agriculture) or used as service animals for the disabled.

    In some areas, some species of monkey are considered agricultural pests, and can cause extensive damage to commercial and subsistence crops.[47][48] This can have important implications for the conservation of endangered species, which may be subject to persecution. In some instances farmers' perceptions of the damage may exceed the actual damage.[49] Monkeys that have become habituated to human presence in tourist locations may also be considered pests, attacking tourists.[50]

    In popular culture monkeys are a symbol of playfulness, mischief and fun.[51]

    In some areas, some species of monkey are considered agricultural pests, and can cause extensive damage to commercial and subsistence crops.[47][48] This can have important implications for the conservation of endangered species, which may be subject to persecution. In some instances farmers' perceptions of the damage may exceed the actual damage.[49] Monkeys that have become habituated to human presence in tourist locations may also be considered pests, attacking tourists.[50]

    In popular culture monkeys are a symbol of playfulness, mischief and fun.[51][circular reference]

    Some organizations train capuchin monkeys as service animals to assist quadriplegics and other people with severe spinal cord injuries or mobility impairments. After being socialized in a human home as infants, the monkeys undergo extensive training before being placed with disabled people. Around the house, the monkeys assist with daily tasks such as feeding, fetching, manipulating objects, and personal care.[52]

    Helper monkeys are usually trained in schools by private organizations, taking seven years to train, and are able to serve 25–30 years (two to three times longer than a guide dog).Helper monkeys are usually trained in schools by private organizations, taking seven years to train, and are able to serve 25–30 years (two to three times longer than a guide dog).[53]

    In 2010, the U.S. federal government revised its definition of service animal under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Non-human primates are no longer recognized as service animals under the ADA.[54] The American Veterinary Medical Association does not support the use of non-human primates as assistance animals because of animal welfare concerns, the potential for serious injury to people, and risks that primates may transfer dangerous diseases to humans.[55]

    The most common monkey species found in animal research are the grivet, the rhesus macaque, and the crab-eating macaque, which are either wild-caught or purpose-bred.[56][57] They are used primarily because of their relative ease of handling, their fast reproductive cycle (compared to apes) and their psychological and physical similarity to humans. Worldwide, it is thought that between 100,000 and 200,000 non-human primates are used in research each year,[57] 64.7% of which are Old World monkeys, and 5.5% New World monkeys.[58] This number makes a very small fraction of all animals used in research.[57] Between 1994 and 2004 the United States has used an average of 54,000 non-human primates, while around 10,000 non-human primates were used in the European Union in 2002.[58]

    In space

    Albert II, who flew in the US-launched V-2 rocket on June 14, 1949.[59]

    As food

    Monkey brains are eaten as a delicacy in parts of South Asia, Africa and China.[60] Monkeys are sometimes eaten in parts of Africa, where they can be sold as "bushmeat". In traditional Islamic dietary laws, the eating of monkeys is forbidden.[61]

    Literature

    Monkey brains are eaten as a delicacy in parts of South Asia, Africa and China.[60] Monkeys are sometimes eaten in parts of Africa, where they can be sold as "bushmeat". In traditional Islamic dietary laws, the eating of monkeys is forbidden.[61]

    Literature

    Sun Wukong (the "Monkey King"), a character who figures prominently in Chinese mythology, is the protagonist in the classic comic Chinese novel Journey to the West.

    Monkeys are prevalent in numerous books, television programs, and movies. The television series Monkey and the literary characters Monsieur Eek and Curious George are all examples.

    Informally, "monkey" may refer to apes, particularly chimpanzees, gibbons, and gorillas. Author Terry Pratchett alludes to this difference in usage in his Discworld novels, in which the Librarian of the Unseen University is an orangutan who gets very violent if referred to as a monkey. Another example is the use of Simians in Chinese poetry.

    The winged monkeys are prominent characters in L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz books and in the 1939 film based on Baum's 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

    Religion and worship

    Monkeys are prevalent in numerous books, television programs, and movies. The television series Monkey and the literary characters Monsieur Eek and Curious George are all examples.

    Informally, "monkey" may refer to apes, particularly chimpanzees, gibbons, and gorillas. Author Terry Pratchett alludes to this difference in usage in his Discworld novels, in which the Librarian of the Unseen University is an orangutan who gets very violent if referred to as a monkey. Another example is the use of Simians in Chinese poetry.

    The winged monkeys are prominent characters in L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz books and in the 1939 film based on Baum's 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

    Monkey is the symbol of fourth Tirthankara in Jainism, Abhinandananatha.[62][63]

    Hanuman, a prominent deity in Hinduism, is a human-like monkey god who is believed to bestow courage, strength and longevity to the person who thinks about him or Rama.

    In Buddhism, the monkey is an early incarnation of Buddha but may also represent trickery and ugliness. The Chinese Buddhist "mind monkey" metaphor refers to the unsettled, restless state of human mind. Monkey is also one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolizing greed, with the tiger representing anger and the deer lovesickness.

    The Sanzaru, or Hanuman, a prominent deity in Hinduism, is a human-like monkey god who is believed to bestow courage, strength and longevity to the person who thinks about him or Rama.

    In Buddhism, the monkey is an early incarnation of Buddha but may also represent trickery and ugliness. The Chinese Buddhist "mind monkey" metaphor refers to the unsettled, restless state of human mind. Monkey is also one of the Three Senseless Creatures, symbolizing greed, with the tiger representing anger and the deer lovesickness.

    The Sanzaru, or three wise monkeys, are revered in Japanese folklore; together they embody the proverbial principle to "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil".[64]

    The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature.[65] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted monkeys in their art.[66]

    The Tzeltal people of Mexico worshipped monkeys as incarnations of their dead ancestors.

    The Monkey (猴) is the ninth in the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The next time that the monkey will appear as the zodiac sign will be in the year 2028.[67]

    See also