HOME
The Info List - Moinuddin Chishti


--- Advertisement ---



Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan Sijzī (1142–1236 CE), known more commonly as Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī or Moinuddin Chishti,[6] or reverently as a Shaykh Muʿīn al-Dīn or Muʿīn al-Dīn or Khwājā Muʿīn al-Dīn by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was a Persian Muslim[1] preacher,[6] ascetic, religious scholar, philosopher, and mystic from Sistan,[6] who eventually ended up settling in the Indian subcontinent in the early 13th-century, where he promulgated the famous Chishtiyya order of Sunni
Sunni
mysticism.[6][7] This particular tariqa (order) became the dominant Muslim
Muslim
spiritual group in medieval India
India
and many of the most beloved and venerated Indian Sunni saints[2][8][9] were Chishti
Chishti
in their affiliation, including Nizamuddin Awliya
Nizamuddin Awliya
(d. 1325) and Amir Khusrow
Amir Khusrow
(d. 1325).[6] As such, Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī's legacy rests primarily on his having been "one of the most outstanding figures in the annals of Islamic mysticism."[3] Additionally, Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī is also notable for having been one of the first major Islamic mystics to formally allow his followers to incorporate the "use of music" in their devotions, liturgies, and hymns to God, which he did in order to make the foreign Arab faith more relatable to the indigenous peoples who had recently entered the religion or whom he sought to convert.[10] Although little is known of Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī's early life, it is probable that he travelled from Sistan
Sistan
to India
India
to seek refuge from the increasing prevalence of Mongol military action in central Asia at that point in time.[6] Having arrived in Delhi
Delhi
during the reign of the sultan Iltutmish
Iltutmish
(d. 1236), Muʿīn al-Dīn moved from Delhi
Delhi
to Ajmer shortly thereafter, at which point he became increasingly influenced by the writings of the famous Sunni
Sunni
Hanbali
Hanbali
scholar and mystic ʿAbdallāh Anṣārī (d. 1088), whose famous work on the lives of the early Islamic saints, the Ṭabāqāt al-ṣūfiyya, may have played a role in shaping Muʿīn al-Dīn's worldview.[6] It was during his time in Ajmer
Ajmer
that Muʿīn al-Dīn acquired the reputation of being a charismatic and compassionate spiritual preacher and teacher; and biographical accounts of his life written after his death report that he received the gifts of many "spiritual marvels (karāmāt), such as miraculous travel, clairvoyance, and visions of angels"[6][11] in these years of his life. Muʿīn al-Dīn seems to have been unanimously regarded as a great saint after his passing.[6]

Contents

1 Life 2 Preaching in India 3 Spiritual lineage 4 Dargah 5 Popular culture 6 See also 7 References

Life[edit] Born in 1142 in Sistan, Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī was a teenager when his father, Sayyid G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn (d. c. 1155), died,[3] with the latter leaving his grinding mill and orchard to his son.[3] His father, Ghayasuddin, and mother, Bibi Ummalwara (alias Bibi Mahe-Noor), were the descendants of Ali, through his sons Hassan and Hussain.[12] He lost both his parents at an early age of sixteen years.[12] Although he was initially hoping to continue his father's business,[3] the Mongol conquests
Mongol conquests
in the region seem to have "turned his mind inwards,"[3] whence he soon began to develop strong contemplative and mystic tendencies in his personal piety.[3] Soon after, Muʿīn al-Dīn gave away all of his financial assets, and began a life of destitute itineracy, wandering in search of knowledge and wisdom throughout the neighbouring quarters of the Islamic world. As such, he visited the famous seminaries of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand, "and acquired religious learning at the feet of eminent scholars of his age."[3] It is also entirely probable that he visited the shrines of Muhammad al-Bukhari
Muhammad al-Bukhari
(d. 870) and Abu Mansur al- Maturidi
Maturidi
(d. 944) during his travels in this region, who were both widely venerated figures in the Islamic world by this point in time.[3] While travelling to Iraq, the young Muʿīn al-Dīn encountered in the district of Nishapur
Nishapur
the famous Sunni
Sunni
saint and mystic Ḵh̲wāj̲a ʿUt̲h̲mān (d. c. 1200), who initiated the willing seeker into his circle of disciples.[3] Accompanying his spiritual guide for over twenty years on the latter's journeys from region to region, Muʿīn al-Dīn also continued his own independent spiritual travels during the time period.[3] It was on his independent wanderings that Muʿīn al-Dīn encountered many of the most notable Sunni
Sunni
mystics of the era, including Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
(d. 1166) and Najmuddin Kubra
Najmuddin Kubra
(d. 1221), as well as Naj̲īb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir Suhrawardī, Abū Saʿīd Tabrīzī, and ʿAbd al-Waḥid G̲h̲aznawī (all d. c. 1230), all of whom were destined to become some of the most highly venerated saints in the Sunni
Sunni
tradition.[3] Due to Muʿīn al-Dīn's subsequent visits to "nearly all the great centers of Muslim
Muslim
culture in those days," including Bukhara, Samarkand, Nishapur, Baghdad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Balkh, Ghazni, Astarabad, and many others, the preacher and mystic eventually "acquainted himself with almost every important trend in Muslim
Muslim
religious life in the middle ages."[3] Arriving in India
India
in the early thirteenth century, Muʿīn al-Dīn first travelled to Lahore
Lahore
to meditate at the tomb-shrine of the famous Sunni
Sunni
mystic and jurist Ali
Ali
Hujwiri (d. 1072),[3] who was venerated by the Sunnis of the area as the patron saint of that city.[3] From Lahore, Muʿīn al-Dīn continued forward on his journey towards Ajmer, which he reached prior to the city's conquest by the Ghurids.[3] It was in Ajmer
Ajmer
that Muʿīn al-Dīn got married at an advanced age; and, according to the seventeenth-century chronicler ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (d. 1642), the mystic actually took two wives, one of whom was the daughter of a local Hindu
Hindu
raja.[3] Having three sons—Abū Saʿīd, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn and Ḥusām al-Dīn by name—and one daughter named Bībī Jamāl,[3] it so happened that only the latter inherited her father's mystic leanings,[3] whence she too was later venerated as a saint in local Sunni
Sunni
tradition.[3] After settling in Ajmer, Muʿīn al-Dīn worked at firmly establishing the Chishti
Chishti
order of Sunni
Sunni
mysticism in India, and many later biographic accounts relate the numerous miracles wrought by God at the hands of the saint during this period.[3] Preaching in India[edit] Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī was not the originator or founder of the Chishtiyya order of mysticism as he is often erroneously thought to be. On the contrary, the Chishtiyya was already an established Sufi order prior to his birth, being originally an offshoot of the older Adhamiyya order that traced its spiritual lineage and titular name to the early Islamic saint and mystic Ibrahim ibn Adham
Ibrahim ibn Adham
(d. 782). Thus, this particular branch of the Adhamiyya was renamed the Chishtiyya after the 10th-century Sunni
Sunni
mystic Abū Isḥāq al-Shāmī (d. 942) migrated to the village of Chisht, near Herat
Herat
in around 930, in order to preach Islam
Islam
in that area. The order spread into the Indian subcontinent, however, at the hands of the Persian Muʿīn al-Dīn in the 13th-century,[7] after the saint is believed to have had a dream in which the Prophet Muhammad
Prophet Muhammad
appeared and told him to be his "representative" or "envoy" in India.[13][14][15] According to the various chronicles, Muʿīn al-Dīn's tolerant and compassionate behavior towards the local population seems to have been one of the major reasons behind conversion to Islam
Islam
at his hand.[16][17] Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī is said to have appointed Bakhtiar Kaki
Bakhtiar Kaki
(d. 1235) as his spiritual successor, who worked at spreading the Chishtiyya in Delhi. Furthermore, Muʿīn al-Dīn's son, Fakhr al-Dīn (d. 1255), is said to have further spread the order's teachings in Ajmer, whilst another of the saint's major disciples, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Ṣūfī Nāgawrī (d. 1274), preached in Nagor.[7] Spiritual lineage[edit] As with every other major Sufi order, the Chishtiyya proposes an unbroken spiritual chain of transmitted knowledge going back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
through one of his Companions, which in the Chishtiyya's case is Ali
Ali
(d. 661).[7] Thus, Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī's spiritual lineage is traditionally given as follows:

Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī, taught by: ʿUthmān Hārūnī (d. 1220), taught by: Sharīf Zandanī (d. 1215), taught by: Mawdūd Chishtī (d. 1133), taught by: Abū Yūsuf b. Muḥammad Samʿān Chishtī (d. 1067), taught by: Abū Muḥammad Chishtī (d. 1020), taught by: Abū Aḥmad Abdāl Chishtī (d. 966), taught by: Abū Isḥāq al-Shāmī (d. 941), taught by: ʿUlū al-Dīnawarī (d. 911), taught by: Abū Hubayra al-Baṣrī (d. 900), taught by: Ḥudhayfa al-Marʿashī (d. 890), taught by: Ibrāhīm Adham al-Balkhī (d. 783), taught by: al-Fuḍayl b. ʿIyāḍ (d. 803), taught by: ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd (d. 786), taught by: Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 728), taught by: ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (d. 661), taught by: Muhammad.[7]

Dargah[edit]

Dargah of Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī, Ajmer

Main article: Ajmer
Ajmer
Sharif Dargah The tomb (dargāh) of Muʿīn al-Dīn became a deeply venerated site in the century following the preacher's death in 1236. Honoured by members of all social classes, the tomb was treated with great respect by many of the era's most important Sunni
Sunni
rulers, including Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi
Delhi
from 1324-1351, who paid a famous visit to the tomb in 1332 to commemorate the memory of the saint.[18] In a similar way, the later Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Akbar
Akbar
(d. 1605) visited the shrine no less than fourteen times during his reign.[19] In the present day, the tomb of Muʿīn al-Dīn continues to be one of the most popular sites of religious visitation for Sunni
Sunni
Muslims in the Indian subcontinent,[6] with over "hundreds of thousands of people from all over the Indian sub-continent assembling there on the occasion of [the saint's] ʿurs or death anniversary."[3] Additionally, the site also attracts many Hindus, who have also venerated the Islamic saint since the medieval period.[3] A bomb blast on October 11, 2007 in the Dargah of Sufi Saint Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti at the time of Roza Iftaar had left three pilgrims dead and 15 injured. A special National Investigation Agency (NIA) court in Jaipur awarded life imprisonment to the two convicts in the 2007 Ajmer
Ajmer
Dargah bomb blast case.[20] Popular culture[edit] A song in the 2008 film Jodhaa Akbar
Akbar
named "Khwaja Mere Khwaja," composed by A. R. Rehman, pays tribute to Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī.[21][22] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Moinuddin Chishti.

Index of Sufism-related articles List of Sufis Ajmer
Ajmer
Dargah bombing Ali
Ali
Hujwiri Ata Hussain Fani Chishti Alaul Haq Pandavi Urs festival, Ajmer

References[edit]

^ a b Francesca Orsini and Katherine Butler Schofield, Telling and Texts: Music, Literature, and Performance in North India
India
(Open Book Publishers, 2015), p. 463 ^ a b Arya, Gholam- Ali
Ali
and Negahban, Farzin, “Chishtiyya”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary: "The followers of the Chishtiyya Order, which has the largest following among Sufi orders in the Indian subcontinent, are Ḥanafī Sunni
Sunni
Muslims." ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Nizami, K.A., “Čis̲h̲tī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. ^ http://www.iecrcna.org/publications/books/Khwaja_Ghareeb_Nawaz_rahmatullah_alayh_SP.pdf ^ a b Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgawrī, Surūr al-ṣudūr; cited in Auer, Blain, “Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Blain Auer, “Chishtī Muʿīn al-Dīn Ḥasan”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. ^ a b c d e f g Arya, Gholam-Ali; Negahban, Farzin. "Chishtiyya". In Madelung, Wilferd; Daftary, Farhad. Encyclopaedia Islamica.  ^ See Andrew Rippin (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to the Quran (John Wiley & Sons, 2008), p. 357. ^ M. Ali
Ali
Khan and S. Ram, Encyclopaedia of Sufism: Chisti Order of Sufism
Sufism
and Miscellaneous Literature (Anmol, 2003), p. 34. ^ John Esposito (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam
Islam
(Oxford, 2004), p. 53 ^ Muḥammad b. Mubārak Kirmānī, Siyar al-awliyāʾ, Lahore
Lahore
1978, pp. 54-58. ^ a b Shah Baba, Nawab Gudri, Muinul Arwahʾ (2009) ^ ʿAlawī Kirmānī, Muḥammad, Siyar al-awliyāʾ, ed. Iʿjāz al-Ḥaqq Quddūsī (Lahore, 1986), p. 55 ^ Firishtah, Muḥammad Qāsim, Tārīkh (Kanpur, 1301/1884), 2/377 ^ Dārā Shukūh, Muḥammad, Safīnat al-awliyāʾ (Kanpur, 1884), p. 93. ^ Rizvi, Athar Abbas, A History of Sufism
Sufism
in India
India
(New Delhi, 1986), I/pp. 116-125 ^ Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad, ‘Ṣūfī Movement in the Deccan’, in H. K. Shervani, ed., A History of Medieval Deccan, vol. 2 (Hyderabad, 1974), pp. 142-147. ^ ʿAbd al-Malik ʿIṣāmī, Futūḥ al-salāṭīn, ed. A. S. Usha, Madras 1948, p. 466. ^ Abū l-Faḍl, Akbar-nāma, ed. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, 3 vols., Calcutta 1873–87. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/india/life-sentence-to-two-in-ajmer-dargah-blast-case/articleshow/57773081.cms ^ "Jodhaa Akbar
Akbar
Music Review". Planet Bollywood. Retrieved 25 May 2015.  ^ "Khwaja Mere Khwaja". Lyrics Translate. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 

v t e

Muslim
Muslim
saints in South Asian Islam

700s-800s

Abdullah Shah Ghazi

900s-1000s

Ali
Ali
Hujwiri

1100s-1200s

Fariduddin Ganjshakar Moinuddin Chishti Baba Fakruddin Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki Usman Harooni Lal Shahbaz Qalandar Bahauddin Zakariya Ismail Qureshi al Hashmi Hajib Shakarbar Imam Ali-ul-Haq Tajuddin Chishti Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari Syed Ahmad Sultan Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari Rukn-e-Alam Pir Mangho Nizamuddin Auliya Abdur-Razzaq Nurul-Ain Alaul Haq Pandavi Bu Ali
Ali
Shah Qalandar Burhanuddin Gharib Ganj Rawan Ganj Baksh Khawaja Awais Kagha Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi Shah e Alam Makhdoom Husamudeen Manikpuri Makhdoom Sharfuddin Ahmed Yahya Maneri Makhdoom Yahya Maneri

1300s-1400s

Shamsuddin Sabzwari Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind Zainuddin Shirazi Zar Zari Zar Baksh Ibrahim Yukpasi Shah Sultan
Sultan
Balkhi Mahisawar Jahaniyan Jahangasht Shah Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Nurbakhsh Qahistani Abdul Quddus Gangohi Nasiruddin Sailani Badesha Bande Nawaz Makhdoom Bilawal Salim Chishti Wajihuddin Alvi Nagore Shahul Hamid Madin Sahib Makhdoom Ali
Ali
Mahimi Pir Baba Shah Yaqeeq Bukhari

1500s-1600s

Baba Shadi Shaheed Jamali Kamboh Muhammad
Muhammad
Ghawth Shah Abdul Karim Bulri Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai Daud Bandagi Kirmani Haji Bahadar Ali
Ali
Abdullah Shah Baba Budan Shah Inayat Shaheed Shah Inat Rizvi Baba Shah Jamal Abdul Hamid Baba Rahman Baba Bari Imam Mir Mukhtar Akhyar Pir Hashim Shah Inayat Qadiri Muhammad
Muhammad
Qadiri Syed Musa Pak Bulleh Shah Ali
Ali
Haider Multani Mian Mir Shah Badakhshi Bibi Jamal Khatun Jahanara Begum Makhdoom Shah Muhammad
Muhammad
Munim Pak Jan Muhammad
Muhammad
of Jalna Muhibullah Allahabadi Shah Kalim Allah
Allah
Jahanabadi Sultan
Sultan
Bahu Syed Abdul Rehman Jilani Dehlvi Zeb-un-Nissa

1700s-1800s

Khawaja Muhammad
Muhammad
Zaman of Luari Syed Shah Afzal Biabani Ghulam Ali
Ali
Dihlawi Muhammad
Muhammad
Suleman Taunsvi Sakhi Shah Chan Charagh Sachal Sarmast Murtada al-Zabidi Bedil Bekas Mian Muhammad
Muhammad
Bakhsh Rohal Faqir Saleh Muhammad
Muhammad
Safoori Muhammad
Muhammad
Usman Damani Maulvi Ghulam Rasool Alampuri Fazal Ali
Ali
Qureshi Khwaja Ghulam Farid Muhammad
Muhammad
Maharvi Muhammad
Muhammad
Channan Shah Nuri Sayyad Laal Shah Hamdani Ata Hussain Fani Chishti Syed Shah Murid Ali
Ali
al-Qadri al-Jilani Mewa Shah Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Naqshbandi Syed Misri Shah Khwaja Nizam ad Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim Sadiq Shams Ali
Ali
Qalandar Sayyid Mahmud Agha Sayyid Sahib Husayni Maula Shah Machiliwale Shah Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Zauqi Shah Tajuddin Muhammad
Muhammad
Badruddin Waris Ali
Ali
Shah Mahmoodullah Shah Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan

1900s-2000s

Ahmad Hussain Gilani Pir Irani Barkat Ali
Ali
Ludhianwi Farid-ud-Din Qadri Syed Rashid Ahmed Jaunpuri

This table only includes figures venerated traditionally by the majority of Muslims in the Subcontinent, whence persons honored exclusively by particular modern movements are not included.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 115144814502949780076 LCCN: n84039376 ISNI: 0000 0001 1570 0331 GND: 119022540 SUDOC: 075240513 BNF:

.