1 Dialects 2 Orthography 3 Phonology
3.1 Consonants 3.2 Silent letters 3.3 Vowels
4.1 Definite article 4.2 Nouns 4.3 Pronouns
4.3.1 Personal and possessive pronouns 4.3.2 Relative pronoun 4.3.3 Other pronouns
4.4.1 Modal verbs 4.4.2 Present tense of verbs 4.4.3 Past tense and past participle of verbs 4.4.4 Present participle
4.5 Adverbs 4.6 Prepositions 4.7 Interrogative words 4.8 Word order 4.9 Diminutives 4.10 Subordinate clauses 4.11 Suffixes 4.12 Numbers 4.13 Times of day
5.1 Sample texts
6 References 7 External links
Map of Scots dialects
The varieties of
North Northern – spoken in Caithness,
Easter Ross and the Black
Mid Northern (also called North East and popularly known as the
Doric) – spoken in Moray,
North East Central – spoken north of the Forth, in south east
Southern Scots – spoken in mid and east
The southern extent of Scots may be identified by the range of a
number of pronunciation features which set Scots apart from
neighbouring English dialects. Like many languages across borders
there is a dialect continuum between Scots and the Northumbrian
dialect, both descending from early northern Middle English. The Scots
pronunciation of come [kʌm] contrasts with [kʊm] in Northern
English. The Scots realisation [kʌm] reaches as far south as the
mouth of the north Esk in north Cumbria, crossing
aa, baa, caa for words like aw, baw, caw – this was later discouraged -ie for final unstressed -y y for the /əi/ sound in words like wynd and mynd, and i for the short /ɪ/ sound in words like wind and find. ui for the /ø/ sound in words like guid ou for the /uː/ sound in words like nou and hou ow(e) for the /ʌu/ sound in words like growe and fowk throu and tho for through and though
In 1985, the Scots Language Society (SLS) published a set of spelling
guidelines called "Recommendations for Writers in Scots". They
represent a consensus view of writers in Scots at the time, following
several years of debate and consultation involving Alexander Scott,
Adam Jack Aitken, David Murison, Alastair Mackie and others. A
developed version of the Style Sheet, it is based on the old spellings
ei for the /iː/ sound at the beginning or middle of words (eidiot, feinish, veisit), unless ee is firmly established (for example in wee and een) y for the /əi/ sound in words like wynd and mynd, but if it's at the beginning or end of a word use ey (eydent, stey, wey) eu for the sound in words like aneuch, speug, neuk -k for final -ct in words like object and expect (which become objek and expek) sk- for initial /sk/ (sclim→sklim, scrieve→skreive, scunner→skunner) -il for final unstressed -el and -le (muckle→mukkil, morsel→morsil, traivel→traivil) -ss for final /s/ (hoose→houss, moose→mouss, polis→poliss) unless -se follows a consonant (mense, merse) omit final -d where it is silent (staund→staun, thousand→thousan, friend→frein)
The SLS Recommendations says "it is desirable that there should be traditional precedents for the spellings employed and […] writers aspiring to use Scots should not invent new spellings off the cuff". It prefers a number of more phonetic spellings that were commonly used by medieval Makars, such as: ar (are), byd, tym, wyf (bide, time, wife), cum, sum (come, some), eftir (after), evin (even), evir (ever), heir, neir (here, near), hir (her), ir (are), im (am), littil (little), sal (shall) speik (speak), thay (they), thaim (them), thair (their), thare (there), yit (yet), wad (would), war (were), wes (was), wul (will). David Purves's book A Scots Grammar has a list of over 2500 common Scots words spelt on the basis of the SLS Recommendations. Purves has also published dozens of poems using the spellings. In 2000 the Scots Spelling Committee report was published in Lallans. Shortly after publication Caroline Macafee criticised some aspects of that, and some previous spelling suggestions, as "demolishing the kind-of-a standardisation that already existed where Scots spelling had become a free-for-all with the traditional model disparaged but no popular replacement", leading to more spelling variation, not less. Phonology For a historical overview, see Phonological history of Scots. Consonants Most consonants are usually pronounced much as in English but:
c: /k/ or /s/, much as in English. ch: /x/, also gh. Medial 'cht' may be /ð/ in Northern dialects. loch (fjord or lake), nicht (night), dochter (daughter), dreich (dreary), etc. Similar to the German "Nacht", "Tochter". ch: word initial or where it follows 'r' /tʃ/. airch (arch), mairch (march), etc. gn: /n/. In Northern dialects /ɡn/ may occur. kn: /n/. In Northern dialects /kn/ or /tn/ may occur. knap (talk), knee, knowe (knoll), etc. ng: is always /ŋ/. nch: usually /nʃ/. brainch (branch), dunch (push), etc. r: /r/ or /ɹ/ is pronounced in all positions, i.e. rhotically. s or se: /s/ or /z/. t: may be a glottal stop between vowels or word final. In Ulster dentalised pronunciations may also occur, also for 'd'. th: /ð/ or /θ/ much as is English. In Mid Northern varieties an intervocallic /ð/ may be realised /d/. Initial 'th' in thing, think and thank, etc. may be /h/. wh: usually /ʍ/, older /xʍ/. Northern dialects also have /f/. wr: /wr/ more often /r/ but may be /vr/ in Northern dialects. wrack (wreck), wrang (wrong), write, wrocht (worked), etc. z: /jɪ/ or /ŋ/, may occur in some words as a substitute for the older <ȝ> (yogh). For example: brulzie (broil), gaberlunzie (a beggar) and the names Menzies, Finzean, Culzean, Mackenzie etc. (As a result of the lack of education in Scots, Mackenzie is now generally pronounced with a /z/ following the perceived realisation of the written form, as more controversially is sometimes Menzies.)
The word final 'd' in nd and ld but often pronounced in derived forms. Sometimes simply 'n' and 'l' or 'n and 'l e.g. auld (old) and haund (hand) etc. 't' in medial cht ('ch' = /x/) and st and before final en e.g. fochten (fought), thristle (thistle) and also the 't' in aften (often) etc. 't' in word final ct and pt but often pronounced in derived forms e.g. respect and accept etc.
Vowels The vowel system of Scots:
1 short /əi/ long /aɪ/
12 /ɑː, ɔː/
17 /ɑ, a/
With the exception of North Northern dialects this vowel has generally merged with vowels 2, 4 or 8. Merges with vowels 1 and 8. in central dialects and vowel 2 in Northern dialects. Also /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ before /k/ and /x/ depending on dialect. Vocalisation to /o/ may occur before /k/. Some mergers with vowel 5.
In Scots, vowel length is usually conditioned by the Scottish Vowel
Length Rule. Words which differ only slightly in pronunciation from
The unstressed vowel /ə/ may be represented by any vowel letter.
a (vowel 17): usually /ɑ/, often /ɑː/ in south west and Ulster
dialects, but /aː/ in Northern dialects. Note final a (vowel 12)
in awa (away), twa (two) and wha (who) may also be /ɑː/, /ɔː/,
/aː/ or /eː/ depending on dialect.
au, aw (vowel 12) /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ in Southern, Central and Ulster
dialects but /aː/ in Northern dialects, with au usually occurring in
medial positions and aw in final positions. Sometimes a or
a' representing L-vocalisation. The digraph aa also occurs,
especially in written representations of the (/aː/) realisation im
Northern and Insular dialects. The cluster 'auld' may also be
/ʌul/ in Ulster, e.g. aw (all), cauld (cold), braw (handsome), faw
(fall), snaw (snow), etc.
ai (vowel 8) in initial and medial positions and a(consonant)e
(vowel 4). The graphemes ae (vowel 4) and ay (vowel 8) generally
occur in final positions. All generally /e(ː)/. Often /ɛ/
before /r/. The merger of vowel 8 with 4 has resulted in the digraph
ai occurring in some words with vowel 4 and a(consonant)e occurring in
some words with vowel 8, e.g. saip (soap), hale (whole), ane (one),
ance (once), bane (bone), etc. and word final brae (slope) and day
etc. The digraph ae also occurs for vowel 7 in dae (do), tae (too) and
shae (shoe). In Northern dialects the vowel in the cluster 'ane'
is often /i/ and after /w/ and dark /l/ the realisation /əi/ may
Southern Scots and many Central and
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at times (whiles) whyls
are; aren't ar, are; arena, arna
anyone, anybody oniebodie, onybody
anything oniething, onything
anyhow, anyway oniewey
could; couldn't coud, cud; coudna, cudna
eight, eighth echt, echt
eleven, eleventh eleivin, eleivint
everyone, everybody awbodie, awbody
nine, ninth nyn, nynt
seven, seventh seivin, seivint
should; shouldn't shoud, shud; shoudna, shudna
will; won't will, wul; winna, wunna
The spellings used below are those based on the prestigious literary conventions described above. Other spelling variants may be encountered in written Scots. Not all of the following features are exclusive to Scots and may also occur in some varieties of English. Definite article The is used before the names of seasons, days of the week, many nouns, diseases, trades and occupations, sciences and academic subjects. It is also often used in place of the indefinite article and instead of a possessive pronoun: the hairst (autumn), the Wadensday (Wednesday), awa tae the kirk (off to church), the nou (at the moment), the day (today), the haingles (influenza), the Laitin (Latin), The deuk ett the bit breid (The duck ate a piece of bread), the wife (my wife) etc. Nouns Nouns usually form their plural in -(e)s but some irregular plurals occur: ee/een (eye/eyes), cauf/caur (calf/calves), horse/horse (horse/horses), cou/kye (cow/cows), shae/shuin (shoe/shoes). Nouns of measure and quantity unchanged in the plural: fower fit (four feet), twa mile (two miles), five pund (five pounds), three hunderwecht (three hundredweight). Regular plurals include laifs (loaves), leafs (leaves), shelfs (shelves) and wifes (wives). Pronouns Personal and possessive pronouns
I, me, myself, mine, my A, me, masel, mines, ma
thou, thyself, thine, thy (Early Modern English) thoo/thee, thysel, thine, thy*
we, us, ourselves, our we, (h)us, oorsels/wirsels, oor/wir
you (singular), you (plural), yourself, yours, your you/ye, you(se)/ye(se), yoursel/yersel
they, them, themselves, theirs, their thay, thaim, thaimsels/thairsels, thairs, thair
Thou, etc., are archaic in Standard English, but thou/tha, thee/tha
are still used in the
Relative pronoun The relative pronoun is that ('at is an alternative form borrowed from Norse but can also be arrived at by contraction) for all persons and numbers, but may be left out Thare's no mony fowk (that) bides in that glen (There aren't many people who live in that glen). The anglicised forms wha, wham, whase 'who, whom, whose', and the older whilk 'which' are literary affectations; whilk is only used after a statement He said he'd tint it, whilk wis no whit we wantit tae hear (he said he'd lost it, which is not what we wanted to hear". The possessive is formed by adding 's or by using an appropriate pronoun The wifie that's hoose gat burnt (the woman whose house was burnt), the wumman that her dochter gat mairit (the woman whose daughter got married); the men that thair boat wis tint (the men whose boat was lost). A third adjective/adverb yon/yonder, thon/thonder indicating something at some distance D'ye see yon/thon hoose ower yonder/thonder? Also thae (those) and thir (these), the plurals of that and this respectively. In Northern Scots this and that are also used where "these" and "those" would be in Standard English. Other pronouns
this, these this, thir
that, those that, thae
Verbs Modal verbs The modal verbs mey (may), ocht tae/ocht ti (ought to), and sall (shall), are no longer used much in Scots but occurred historically and are still found in anglicised literary Scots. Can, shoud (should), and will are the preferred Scots forms. Scots employs double modal constructions He'll no can come the day (He won't be able to come today), A micht coud come the morn (I may be able to come tomorrow), A uised tae coud dae it, but no nou (I used to be able to do it, but not now). Negation occurs by using the adverb no, in the North East nae, as in A'm no comin (I'm not coming), A'll no learn ye (I will not teach you), or by using the suffix -na sometimes spelled nae (pronounced variously /ə/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect), as in A dinna ken (I don't know), Thay canna come (They can't come), We coudna hae telt him (We couldn't have told him), and A hivna seen her (I haven't seen her). The usage with no is preferred to that with -na with contractable auxiliary verbs like -ll for will, or in yes/no questions with any auxiliary He'll no come and Did he no come?
are, aren't are, arena
can, can't can, canna
could, couldn't coud, coudna
dare, daren't daur, daurna
did, didn't did, didna
do, don't dae, daena/dinna
had, hadn't haed, haedna
have, haven't hae, haena/hinna/hivna
might, mightn't micht, michtna
must, mustn't maun, maunna
need, needn't need, needna
should, shouldn't shoud, shoudna
was, wasn't wis, wisna
were, weren't war, warna
will, won't will, winna
would, wouldn't wad, wadna
Present tense of verbs The present tense of verbs adhere to the Northern subject rule whereby verbs end in -s in all persons and numbers except when a single personal pronoun is next to the verb, Thay say he's ower wee, Thaim that says he's ower wee, Thir lassies says he's ower wee (They say he's too small), etc. Thay're comin an aw but Five o thaim's comin, The lassies? Thay'v went but Ma brakes haes went. Thaim that comes first is serred first (Those who come first are served first). The trees growes green in the simmer (The trees grow green in summer). Wis 'was' may replace war 'were', but not conversely: You war/wis thare. Past tense and past participle of verbs The regular past form of the weak or regular verbs is -it, -t or -ed, according to the preceding consonant or vowel: The -ed ending may be written -'d if the e is 'silent'.
-it appears after a stop consonant, e.g. hurtit (hurted), skelpit (smacked), mendit (mended), cuttit (cut), hurtit (hurt), keepit (kept), sleepit (slept); -t appears:
after an unstressed syllable ending in l, n, r, or ie/y, e.g. traivelt (travelled), festent (fastened), cairrit (carried); after a voiceless fricative or affricate, e.g. raxt (reached), fasht (troubled), cocht (coughed), streetched (stretched, pronounced [stritʃt]); in some irregular verbs, e.g. telt (told), kent (knew/known);
-(e)d appears after a stressed syllable ending in a sonorant, a voiced fricative or affricate, or a vowel, e.g. cleaned/clean'd, speired (asked; but also speirt), scrieved/scriev'd (scribbled), wadged (wedged), dee'd (died).
Many verbs have (strong or irregular) forms which are distinctive from Standard English (two forms connected with ~ means that they are variants):
bite/bate/bitten (bite/bit/bitten), drive/drave/driven~drien (drive/drove/driven), ride/rade/ridden (ride/rode/ridden), rive/rave/riven (rive/rived/riven), rise/rase/risen (rise/rose/risen), slide/slade/slidden (slide/slid/slid), slite/slate/slitten (slit/slit/slit), write/wrate/written (write/wrote/written), pronounced vrit/vrat/vrutten in Mid Northern Scots; bind/band/bund (bind/bound/bound), clim/clam/clum (climb/climbed/climbed), find/fand/fund (find/found/found), fling/flang/flung (fling/flung/flung), hing/hang/hung (hang/hung/hung), rin/ran/run (run/ran/run), spin/span/spun (spin/spun/spun), stick/stack/stuck (stick/stuck/stuck), drink/drank/drunk~drucken (drink/drank/drunk); creep/crap/cruppen (creep/crept/crept), greet/grat/grutten (weep/wept/wept), sweit/swat/swutten (sweat/sweat/sweat), weet/wat/watten (wet/wet/wet), pit/pat/pitten (put/put/put), sit/sat/sitten (sit/sat/sat), spit/spat/spitten~sputten (spit/spat/spat); brek~brak/brak/brakken~broken (break/broke/broken), get~git/gat/gotten (get/got/got[ten]), speak/spak/spoken (speak/spoke/spoken), fecht/focht/fochten (fight/fought/fought); beir/buir/born(e) (bear/bore/borne), sweir/swuir/sworn (swear/swore/sworne), teir/tuir/torn (tear/tore/torn), weir/wuir/worn (wear/wore/worn); cast/cuist/casten~cuisten (cast/cast/cast), lat/luit/latten~luitten (let/let/let), staund/stuid/stuiden (stand/stood/stood), fesh/fuish/feshen~fuishen (fetch/fetched), thrash/thrasht~thruish/thrasht~thruishen(thresh/threshed/threshed), wash/washt~wuish/washt~wuishen (wash/washed/washed); bake/bakit~beuk/bakken (bake/baked/baked), lauch/leuch/lauchen~leuchen (laugh/laughed/laughed), shak/sheuk/shakken~sheuken (shake/shook/shaken), tak/teuk/taen (take/took/taken); gae/gaed/gane (go/went/gone), gie/gied/gien (give/gave/given), hae/haed/haen (have/had/had); chuise/chuised/chosen (choose/chose/chosen), soum/soumed/soumed (swim/swam/swum), sell/selt~sauld/selt~sauld (sell/sold/sold), tell/telt~tauld/telt~tauld (tell/told/told).
Present participle The present participle and gerund in are now usually /ən/ but may still be differentiated /ən/ and /in/ in Southern Scots and, /ən/ and /ɪn/ North Northern Scots. Adverbs Adverbs are usually of the same form as the verb root or adjective especially after verbs. Haein a real guid day (Having a really good day). She's awfu fauchelt (She's awfully tired). Adverbs are also formed with -s, -lies, lins, gate(s)and wey(s) -wey, whiles (at times), mebbes (perhaps), brawlies (splendidly), geylies (pretty well), aiblins (perhaps), airselins (backwards), hauflins (partly), hidlins (secretly), maistlins (almost), awgates (always, everywhere), ilkagate (everywhere), onygate (anyhow), ilkawey (everywhere), onywey (anyhow, anywhere), endweys (straight ahead), whit wey (how, why). Prepositions
above, upper, topmost abuin, buiner, buinmaist
below, lower, lowest ablo, nether, blomaist
about (concerning) anent
In the North East, the 'wh' in the above words is pronounced /f/.
Scots prefers the word order He turnt oot the licht to 'He turned
the light out' and Gie's it (Give us it) to 'Give it to me'.
Certain verbs are often used progressively He wis thinkin he wad
tell her, He wis wantin tae tell her.
Verbs of motion may be dropped before an adverb or adverbial phrase of
motion A'm awa tae ma bed, That's me awa hame, A'll intae the
hoose an see him.
Diminutives in -ie, burnie small burn (stream), feardie/feartie
(frightened person, coward), gamie (gamekeeper), kiltie (kilted
soldier), postie (postman), wifie (woman, also used in Geordie
dialect), rhodie (rhododendron), and also in -ock, bittock (little
bit), playock (toy, plaything), sourock (sorrel) and Northern
–ag, bairnag (little), bairn (child, common in
Negative na: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'nae' or 'y' e.g. canna (can't), dinna (don't) and maunna (mustn't). fu (ful): /u/, /ɪ/, /ɑ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'fu'', 'fie', 'fy', 'fae' and 'fa'. The word ending ae: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'a', 'ow' or 'y', for example: arrae (arrow), barrae (barrow) and windae (window), etc.
Numbers Ordinal numbers end mostly in t: seicont, fowert, fift, saxt— (second, fourth, fifth, sixth) etc., but note also first, thrid/third— (first, third).
one, first ane/ae, first
two, second twa, seicont
three, third three, thrid/third
four, fourth fower, fowert
five, fifth five, fift
six, sixth sax, saxt
seven, seventh seiven, seivent
eight, eighth aicht, aicht
nine, ninth nine, nint
ten, tenth ten, tent
eleven, eleventh eleiven, eleivent
twelve, twelfth twal, twalt
Ae /eː/, /jeː/ is used as an adjective before a noun such as : The Ae Hoose (The One House), Ae laddie an twa lassies (One boy and two girls). Ane is pronounced variously, depending on dialect, /en/, /jɪn/ in many Central and Southern varieties, /in/ in some Northern and Insular varieties, and /wan/, often written yin, een and wan in dialect writing. The impersonal form of 'one' is a body as in A body can niver bide wi a body's sel (One can never live by oneself). Times of day
dusk, twilight dayligaun, gloamin
early morning wee-oors
The eighteenth century Scots revival was initiated by writers such as
Allan Ramsay and Robert Fergusson, and later continued by writers such
At Hallowmas, whan nights grow lang, And starnies shine fu' clear, Whan fock, the nippin cauld to bang, Their winter hap-warms wear, Near Edinbrough a fair there hads, I wat there's nane whase name is, For strappin dames an sturdy lads, And cap and stoup, mair famous Than it that day.
Upo' the tap o' ilka lum The sun bagan to keek, And bad the trig made maidens come A sightly joe to seek At Hallow-fair, whare browsters rare Keep gude ale on the gantries, And dinna scrimp ye o' a skair O' kebbucks frae their pantries, Fu' saut that day.
From The Maker to Posterity (
Robert Louis Stevenson
Far 'yont amang the years to be When a' we think, an' a' we see, An' a' we luve, `s been dung ajee By time's rouch shouther, An' what was richt and wrang for me Lies mangled throu'ther,
It's possible - it's hardly mair - That some ane, ripin' after lear - Some auld professor or young heir, If still there's either - May find an' read me, an' be sair Perplexed, puir brither!
"What tongue does your auld bookie speak?" He'll spier; an' I, his mou to steik: "No bein' fit to write in Greek, I write in Lallan, Dear to my heart as the peat reek, Auld as Tantallon.
"Few spak it then, an' noo there's nane. My puir auld sangs lie a' their lane, Their sense, that aince was braw an' plain, Tint a'thegether, Like runes upon a standin' stane Amang the heather.
From The House with the Green Shutters (George Douglas Brown 1869–1902)
He was born the day the brig on the Fleckie Road gaed down, in the year o' the great flood; and since the great flood it’s twelve year come Lammas. Rab Tosh o' Fleckie’s wife was heavy-footed at the time, and Doctor Munn had been a' nicht wi' her, and when he came to Barbie Water in the morning it was roaring wide frae bank to brae; where the brig should have been there was naething but the swashing o' the yellow waves. Munn had to drive a' the way round to the Fechars brig, and in parts of the road, the water was so deep that it lapped his horse’s bellyband.
A' this time Mistress Gourlay was skirling in her pains an praying to God she micht dee. Gourlay had been a great cronie o' Munn’s, but he quarrelled him for being late; he had trysted him, ye see, for the occasion, and he had been twenty times at the yett to look for him-ye ken how little he would stomach that; he was ready to brust wi' anger. Munn, mad for the want o' sleep and wat to the bane, swüre back at him; and than Goulay wadna let him near his wife! Ye mind what an awful day it was; the thunder roared as if the heavens were tumbling on the world, and the lichtnin sent the trees daudin on the roads, and folk hid below their beds an prayed-they thocht it was the judgment! But Gourlay rammed his black stepper in the shafts and drave like the devil o' Hell to Skeighan Drone, where there was a young doctor. The lad was feared to come, but Gourlay swore by God that he should, and he gaired him. In a' the countryside, driving like his that day was never kenned or heard tell o'; they were back within the hour!
I saw them gallop up Main Street; lichtin struck the ground before them; the young doctor covered his face wi' his hands, and the horse nichered wi' fear an tried to wheel, but Gourlay stood up in the gig and lashed him on though the fire. It was thocht for lang that Mrs. Gourlay would die, and she was never the same womman after. Atweel aye, sirs. Gorlay has that morning's work to blame for the poor wife he has now.
From Embro to the Ploy ( Robert Garioch 1909 - 1981)
The tartan tred wad gar ye lauch; nae problem is owre teuch. Your surname needna end in –och; they’ll cleik ye up the cleuch. A puckle dollar bill will aye preive Hiram Teufelsdröckh a septary of Clan McKay it’s maybe richt eneuch,
in Embro to the ploy.
The Auld High Schule, whaur mony a skelp of triple-tonguit tawse has gien a heist-up and a help towards Doctorates of Laws, nou hears, for Ramsay’s cantie rhyme, loud pawmies of applause frae folk that pey a pund a time to sit on wudden raws
in Embro to the ploy
The haly kirk’s Assembly-haa nou fairly coups the creel wi Lindsay’s Three Estatis, braw devices of the Deil. About our heids the satire stots like hailstanes till we reel; the bawrs are in auld-farrant Scots, it’s maybe jist as weill,
in Embro to the ploy.
From The New Testament in Scots ( William Laughton Lorimer 1885- 1967) Mathew:1:18ff
This is the storie o the birth o Jesus Christ. His mither Mary wis trystit til Joseph, but afore they war mairriet she wis fund tae be wi bairn bi the Halie Spírit. Her husband Joseph, honest man, hed nae mind tae affront her afore the warld an wis for brakkin aff their tryst hidlinweys; an sae he wis een ettlin tae dae, whan an angel o the Lord kythed til him in a draim an said til him, “Joseph, son o Dauvit, be nane feared tae tak Mary your trystit wife intil your hame; the bairn she is cairrein is o the Halie Spírit. She will beir a son, an the name ye ar tae gíe him is Jesus, for he will sauf his fowk frae their sins.”
Aa this happent at the wurd spokken bi the Lord throu the Prophet micht be fulfilled: Behaud, the virgin wil bouk an beir a son, an they will caa his name Immanuel – that is, “God wi us”.
Whan he hed waukit frae his sleep, Joseph did as the angel hed bidden him, an tuik his trystit wife hame wi him. But he bedditna wi her or she buir a son; an he caa’d the bairn Jesus.
^ "A Brief History of Scots in Corbett, John; McClure, Derrick;
Stuart-Smith, Jane (Editors)(2003) The
Scots edition of, the free encyclopedia
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