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MODERN GREEK (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.

During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia , with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the demotic and learned varieties ( Dimotiki and Katharevousa ) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.

CONTENTS

* 1 Varieties

* 1.1 Demotic * 1.2 Katharevousa * 1.3 Pontic * 1.4 Cappadocian * 1.5 Mariupolitan * 1.6 Southern Italian * 1.7 Yevanic * 1.8 Tsakonian

* 2 Phonology and orthography

* 3 Syntax
Syntax
and morphology

* 3.1 Differences from Classical Greek
Classical Greek

* 4 Sample text * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

VARIETIES

Main article: Varieties of Modern Greek

Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Katharevousa, Pontic, Cappadocian, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian, Yevanic and Tsakonian.

DEMOTIC

Main article: Demotic Greek

Strictly speaking, Demotic (Δημοτική) refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present. As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular already before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
, notably in peninsular Greece
Greece
, the Greek islands , coastal Asia Minor , Constantinople, and Cyprus
Cyprus
. The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas.

Today, a standardised variety of Demotic Greek is the official language of the Hellenic Republic (Greece) and Cyprus, and is referred to as "Standard Modern Greek", or less strictly simply as "Modern Greek" or "Demotic".

Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences, mainly in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the high degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as "idioms" of a wider "Demotic dialect", known as "Koine Modern Greek" (Koini Neoelliniki - 'common Neo-Hellenic'). Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as "dialects", emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary. Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups, Northern and Southern.

The main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes: becomes , becomes , and and are dropped. The dropped vowels' existence is implicit, and may affect surrounding phonemes: for example, a dropped palatalizes preceding consonants, just like an that is pronounced. Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts.

Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian , Epirote , Thessalian , Macedonian , Thracian . The Southern category is divided into groups that include variety groups from:

* Megara
Megara
, Aegina , Athens
Athens
, Cyme (Old Athenian) and Mani Peninsula (Maniot) * Peloponnese (except Mani), Cyclades and Crete
Crete
, Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
, Northern Epirus
Epirus
, Smyrna
Smyrna
and Constantinople
Constantinople
* Dodecanese and Cyprus
Cyprus
.

Demotic Greek has officially been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982. Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles.

KATHAREVOUSA

Main article: Katharevousa

Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα) is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek
Classical Greek
and modern Demotic. It was the official language of modern Greece
Greece
until 1976.

Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script. Also, while Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian, Latin, and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. See also Greek language
Greek language
question .

PONTIC

Main article: Pontic Greek Anatolian Greek dialects until 1923. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages in 1910.

Pontic (Ποντιακά) was originally spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece
Greece
during the Pontic genocide (1919–1921), followed later by the Population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
in 1923. (Small numbers of Muslim speakers of Pontic Greek escaped these events and still reside in the Pontic villages of Turkey.) It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region. Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the region's isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms (see Empire of Trebizond ).

CAPPADOCIAN

Main article: Cappadocian Greek

Cappadocian (Καππαδοκικά) is a Greek dialect of central Turkey
Turkey
of the same fate as Pontic; its speakers settled in mainland Greece
Greece
after the Greek genocide
Greek genocide
(1919–1921) and the later Population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
in 1923. Cappadocian Greek diverged from the other Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
dialects earlier, beginning with the Turkish conquests of central Asia Minor in the 11th and 12th centuries, and so developed several radical features, such as the loss of the gender for nouns. Having been isolated from the crusader conquests ( Fourth Crusade ) and the later Venetian influence of the Greek coast, it retained the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
terms for many words that were replaced with Romance ones in Demotic Greek. The poet Rumi
Rumi
, whose name means "Roman", referring to his residence amongst the "Roman" Greek speakers of Cappadocia, wrote a few poems in Cappadocian Greek, one of the earliest attestations of the dialect.

MARIUPOLITAN

Main article: Rumeíka

Rumeíka (Ρωμαίικα) or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
in southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia
Russia
. Mariupolitan Greek is closely related to Pontic Greek and evolved from the dialect of Greek spoken in Crimea
Crimea
, which was a part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and then the Pontic Empire of Trebizond , until that latter state fell to the Ottomans in 1461. Thereafter, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principality of Theodoro . The Greek-speaking inhabitants of Crimea
Crimea
were invited by Catherine the Great to resettle in the new city of Mariupol
Mariupol
after the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) to escape the then Muslim-dominated Crimea. Mariupolitan's main features have certain similarities with both Pontic (e.g. the lack of synizesis of -ía, éa) and the northern varieties of the core dialects (e.g. the northern vocalism).

SOUTHERN ITALIAN

Areas in Southern Italy
Italy
where the Griko and Calabrian dialects are spoken

Southern Italian or Italiot (Κατωιταλιώτικα) comprises both Calabrian and Griko varieties, spoken by around 15 villages in the regions of Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia
Apulia
. The Southern Italian dialect is the last living trace of Hellenic elements in Southern Italy
Italy
that once formed Magna Graecia . Its origins can be traced to the Dorian Greek settlers who colonised the area from Sparta
Sparta
and Corinth
Corinth
in 700 BC.

It has received significant Koine Greek influence through Byzantine Greek colonisers who re-introduced Greek language
Greek language
to the region, starting with Justinian 's conquest of Italy
Italy
in late antiquity and continuing through the Middle Ages. Griko and Demotic are mutually intelligible to some extent, but the former shares some common characteristics with Tsakonian.

YEVANIC

Main article: Yevanic language

Yevanic is a recently extinct language of Romaniote Jews
Romaniote Jews
. The language was already in decline for centuries until most of its speakers were killed in the Holocaust . Afterward, the language was mostly kept by remaining Romaniote emigrants to Israel
Israel
, where it was displaced by modern Hebrew .

TSAKONIAN

Main article: Tsakonian language

Tsakonian (Τσακωνικά) is spoken in its full form today only in a small number of villages around the town of Leonidio in the region of Arcadia
Arcadia
in the Southern Peloponnese , and partially spoken further afield in the area. Tsakonian evolved directly from Laconian (ancient Spartan) and therefore descends from Doric Greek .

It has limited input from Hellenistic Koine and is significantly different from and not mutually intelligible with other Greek varieties (such as Demotic Greek and Pontic Greek ). Some linguists consider it a separate language because of this.

PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY

Main articles: Modern Greek phonology , Greek orthography , and Greek alphabet

A series of radical sound changes starting in Koine Greek has led to a phonological system in Modern Greek
Modern Greek
that is significantly different from that of Ancient Greek. Instead of the rich vowel system of Ancient Greek, with its four vowel-height levels, length distinction, and multiple diphthongs, Modern Greek
Modern Greek
has a simple system of five vowels. This came about through a series of mergers, especially towards /i/ (iotacism ).

Modern Greek
Modern Greek
consonants are plain (voiceless unaspirated) stops , voiced stops , or voiced and unvoiced fricatives . Modern Greek
Modern Greek
has not preserved length in vowels or consonants.

GREEK ALPHABET

Αα Alpha
Alpha
Νν Nu

Ββ Beta
Beta
Ξξ Xi

Γγ Gamma
Gamma
Οο Omicron
Omicron

Δδ Delta Ππ Pi

Εε Epsilon
Epsilon
Ρρ Rho
Rho

Ζζ Zeta
Zeta
Σσς Sigma
Sigma

Ηη Eta
Eta
Ττ Tau
Tau

Θθ Theta
Theta
Υυ Upsilon

Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Phi

Κκ Kappa
Kappa
Χχ Chi

Λλ Lambda
Lambda
Ψψ Psi

Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
Omega

HISTORY

Archaic local variants

* * * * * *

* Diacritics * Ligatures

Numerals

* ϛ (6) * ϟ (90) * ϡ (900)

USE IN OTHER LANGUAGES

* Bactrian * Coptic * Albanian

RELATED TOPICS

* Use as scientific symbols

* Book
Book
* Category
Category

* Commons

* v * t * e

Modern Greek
Modern Greek
is written in the Greek alphabet, which has 24 letters, each with a capital and lowercase (small) form. The letter sigma additionally has a special final form. There are two diacritical symbols, the acute accent which indicates stress and the diaeresis marking a vowel letter as not being part of a digraph . Greek has a mixed historical and phonemic orthography , where historical spellings are used if their pronunciation matches modern usage. The correspondence between consonant phonemes and graphemes is largely unique, but several of the vowels can be spelled in multiple ways. Thus reading is easy but spelling is difficult.

A number of diacritical signs were used until 1982, when they were officially dropped from Greek spelling as no longer corresponding to the modern pronunciation of the language. Monotonic orthography is today used in official usage, in schools and for most purposes of everyday writing in Greece. Polytonic orthography, besides being used for older varieties of Greek, is still used in book printing, especially for academic and belletristic purposes, and in everyday use by some conservative writers and elderly people. The Greek Orthodox Church continues to use polytonic and the late Christodoulos of Athens and the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece
Greece
have requested the reintroduction of polytonic as the official script.

The Greek vowel letters and digraphs with their pronunciations are: ⟨α⟩ /a /, ⟨ε, αι⟩ /e /, ⟨η, ι, υ, ει, οι, υι⟩ /i /, ⟨ο, ω⟩ /o /, and ⟨ου⟩ /u /. The digraphs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced /av/, /ev/, and /iv/ respectively before vowels and voiced consonants, and /af/, /ef/ and /if/ respectively before voiceless consonants.

The Greek letters ⟨φ⟩, ⟨β⟩, ⟨θ⟩, and ⟨δ⟩ are pronounced /f /, /v /, /θ /, and /ð / respectively. The letters ⟨γ⟩ and ⟨χ⟩ are pronounced /ɣ / and /x /, respectively. Before mid or close front vowels (/e / and /i /), they are fronted, becoming and , respectively, which, in some dialects, notably those of Crete
Crete
and the Mani, are further fronted to or and or , respectively. Μoreover, before mid or close back vowels (/o / and /u /), ⟨γ⟩ tends to be pronounced further back than a prototypical velar, between a velar and an uvular (transcribed ɣ̄). The letter ⟨ξ⟩ stands for the sequence /ks/ and ⟨ψ⟩ for /ps/.

The digraphs ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are generally pronounced , but are fronted to before front vowels (/e / and /i /) and tend to be pronounced before the back vowels (/o / and /u /). When these digraphs are preceded by a vowel, they are pronounced and before front vowels (/e / and /i /) and before the back (/o / and /u /). The digraph ⟨γγ⟩ may be pronounced in some words ( before front vowels and before back ones). The pronunciation for the digraph ⟨γκ⟩ is extremely rare, but could be heard in literary and scholarly words or when reading ancient texts (by a few readers); normally it retains its "original" pronunciation only in the trigraph ⟨γκτ⟩, where ⟨τ⟩ prevents the sonorization of ⟨κ⟩ by ⟨γ⟩ (hence ).

SYNTAX AND MORPHOLOGY

Main article: Modern Greek grammar Areas where Modern Greek
Modern Greek
is spoken in blue; areas where Greek is an official language in dark blue Street sign in Rethymno
Rethymno
in honor of Psara island: Psaron (in genitive) Street, historic island of the 1821 Revolution

Modern Greek
Modern Greek
is largely a synthetic language . Modern Greek
Modern Greek
and Albanian are the only two modern Indo-European languages that retain a synthetic passive (the North Germanic passive is a recent innovation based on a grammaticalized reflexive pronoun ).

DIFFERENCES FROM CLASSICAL GREEK

Modern Greek
Modern Greek
has changed from Classical Greek
Classical Greek
in morphology and syntax , losing some features and gaining others.

Features lost:

* dative case * optative mood * infinitive * dual number * participles (except the past participle) * third person imperative.

Features gained:

* gerund * modal particle θα (a contraction of ἐθέλω ἵνα → θέλω να → θε' να → θα), which marks future and conditional tenses * auxiliary verb forms for certain verb forms * aspectual distinction in future tense between imperfective (present) and perfective (aorist)

Modern Greek
Modern Greek
has developed a simpler system of grammatical prefixes marking tense and aspect, such as augmentation and reduplication , and has lost some patterns of noun declension and some distinct forms in the declensions that were retained.

Most of these features are shared with other languages spoken in the Balkan peninsula (see Balkan sprachbund ), although Greek does not show all typical Balkan areal features, such as the postposed article.

Because of the influence of Katharevousa, however, Demotic is not commonly used in its purest form. Archaisms are still widely used, especially in writing and in more formal speech, as well as in some everyday expressions, such as the dative εντάξει ('OK', literally 'in order') or the third person imperative ζήτω! ('long live!').

SAMPLE TEXT

The following is a sample text in Modern Greek
Modern Greek
of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations
United Nations
):

Άρθρο 1: Όλοι οι άνθρωποι γεννιούνται ελεύθεροι και ίσοι στην αξιοπρέπεια και τα δικαιώματα. Είναι προικισμένοι με λογική και συνείδηση, και οφείλουν να συμπεριφέρονται μεταξύ τους με πνεύμα αδελφοσύνης. —  Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Greek alphabet

ARTHRO 1: Oloi oi anthropoi genniountai eleutheroi kai isoi stin axioprepeia kai ta dikaiomata. Einai proikismenoi me logiki kai syneidisi, kai ofeiloun na symperiferontai metaxy tous me pneuma adelfosynis. —  Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Roman Transliteration , faithful to script

ÁRTHRO 1: Óli i ánthropi yeniúnde eléftheri ke ísi stin aksioprépia ke ta dhikeómata. Íne prikizméni me loyikí ke sinídhisi, ke ofílun na simberiféronde metaksí tus me pnévma adhelfosínis. —  Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Transcription , faithful to pronunciation

—  Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in IPA

ARTICLE 1: All the human beings are born free and equal in the dignity and the rights. Are endowed with reason and conscience, and have to behave between them with spirit of brotherhood. — Gloss, word-for-word

ARTICLE 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. — Translation, grammatical

REFERENCES

* ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 * ^ Jeffries 2002 , p. 69: "It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark ..." * ^ "Greek in Hungary". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Retrieved 31 May 2013. * ^ "Italy: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. The Greek Italian community numbers some 30,000 and is concentrated mainly in central Italy. The age-old presence in Italy
Italy
of Italians of Greek descent – dating back to Byzantine and Classical times – is attested to by the Griko dialect, which is still spoken in the Magna Graecia region. This historically Greek-speaking villages are Condofuri, Galliciano, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Bova and Bova Marina, which are in the Calabria
Calabria
region (the capital of which is Reggio). The Grecanic region, including Reggio, has a population of some 200,000, while speakers of the Griko dialect number fewer that 1,000 persons. * ^ Tsitselikis 2013 , pp. 294–295. * ^ "Language Use in the United States: 2011" (PDF). United States Census . Retrieved 17 October 2015. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). " Modern Greek
Modern Greek
(1453–)". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Based on: Brian Newton: The Generative Interpretation of Dialect. A Study of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
Phonology, Cambridge 1972, ISBN 0-521-08497-0 * ^ Artemis Alexiadou; Geoffrey C. Horrocks; Melita Stavrou. Studies in Greek Syntax. * ^ Dawkins, R.M. 1916. Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://archive.org/details/moderngreekinas00hallgoog * ^ A B Dawkins, R.M. 1916. Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * ^ Δέδες, Δ. 1993. Ποιήματα του Μαυλανά Ρουμή. Τα Ιστορικά 10.18–19: 3–22. * ^ Meyer, G. 1895. Die griechischen Verse in Rabâbnâma. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 4: 401–411. * ^ http://www.tlg.uci.edu