HOME
The Info List - Mizrahi


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i)

MIZRAHI JEWS, MIZRAHIM (Hebrew : מזרחים‬‎) or AL-MASHRIQIYYūN ( Arabic
Arabic
: المشرقيون‎), also referred to as EDOT HAMIZRACH (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח‬; "Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew: ʿEdot(h) Ha(m)Mizraḥ), BENE HAMIZRAH ("Sons of the East") or ORIENTAL JEWS, are Jews
Jews
descended from local Jewish communities of the Middle East
Middle East
from biblical times into the modern era. They include descendants of Babylonian Jews
Jews
and Mountain Jews
Jews
from modern Iraq
Iraq
, Syria
Syria
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Dagestan , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Iran
Iran
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, the Caucasus , Kurdistan , Afghanistan , India
India
and Pakistan . Yemenite Jews
Jews
are sometimes also included, but their history is separate from Babylonian Jewry.

The use of the term Mizrahi can be somewhat controversial. The term Mizrahim is sometimes applied to descendants of Maghrebi and Sephardi Jews
Jews
, who had lived in North Africa ( Egypt
Egypt
, Libya
Libya
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
), the Sephardi-proper communities of Turkey
Turkey
and the mixed Levantine communities of Lebanon
Lebanon
, Israel
Israel
and Syria
Syria
. Before the establishment of the state of Israel
Israel
, Mizrahi Jews
Jews
did not identify themselves as a separate Jewish subgroup. Instead, Mizrahi Jews
Jews
generally characterized themselves as Sephardi, as they follow the traditions of Sephardi
Sephardi
Judaism
Judaism
(but with some differences among the minhag "customs" of particular communities). That has resulted in a conflation of terms, particularly in Israel
Israel
and in religious usage, with "Sephardi" being used in a broad sense and including Mizrahi Jews and North African Jews
Jews
as well as Sephardim proper. From the point of view of the official Israeli rabbinate, any rabbis of Mizrahi origin in Israel
Israel
are under the jurisdiction of the Sephardi
Sephardi
Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Israel
Israel
.

As of 2005, 61% of Israeli Jews
Jews
are of partial Mizrahi ancestry.

CONTENTS

* 1 Usage * 2 Religious rite designations

* 3 Language

* 3.1 Arabic
Arabic
* 3.2 Aramaic * 3.3 Persian and other languages

* 4 Migration

* 4.1 Post-1948 dispersal

* 4.2 Absorption into Israeli society

* 4.2.1 Disparities and integration

* 5 Notable Mizrahim

* 5.1 Business people * 5.2 Entertainers * 5.3 Scientists and Nobel prize
Nobel prize
laureates * 5.4 Inventors * 5.5 Politicians and military * 5.6 Religious figures * 5.7 Sports and game players * 5.8 Visual arts * 5.9 Writers and academics

* 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Bibliography

* 8 External links

* 8.1 Organizations * 8.2 Articles * 8.3 Communities

USAGE

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

"Mizrahi" is literally translated as "Oriental", "Eastern", מזרח‬ Mizraḥ, Hebrew for "east." In the past the word "Mizrahim," corresponding to the Arabic
Arabic
word Mashriqiyyun (Easterners), referred to the natives of Kurdistan, Iraq
Iraq
and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghribiyyun ). In medieval and early modern times the corresponding Hebrew word ma'arav was used for North Africa. In Talmudic and Geonic times, however, this word "ma'arav" referred to the land of Israel
Israel
as contrasted with Babylonia. For this reason many object to the use of "Mizrahi" to include Moroccan and other North African Jews.

The term Mizrahim or Edot Hamizraḥ, Oriental communities, grew in Israel
Israel
under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of Jewish immigrants from the Europe, North Africa, Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia, followers of Ashkenazi, Sephardi
Sephardi
and Temani (Yemenite) rites. In modern Israeli usage, it refers to all Jews
Jews
from Central and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority countries. The term came to be widely used more by Mizrahi activists in the early 1990s. Since then in Israel
Israel
it has become an accepted semi-official and media designation.

Most of the "Mizrahi" activists actually originated from North African Jewish communities, traditionally called "Westerners" (Maghrebi), rather than "Easterners" (Mashreqi). Many Jews
Jews
originated from Arab and Muslim countries today reject "Mizrahi" (or any) umbrella description and prefer to identify themselves by their particular country of origin, or that of their immediate ancestors, e.g. "Moroccan Jew", or prefer to use the old term "Sephardi" in its broader meaning.

RELIGIOUS RITE DESIGNATIONS

This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Today, many identify all non-Ashkenazi rite Jews
Jews
as Sephardi
Sephardi
- in modern Hebrew "Sfaradim", mixing ancestral origin and religious rite. This broader definition of "Sephardim" as including all, or most, Mizrahi Jews
Jews
is also common in Jewish religious circles. During the past century, the Sephardi
Sephardi
rite absorbed the unique rite of the Yemenite Jews
Jews
and lately Beta Israel
Israel
religious leaders in Israel
Israel
have also joined Sefardi rite collectivities, especially following rejection of their Jewishness by Ashkenazi and Hasidic circles. Yemenite Jew
Jew
blowing shofar, 1947

The reason for this classification of all Mizrahim under Sephardi rite is that most Mizrahi communities use much the same religious rituals as Sephardim proper due to historical reasons. The prevalence of the Sephardi
Sephardi
rite among Mizrahim is partially a result of Sephardim proper joining some of Mizrahi communities following the 1492 Alhambra Decree , which expelled Jews
Jews
from Sepharad ( Spain
Spain
and Portugal ). Over the last few centuries, the previously distinctive rites of the Mizrahi communities were influenced, superimposed upon or altogether replaced by the rite of the Sephardim, perceived as more prestigious. Even before this assimilation, the original rite of many Jewish Oriental communities was already closer to the Sephardi
Sephardi
rite than to the Ashkenazi one. For this reason, "Sephardim" has come to mean not only "Spanish Jews" proper but " Jews
Jews
of the Spanish rite", just as "Ashkenazim " is used for " Jews
Jews
of the German rite", whether or not their families originate in Germany.

Many of the Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
exiled from Spain
Spain
resettled in greater or lesser numbers in the Arab world
Arab world
, such as Syria
Syria
and Morocco
Morocco
. In Syria
Syria
, most eventually intermarried with and assimilated into the larger established communities of Musta\'rabim and Mizrahim. In some North African countries such as Morocco, Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
came in greater numbers and largely contributed to the Jewish settlements that the pre-existing Jews
Jews
were assimilated by them. Either way, this assimilation, combined with the use of the Sephardi
Sephardi
rite, led to the popular designation and conflation of most non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities from the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa as " Sephardi
Sephardi
rite", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms " Sephardi
Sephardi
Jews" and "Sfaradim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense.

In some Arabic
Arabic
countries such as Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, Sephardi
Sephardi
Jews arrived via the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
would distinguish themselves from the already established Musta'rabim, while in others, such as Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, the two communities largely intermarried, with the latter embracing Sephardi
Sephardi
customs and thus forming a single community.

LANGUAGE

ARABIC

Further information: Judeo-Arabic languages
Judeo-Arabic languages

In the Arab world
Arab world
(such as Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, and Syria), Mizrahim most often speak Arabic
Arabic
, although Arabic
Arabic
is now mainly used as a second language, especially by the older generation. Most of the many notable philosophical, religious and literary works of the Jews
Jews
in Spain, North Africa and Asia were written in Arabic
Arabic
using a modified Hebrew alphabet .

ARAMAIC

Kurdish Jews
Jews
in Rawanduz , northern Iraq
Iraq
, 1905.

Aramaic is a Semitic language subfamily. Specific varieties of Aramaic are identified as " Jewish languages
Jewish languages
" since they are the languages of major Jewish texts such as the Talmud
Talmud
and Zohar
Zohar
, and many ritual recitations such as the Kaddish . Traditionally, Aramaic has been a language of Talmudic debate in yeshivot , as many rabbinic texts are written in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. The current Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
, known as "Assyrian lettering" or "the square script", was in fact borrowed from Aramaic.

In Kurdistan , the language of the Mizrahim is a variant of Aramaic. As spoken by the Kurdish Jews
Jews
, Judeo-Aramaic languages
Judeo-Aramaic languages
are Neo-Aramaic languages descended from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic . They are related to the Christian Aramaic dialects spoken by Assyrian people .

In 2007, a book was published, authored by Mordechai Zaken , describing the unique relationship between Jews
Jews
in urban and rural Kurdistan and the tribal society under whose patronage the Jews
Jews
lived for hundreds of years. Tribal chieftains, or aghas, granted patronage to the Jews
Jews
who needed protection in the wild tribal region of Kurdistan; the Jews
Jews
gave their chieftains dues, gifts and services. The text provides numerous tales and examples about the skills, maneuvers and innovations used by Kurdistani Jews
Jews
in their daily life to confront their abuse and extortion by greedy chieftains and tribesmen. The text also tells the stories of Kurdish chieftains who saved and protected the Jews
Jews
unconditionally.

By the early 1950s, virtually the entire Jewish community of Kurdistan — a rugged, mostly mountainous region comprising parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, where Jews
Jews
had lived since antiquity — relocated to Israel. The vast majority of Kurdish Jews, who were primarily concentrated in northern Iraq, left Kurdistan in the mass aliyah of 1950-51. This ended thousands of years of Jewish history in what had been Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
.

PERSIAN AND OTHER LANGUAGES

Among other languages associated with Mizrahim are Judeo-Iranian languages such as Judeo-Persian , the Bukhori dialect
Bukhori dialect
, Judeo-Tat
Judeo-Tat
, and Kurdish languages
Kurdish languages
; Georgian ; Marathi ; and Judeo-Malayalam . Most Persian Jews
Jews
speak standard Persian , as do many other Jews
Jews
from Iran, Afghanistan, and Bukhara
Bukhara
( Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
), as well as the Mountain Jews
Jews
of Azerbaijan, Russian Dagestan and other Caucasian territories in Russia, who speak Judeo-Tat.

MIGRATION

Some Mizrahim migrated to India, other parts of Central Asia, and China. In some Mizrahi Jewish communities (notably those of Yemen
Yemen
and Iran), polygyny has been practiced.

POST-1948 DISPERSAL

Main articles: Mizrahi Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
and Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries

After the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
and subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War , most Mizrahim were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and emigrated to Israel. According to the 2009 Statistical Abstract of Israel, 50.2% of Israeli Jews
Jews
are of Mizrahi or Sephardi
Sephardi
origin.

Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, in the context of the founding of the State of Israel, led to the departure of large numbers of Mizrahi Jews
Jews
from the Middle East. 25,000 Mizrahi Jews
Jews
from Egypt
Egypt
left after the 1956 Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
, led to the overwhelming majority of Mizrahim leaving Arab countries. They became refugees . Most went to Israel. Many Moroccan and Algerian Jews went to France. Thousands of Lebanese, Syrian and Egyptian Jews emigrated to the United States
United States
and to Brazil.

Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries

COMMUNITIES

* Mizrahi

* Persian * Baghdadi

* Sephardi
Sephardi

BACKGROUND

* Jews
Jews
under Muslim rule

* Ottoman * Old Yishuv
Old Yishuv

* Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Arab World

* Holocaust in Libya
Libya
* Farhud

* Zionism
Zionism

* Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict

* 1948 Palestine war
1948 Palestine war
* Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
* Six-Day War

* Algerian War
Algerian War

MAIN EVENTS

* Magic Carpet (Yemen) * Ezra and Nehemiah (Iraq) * Lebanese exodus * Egyptian exodus

* Moroccan exodus

* Operation Yachin

* Pied-Noir
Pied-Noir
(Algeria) * Day of Revenge (Libya) * Exodus of Iran\'s Jews
Jews

RESETTLEMENT

* Aliyah
Aliyah

* HIAS Mossad
Mossad
Le Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet • JDC

* Mizrahi Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel

* Iranian • Iraqi • Kurdish • Moroccan * Syrian • Turkish • Yemenite

*

* Transition camps * Immigrant camps * Development towns * Austerity

* North African Jews
Jews
in France

ADVOCATION

* Remembrance Day * JIMENA * JJAC * WOJAC * The Forgotten Refugees

RELATED TOPICS

* Arab Jews
Jews
* Musta\'arabi * Maghrebi Jews
Maghrebi Jews
* Berber Jews
Jews

* v * t * e

Today, as many as 40,000 Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world
Muslim world
, primarily in Iran
Iran
, but also Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Turkey
Turkey
. There are few Maghrebim remaining in the Arab world
Arab world
too. About 5,000 remain in Morocco
Morocco
and fewer than 2,000 in Tunisia
Tunisia
. Other countries with remnants of ancient Jewish communities with official recognition, such as Lebanon
Lebanon
, have 100 or fewer Jews. A trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel
Israel
and the United States
United States
.

ABSORPTION INTO ISRAELI SOCIETY

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2008)

Refuge in Israel
Israel
was not without its tragedies: "in a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified even in its diversity,” had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat. The trauma of rupture from their countries of origin was further complicated by the difficulty of the transition upon arrival in Israel; Mizrahi immigrants and refugees were placed in rudimentary and hastily erected tent cities (Ma\'abarot ) often in development towns on the peripheries of Israel. Settlement in Moshavim (cooperative farming villages) was only partially successful, because Mizrahim had historically filled a niche as craftsmen and merchants and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork. As the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status aggravated by their cultural and political differences with the dominant Ashkenazi community. Furthermore, a policy of austerity was enforced at that time due to economic hardships.

Mizrahi immigrants arrived with many mother tongues. Many, especially those from North Africa and the fertile crescent, spoke Arabic dialects; those from Iran
Iran
spoke Persian ; Mountain Jews
Jews
from Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
arrived with Judeo-Tat; Baghdadi Jews
Jews
from India
India
arrived with English; Bukharan Jews
Jews
from Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
arrived with the Bukhori dialect; the Bene Israel
Israel
from Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, India arrived with Marathi, Mizrahim from elsewhere brought Georgian, Judaeo-Georgian and various other languages with them. Hebrew had historically been a language only of prayer for most Jews
Jews
not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim. Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture, customs and language distinct from their Ashkenazi counterparts.

Disparities And Integration

See also: Racism in Israel
Israel
§ North African and Middle Eastern descent

The cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, and sometimes the divide between Eastern European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp. Segregation, especially in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the years. Intermarriage between Ashkenazim and Mizrahim is increasingly common in Israel
Israel
and by the late 1990s 28% of all Israeli children had multi-ethnic parents (up from 14% in the 1950s). It has been claimed that intermarriage does not tend to decrease ethnic differences in socio-economic status, however that does not apply to the children of inter-ethnic marriages.

Although social integration is constantly improving, disparities persist. A study conducted by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), Mizrahi Jews
Jews
are less likely to pursue academic studies than Ashkenazi Jews. Israeli-born Ashkenazim are up to twice more likely to study in a university than Israeli-born Mizrahim. Furthermore, the percentage of Mizrahim who seek a university education remains low compared to second-generation immigrant groups of Ashkenazi origin, such as Russians. According to a survey by the Adva Center, the average income of Ashkenazim was 36 percent higher than that of Mizrahim in 2004.

NOTABLE MIZRAHIM

See also: List of Israeli Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews

This section contains embedded lists that MAY BE POORLY DEFINED, UNVERIFIED OR INDISCRIMINATE . Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (November 2015)

BUSINESS PEOPLE

* David Alliance, Baron Alliance GBE – Iranian born British businessman and Liberal Democrat politician * Jacob Arabo – Bukharian-American jeweler and founder of Jacob & Company * J. Darius Bikoff * Jack Dellal * Habib Elghanian – Prominent businessman executed by the Islamic Republic of Iran * Shlomo Eliyahu – Israeli businessman * Ghermezian family – Billionaire shopping mall developers * Neil Kadisha – Businessman * Michael Kadoorie – Businessman from Hong-Kong, coming from Iraqi Jewish descent * Nasser David Khalili – Billionaire property developer and art collector * Isaac Larian – Chief Executive Officer of MGA Entertainment
MGA Entertainment
* Lev Avnerovich Leviev – Israeli businessman of Bukharian descent

* Charles Mizrahi – value investor * Isaac Mizrahi – fashion designer (Syrian Jew
Jew
from Brooklyn
Brooklyn
) * Sam Mizrahi – Canadian luxury real estate developer * David Merage and Paul Merage – Co-founders of Hot Pockets snack food company * Shlomo Moussaieff – Jewellery Designer/ Judaic Collector and Expert ( Bukharian ) * David Nahmad – Billionaire Syrian art dealer * Ebrahim Daoud Nonoo – Bahraini businessman and former member of the Bahraini National Assembly * Joseph Parnes – Investment Advisor * David and Simon Reuben – British businessmen born in India, from a family of Baghdadi Jews
Jews
* Nouriel Roubini
Nouriel Roubini
– Economist * Charles Saatchi
Charles Saatchi
– Advertising executive and art collector born in Iraq * Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi – advertising executive and former chairman of the British Conservative Party * Edmond Safra – Swiss-Lebanese-Brazilian Banker * Sassoon family
Sassoon family
– from the 18th century onwards becoming one of the wealthiest families in the world. * Robert and Vincent Tchenguiz – Property developers

ENTERTAINERS

* Paula Abdul
Paula Abdul
, American singer and choreographer (Father was of Syrian Jewish descent) * Sylvain Sylvain American rock guitarist, member of the New York Dolls . Migrated from Egypt
Egypt
as a child. * Etti Ankri
Etti Ankri
, Israeli pop singer * Zohar
Zohar
Argov , Israeli popular singer, called "the King" of the "Mizrahi" music (Yemenite) * Gali Atari , Israeli singer and actress, won the Eurovision Song Contest (from a Yemenite family) * Ehud Banai
Ehud Banai
, Israeli singer and composer * Evyatar Banai
Evyatar Banai
, Israeli singer and composer * Yuval Banai , Israeli singer and composer * Yossi Banai , Israeli singer and actor (from a Persian Jewish family settled in Jerusalem) * Meir Banai , Israeli singer * Shlomo Bar , Israeli singer and composer * Bea Benaderet , U.S. actor (Father was of Turkish Jewish descent) * Sonia Benezra , French Canadian radio and TV personality * David Blumberg, music producer, clarinetist (Father was of Bukharian descent) * Patrick Bruel
Patrick Bruel
, French pop singer * Yizhar Cohen , Israeli singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family) * Emmanuelle Chriqui , Canadian actress * Yair Dalal , Israeli musician of Iraqi-Jewish descent. * Shoshana Damari
Shoshana Damari
, Israeli singer ( Yemen
Yemen
born) * Dana International
Dana International
, (Cohen) Israeli pop singer , won the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
(Yemenite family) * Yehoram Gaon
Yehoram Gaon
, Israeli singer and actor. * Eyal Golan , Israeli singer (Moroccan and Yemenite descent) * Zion Golan , Israeli singer (Yemenite descent) * Sarit Hadad , Israeli singer (Israeli born from mixed Tunisian and Mountain Jews
Jews
family) * Ofra Haza , Israeli pop and oriental singer (Yemenite family) * Moshe Ivgy
Moshe Ivgy
, Israeli cinema and theatre actor * Malika Kalantarova , Tajik- Bukharian dancer (People\'s Artist of USSR
USSR
) * Chris Kattan
Chris Kattan
, U.S actor (son of a Jewish-Iraqi origin father) * Fatima Kuinova , Soviet- Bukharian singer (Merited Artist of USSR) * Saleh and Daoud Al-Kuwaity , Kuwaiti -born Iraqi musicians * Mélanie Laurent , French actress and director * Yehezkel Lazarov
Yehezkel Lazarov
, Israeli actor * Haim Moshe
Haim Moshe
, Israeli-born "Mizrahi" and pop singer (Yemenite) * Shoista Mullojonova , Bukharian legendary Shashmakom folk singer (People's Artist of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
) * Farhat Ezekiel Nadira ( Nadira
Nadira
), Bollywood
Bollywood
actress of the 1940s and 50s (Baghdadi Jew
Jew
from India
India
) * Achinoam Nini ("Noa"), Israeli born, Yemenite pop singer * Rita , Iranian born, Israeli pop singer * Salima Pasha , Iraqi singer * Berry Sakharof
Berry Sakharof
, Israeli singer and composer * Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
, American comedian and actor (his mother is of Syrian Jewish descent) * Boaz Sharabi , Israeli singer (born, Yemenite, Tunisian author specialising on the Israel-Palestine conflict and Zionism. Shlaim is originally from Iraq. * Ella Habiba Shohat , cultural studies scholar and author from a Baghdadi Jewish family, lives in NY * Eli Amir , Israeli Hebrew writer * Smadar Lavie , Israeli anthropologist * Jacques Attali , French thinker and author * Shimon Adaf , Israeli Hebrew poet and writer * Orly Castel Bloom , Israeli Hebrew writer (from an Egyptian Jewish family) * Haim Sabato , Israeli rabbi and Hebrew writer * Rachel Shabi , British/Israeli journalist and author of We Look Like the Enemy: Israel's Jews
Jews
from Arab Lands, about Mizrahi Jews
Jews
in Israel * Sasson Somekh , Israeli Arabologist * Nissim Ezekiel , Indian poet and art critic * Andre Chouraqui , French-Israeli thinker and writer * Gina B. Nahai , Iranian-American Writer, Columnist, Professor

SEE ALSO

* Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
* Jewish ethnic divisions
Jewish ethnic divisions
* Ladino * List of notable Mizrahi Jews
Jews
and Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
in Israel
Israel
* Mizrahi Hebrew * Mizrachi (political party) * Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
* Yemenite Jews
Jews

REFERENCES

* ^ "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran
Iran
over property dispute". The Times of Israel. November 28, 2012. Retrieved Aug 16, 2014. A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews
Jews
left in Iran
Iran
* ^ "Egypt, International Religious Freedom Report 2008". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor . September 19, 2008. * ^ "Some of the last Jews
Jews
of Yemen
Yemen
brought to Israel
Israel
in secret mission". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post . 21 March 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. The Jewish Agency noted that some fifty Jews
Jews
remain in Yemen... * ^ Farrell, Stephan (1 June 2008). " Baghdad
Baghdad
Jews
Jews
Have Become a Fearful Few". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 14 September 2016. * ^ Sokol, Sam (18 October 2016). " Jew
Jew
appointed to official position in Iraqi Kurdistan". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post . Retrieved 14 September 2016. * ^ J. Prince, Cathryn (12 November 2015). "The stunning tale of the escape of Aleppo\'s last Jews". The Times of Israel
Israel
. Retrieved 14 September 2016. * ^ " Jews
Jews
in Islamic Countries: Lebanon". Jewish Virtual Library
Jewish Virtual Library
. October 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2016. * ^ Ya'ar, Chana (28 November 2010). "King of Bahrain
Bahrain
Appoints Jewish Woman to Parliament". Arutz Sheva
Arutz Sheva
. Retrieved 14 September 2016. * ^ "통계청 - KOSIS 국가통계포털". Kosis.kr. Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ A B C D E "Mizrahi Jews". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. Retrieved 8 March 2015. * ^ Jews, Arabs, and Arab Jews: The Politics of Identity and Reproduction in Israel, Ducker, Clare Louise, Institute of Social Studies , The Hague, Netherlands * ^ Shohat, Ella (May 2001). "Rupture And Return: A Mizrahi Perspective On The Zionist Discourse (archives)". The MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East
Middle East
Studies. Retrieved 8 March 2015. (clicking on archived links leads to document download) * ^ Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Boston and Leiden, 2007. * ^ " Jews
Jews
of the Middle East". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 – Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2010. * ^ The Jewish Population of the World, The Jewish Virtual Library * ^ Ella Shohat: “Sephardim in Israel: Zionism
Zionism
from the Standpoint of its Jewish Victims,” Social Text, No.19/20 (1988), p.32 * ^ "Int J Urban & Regional Res, Volume 24 Issue 2 Page 418-438, June 2000 (Article Abstract)". Blackwell Synergy. 2003-03-07. Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ Barbara S. Okun, Orna Khait-Marelly. 2006. Socioeconomic Status and Demographic Behavior of Adult Multiethnics: Jews
Jews
in Israel. * ^ "Project MUSE". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ "Children of Ethnic Intermarriage in Israeli Schools: Are They Marginal?". * ^ http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/educ_demog_05/pdf/t16.pdf * ^ "97_gr_.xls" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ Hebrew PDF Archived December 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Gelt Complex: Bukharians Swing Big, A First For Russian Jews, Arab Principal Honored –". Forward.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. * ^ "\'המוזיקה המזרחית - זבל שהשטן לא ברא\'". Ynet . 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2011-03-09. בסופו של דבר אני רואה את עצמי כבן עדות המזרח גאה, ודווקא מהנקודה הזו אני נותן ביקורת כואבת.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Gilbert, Martin (2010). In Ishmael's house: a History of Jews
Jews
in Muslim Lands. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300167153 . * Zaken, Mordechai (2007). Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival. Boston and Leiden: Brill. * Smadar, Lavie (2014). Wrapped in the Flag of Israel: Mizrahi Single Mothers and Bureaucratic Torture. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-78238-222-5 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

ORGANIZATIONS

* World Organization of Jews
Jews
from Arab Countries * Sephardic Pizmonim Project Music of Mizrahi Jews. * JIMENA Jews
Jews
Indigenous to the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa * Multiculturalism Project - Middle Eastern and North

.