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MISSOURI is a state in the Midwestern United States
Midwestern United States
. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are Kansas
Kansas
City , St. Louis , Springfield , and Columbia ; the capital is Jefferson City
Jefferson City
, located on the Missouri River . The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks , a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the eastern border of the state.

Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri
Missouri
for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
built cities and mounds , before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations. The French established Louisiana
Louisiana
, a part of New France
New France
, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule , the United States
United States
acquired the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
in 1803. Americans from the Upland South , including enslaved African Americans , rushed into the new Missouri Territory . Many from Virginia
Virginia
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, and Tennessee
Tennessee
settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri . Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland .

Missouri
Missouri
played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
. The Pony Express , Oregon Trail , Santa Fe Trail , and California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri\'s role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area
Kansas City metropolitan area
became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis.

Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States
United States
. The musical styles of ragtime , Kansas City jazz , and St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue , and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue , can be found across the state and beyond. St. Louis is also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine
Missouri wine
is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks. Missouri\'s alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks and Branson .

Well-known Missourians include U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
, Mark Twain , Walt Disney
Walt Disney
, Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
and Nelly . Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner , Express Scripts , Monsanto , Emerson Electric , Edward Jones , H however, Missouri's most famous nickname is the "Show Me State", as Missourians are known for being skeptical.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and pronunciation

* 1.1 Nicknames

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Wildlife

* 3 History

* 3.1 Nineteenth century * 3.2 American Civil War
American Civil War
* 3.3 Twentieth century * 3.4 Twenty-first century

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Birth data * 4.2 Language * 4.3 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Taxation * 5.2 Energy

* 6 Transportation

* 6.1 Airports * 6.2 Rail * 6.3 Bus * 6.4 Rivers * 6.5 Roads

* 7 Law and government

* 7.1 Status as a political bellwether * 7.2 Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws * 7.3 Counties

* 8 Cities and towns

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Missouri State Board of Education * 9.2 Primary and secondary schools * 9.3 Colleges and universities

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Music * 10.2 Literature * 10.3 Film * 10.4 Sports

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND PRONUNCIATION

The state is named for the Missouri River
Missouri River
, which was named after the indigenous Missouri
Missouri
Indians , a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita (wimihsoorita ), meaning "those who have dugout canoes ", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers. This appears to be Folk Etymology. The Illinois
Illinois
spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People." This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored & attempted to settle the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
usually got their translations during that time fairly accurate, often giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue(s).

Assuming Missouri
Missouri
were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself. This isn't entirely likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" (Mah-yah soo-nee) Most likely, though, the name Missouri
Missouri
comes from Chiwere language, a fairly unique Siouan dialect spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, Missouri
Missouri
the medial consonant as either /z/ or /s/ ; the vowel in the second syllable as either /ɜːr/ or /ʊər/ ; and the third syllable as ( listen ), ( listen ), centralized ( listen )), or even ∅ (in other words, a non-existent third syllable). Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English
American English
.

The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be clearly defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise. Politicians often employ multiple pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Often, informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations.

NICKNAMES

There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its license plates . This phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use before the 1890s. Another one states that it is a reference to Missouri
Missouri
miners who were taken to Leadville, Colorado to replace striking workers. Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining methods, they required frequent instruction.

Other nicknames for Missouri
Missouri
include "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and " Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
of the West". It is also known as the "CAVE STATE" because there are more than 6,000 recorded caves in the state (second to Tennessee
Tennessee
). Perry County is the county with the largest number of caves and the single longest cave.

The official state motto is Latin
Latin
: "Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto", which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Missouri Missouri, showing major cities and roads.

Missouri
Missouri
is landlocked and borders eight different states as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight. Missouri
Missouri
is bounded by Iowa
Iowa
on the north; by Illinois
Illinois
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, and Tennessee
Tennessee
across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
on the east; on the south by Arkansas
Arkansas
; and by Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, Kansas
Kansas
, and Nebraska
Nebraska
(the last across the Missouri
Missouri
River) on the west. Whereas the northern and southern boundaries are straight lines, the Missouri Bootheel
Missouri Bootheel
protrudes southerly into Arkansas. The two largest rivers are the Mississippi (which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially connecting the two largest metros of Kansas
Kansas
City and St. Louis.

Although today it is usually considered part of the Midwest , Missouri
Missouri
was historically seen by many as a border state , chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of St. Louis. The counties that made up "Little Dixie " were those along the Missouri River
Missouri River
in the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves.

In 2005, Missouri
Missouri
received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling 101,000 acres (410 km2), giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures.

TOPOGRAPHY

A physiographic map of Missouri.

North of, and in some cases just south of, the Missouri River
Missouri River
lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here, rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the Canadian Shield to the Missouri
Missouri
River. Missouri
Missouri
has many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers . Southern Missouri
Missouri
rises to the Ozark Mountains , a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian
Precambrian
igneous St. Francois Mountains . This region also hosts karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the formation of sinkholes and caves. The Bell Mountain Wilderness
Wilderness
of southern Missouri's Mark Twain
Mark Twain
National Forest

The southeastern part of the state is known as the BOOTHEEL REGION, which is part of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment . This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest part of the state. It is also among the poorest, as the economy there is mostly agricultural. It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 .

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Missouri
Climate of Missouri
Köppen climate types of Missouri
Missouri

Missouri
Missouri
generally has a humid continental climate with cold snowy winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel , the climate becomes humid subtropical . Located in the interior United States, Missouri
Missouri
often experiences extreme temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Missouri's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded temperature is −40 °F (−40 °C) also at Warsaw on February 13, 1905.

Located in Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
, Missouri
Missouri
also receives extreme weather in the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. The most recent tornado in the state to cause damage and casualties was the 2011 Joplin tornado , which destroyed roughly one-third of the city of Joplin . The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages, killed 159 (+1 non-tornadic), and injured over 1,000 people. It was the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American history and 27th deadliest in the world. St. Louis and its suburbs also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the most recent memorable one being an EF4 tornado that damaged Lambert- St. Louis International Airport on April 22, 2011. One of the worst tornadoes in American history struck St. Louis on May 27, 1896, killing at least 255 and causing $10 mil. damage ($3.9 bil. damage in 2009) or $4.45 billion in today's dollars.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Missouri cities in °F (°C).

CITY AVG. JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

Columbia High 37 (3) 44 (7) 55 (13) 66 (19) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 53 (12) 42 (6) 65.0 (18.3)

Columbia Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 43 (6) 53 (12) 62 (17) 66 (19) 64 (18) 55 (13) 44 (7) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 43.0 (6.1)

Kansas
Kansas
City High 36 (2) 43 (6) 54 (12) 65 (18) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 52 (11) 40 (4) 64.4 (18.0)

Kansas
Kansas
City Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 44 (7) 54 (12) 63 (17) 68 (20) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 44.0 (6.7)

Springfield High 42 (6) 48 (9) 58 (14) 68 (20) 76 (24) 85 (29) 90 (32) 90 (32) 81 (27) 71 (22) 56 (13) 46 (8) 67.6 (19.8)

Springfield Low 22 (−6) 26 (−3) 35 (2) 44 (7) 53 (12) 62 (17) 67 (19) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 35 (2) 26 (−3) 45.0 (7.2)

St. Louis High 40 (4) 45 (7) 56 (13) 67 (19) 76 (24) 85 (29) 89 (32) 88 (31) 80 (27) 69 (21) 56 (13) 43 (6) 66.2 (19.0)

St. Louis Low 24 (−4) 28 (−2) 37 (3) 47 (8) 57 (14) 67 (19) 71 (22) 69 (21) 61 (16) 49 (9) 38 (3) 27 (−3) 48.0 (8.9)

Source:

WILDLIFE

Main article: Wildlife of Missouri Missouri River
Missouri River
near Rocheport, Missouri

Missouri
Missouri
is home to a diversity of both flora and fauna . There is a large amount of fresh water present due to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
, Missouri River
Missouri River
, and Lake of the Ozarks , with numerous smaller tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. North of the Missouri
Missouri
River, the state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains , whereas south of the Missouri
Missouri
River, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central U.S. hardwood forest .

HISTORY

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Main article: History of Missouri

External video

Missouri, Westminister College Gymnasium in Fulton, Missouri

Indigenous peoples inhabited Missouri
Missouri
for thousands of years before European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years. Beginning before 1000 CE , there arose the complex Mississippian culture , whose people created regional political centers at present-day St. Louis and across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at Cahokia
Cahokia
, near present-day Collinsville, Illinois
Illinois
. Their large cities included thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their surviving massive earthwork mounds , built for religious, political and social reasons, in platform , ridgetop and conical shapes. Cahokia was the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and most descendants left the area long before the arrival of Europeans. St. Louis was at one time known as Mound City by the European Americans, because of the numerous surviving prehistoric mounds, since lost to urban development. The Mississippian culture left mounds throughout the middle Mississippi
Mississippi
and Ohio
Ohio
river valleys, extending into the southeast as well as the upper river. The Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
in St. Louis

The first European settlers were mostly ethnic French Canadians , who created their first settlement in Missouri
Missouri
at present-day Ste. Genevieve , about an hour south of St. Louis. They had migrated about 1750 from the Illinois
Illinois
Country. They came from colonial villages on the east side of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, where soils were becoming exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing population. Sainte-Geneviève became a thriving agricultural center, producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain annually downriver to Lower Louisiana
Louisiana
for trade. Grain production in the Illinois
Illinois
Country was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana and especially the city of New Orleans.

St. Louis was founded soon after by French fur traders , Pierre Laclède and stepson Auguste Chouteau from New Orleans in 1764. From 1764 to 1803, European control of the area west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
to the northernmost part of the Missouri River
Missouri River
basin, called Louisiana, was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
New Spain
, due to Treaty of Fontainebleau (in order to have Spain join with France in the war against England). The arrival of the Spanish in St. Louis was in September 1767.

St. Louis became the center of a regional fur trade with Native American tribes that extended up the Missouri
Missouri
and Mississippi
Mississippi
rivers, which dominated the regional economy for decades. Trading partners of major firms shipped their furs from St. Louis by river down to New Orleans for export to Europe. They provided a variety of goods to traders, for sale and trade with their Native American clients. The fur trade and associated businesses made St. Louis an early financial center and provided the wealth for some to build fine houses and import luxury items. Its location near the confluence of the Illinois River meant it also handled produce from the agricultural areas. River traffic and trade along the Mississippi
Mississippi
were integral to the state's economy, and as the area's first major city, St. Louis expanded greatly after the invention of the steamboat and the increased river trade.

NINETEENTH CENTURY

See also: History of slavery in Missouri

Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana
Louisiana
for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso , after it had been a Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States.

Part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
by the United States, Missouri earned the nickname Gateway to the West because it served as a major departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West during the 19th century. St. Charles , just west of St. Louis, was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition , which ascended the Missouri River
Missouri River
in 1804, in order to explore the western lands to the Pacific Ocean. St. Louis was a major supply point for decades, for parties of settlers heading west.

As many of the early settlers in western Missouri
Missouri
migrated from the Upper South , they brought enslaved African Americans
African Americans
as agricultural laborers, and they desired to continue their culture and the institution of slavery . They settled predominantly in 17 counties along the Missouri River
Missouri River
, in an area of flatlands that enabled plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie ." In 1821 the former Missouri Territory was admitted as a slave state , in accordance with the Missouri Compromise , and with a temporary state capital in St. Charles. In 1826, the capital was shifted to its current, permanent location of Jefferson City
Jefferson City
, also on the Missouri River.

The state was rocked by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes . Casualties were few due to the sparse population.

Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth, the point where the Kansas
Kansas
River enters the Missouri
Missouri
River. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary. In 1836 the Platte Purchase was added to the northwest corner of the state after purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the Missouri
Missouri
River the border north of the Kansas
Kansas
River. This addition increased the land area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about 66,500 square miles (172,000 km2) to Virginia's 65,000 square miles, which then included West Virginia). Fur Traders Descending the Missouri
Missouri
by Missouri
Missouri
painter George Caleb Bingham
George Caleb Bingham

In the early 1830s, Mormon
Mormon
migrants from northern states and Canada began settling near Independence and areas just north of there. Conflicts over religion and slavery arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North). The Mormon
Mormon
War erupted in 1838. By 1839, with the help of an "Extermination Order" by Governor Lilburn Boggs , the old settlers forcefully expelled the Mormons from Missouri
Missouri
and confiscated their lands.

Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states and territories. From 1838 to 1839, a border dispute with Iowa
Iowa
over the so-called Honey Lands resulted in both states' calling-up of militias along the border.

With increasing migration, from the 1830s to the 1860s Missouri's population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late 1840s and 1850s. As a majority were Catholic
Catholic
, they set up their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly Protestant
Protestant
. Having fled famine and oppression in Ireland, and revolutionary upheaval in Germany, the immigrants were not sympathetic to slavery. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and then state network of Catholic
Catholic
churches and schools. Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along the Missouri River
Missouri River
and the beer industry in St. Louis.

Most Missouri
Missouri
farmers practiced subsistence farming before the American Civil War
American Civil War
. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than five each. Planters , defined by some historians as those holding twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as "Little Dixie ", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River . The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of the state and nation. In 1860, enslaved African Americans
African Americans
made up less than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012. In order to control the flooding of farmland and low-lying villages along the Mississippi, the state had completed construction of 140 miles (230 km) of levees along the river by 1860.

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

Main article: Missouri in the American Civil War Price\'s Raid in the Trans- Mississippi
Mississippi
Theater , 1864

After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri legislature called for the election of a special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union. Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louis for training. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants , to march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis in the incident that became known as the " St. Louis Massacre ".

These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price
Sterling Price
, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard . In the face of Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson City
Jefferson City
on June 14, 1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri , Jackson called the state legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However, even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is generally given little credence. The Confederacy nonetheless recognized it on October 30, 1861.

With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces. The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal Missouri
Missouri
government. The federal government's decision enabled raising pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as volunteer regiments for the Union Army.

Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas
Arkansas
and Texas
Texas
under General Ben McCulloch . After winning victories at the battle of Wilson\'s Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri and suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to Arkansas
Arkansas
and later Marshall, Texas , in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army.

Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare . "Citizen soldiers" or insurgents such as Captain William Quantrill , Frank and Jesse James , the Younger brothers , and William T. Anderson made use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the Missouri
Missouri
Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth. The vigilante activities of the Bald Knobbers of the Ozarks in the 1880s were an unofficial continuation of insurgent mentality long after the official end of the war, and they are a favorite theme in Branson\'s self-image . Union Station in St. Louis was the largest and busiest train station in the world when it opened in 1894. Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri , 1910. Photographed by Lewis Hine
Lewis Hine
as part of the Progressive Era fight against child labor.

TWENTIETH CENTURY

The Progressive Era (1890s to 1920s) saw numerous prominent leaders from Missouri
Missouri
trying to end corruption and modernize politics, government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical Protestants. Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and Democrat in the 1904 election . He promoted what he called "the Missouri
Missouri
Idea", the concept of Missouri
Missouri
as a leader in public morality through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal, and enforced the Sunday-closing law. He helped enact Progressive legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision, regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor, railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and the Missouri
Missouri
library commission.

Between the Civil War and the end of World War II, Missouri transitioned from a rural economy to a hybrid industrial-service-agricultural economy as the Midwest rapidly industrialized. The expansion of railroads to the West transformed Kansas
Kansas
City into a major transportation hub within the nation. The growth of the Texas
Texas
cattle industry along with this increased rail infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made Kansas
Kansas
City a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from Texas
Texas
brought herds of cattle to Dodge City and other Kansas
Kansas
towns. There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for Kansas
Kansas
City, where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The first half of the twentieth century was the height of Kansas
Kansas
City's prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco skyscrapers as construction boomed.

In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around Springfield, which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed to the area, and medical personnel stopped the epidemic.

During the mid-1950s and 1960s, St. Louis and Kansas
Kansas
City suffered deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing, as did other Midwestern industrial cities. In 1956 St. Charles claims to be the site of the first interstate highway project. Such highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave the city for newer housing developed in the suburbs, often former farmland where land was available at lower prices. These major cities have gone through decades of readjustment to develop different economies and adjust to demographic changes. Suburban areas have developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and services, such as major retail malls.

TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

In 2014, Missouri
Missouri
received national attention for the protests and riots that followed the shooting of Michael Brown by a police officer of Ferguson , which led Governor Jay Nixon to call out the Missouri National Guard . A grand jury declined to indict the officer, and the U.S. Department of Justice concluded, after careful investigation, that the police officer legitimately feared for his safety. However, in a separate investigation, the Department of Justice also found that the Ferguson Police Department and the City of Ferguson relied on unconstitutional practices in order to balance the city's budget through racially-motivated excessive fines and punishments, that the Ferguson police "had used excessive and dangerous force and had disproportionately targeted blacks," and that the municipal court "emphasized revenue over public safety, leading to routine breaches of citizens' constitutional guarantees of due process and equal protection under the law."

A series of student protests at the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
against what the protesters viewed as poor response by the administration to racist incidents on campus began in September 2015. On June 7, 2017, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
issued a warning to prospective African-American travelers to Missouri:

DEMOGRAPHICS

Missouri
Missouri
population density map.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1810 19,783

1820 66,586

236.6%

1830 140,455

110.9%

1840 383,702

173.2%

1850 682,044

77.8%

1860 1,182,012

73.3%

1870 1,721,295

45.6%

1880 2,168,380

26.0%

1890 2,679,185

23.6%

1900 3,106,665

16.0%

1910 3,293,335

6.0%

1920 3,404,055

3.4%

1930 3,629,367

6.6%

1940 3,784,664

4.3%

1950 3,954,653

4.5%

1960 4,319,813

9.2%

1970 4,676,501

8.3%

1980 4,916,686

5.1%

1990 5,117,073

4.1%

2000 5,595,211

9.3%

2010 5,988,927

7.0%

EST. 2017 6,113,532

2.1%

Source: 1910–2010 2015 estimate

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Missouri
Missouri
was 6,083,672 on July 1, 2015, a 1.58% increase since the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
.

Missouri
Missouri
had a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census; an increase of 392,369 (7.0 percent) since the year 2000. From 2000 to 2007, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas– St. Louis and Kansas
Kansas
City . The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state .

In 2011, the racial composition of the state was:

* 84.0% White American (81.0% non-Hispanic white , 3.0% White Hispanic ) * 11.7% Black or African American
African American
* 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native
Alaska Native
* 1.7% Asian American
Asian American
* 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander * 1.9% Multiracial American * 0.1% Some other race

In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).

MISSOURI RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 87.7% 84.9% 82.8%

Black 10.7% 11.3% 11.6%

Asian 0.8% 1.1% 1.6%

Native 0.4% 0.4% 0.5%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.4% 0.8% 1.3%

Two or more races – 1.5% 2.1%

The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United States
United States
is in Texas
Texas
County , while the 2000 Census found the mean population center to be in Phelps County . The center of population of Missouri
Missouri
is in Osage County , in the city of Westphalia .

In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population).

The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri
Missouri
are: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent) and French (3.7 percent).

German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americans
African Americans
are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis (56.6% of African Americans
African Americans
in the state lived in St. Louis or St. Louis County as of the 2010 census), Kansas
Kansas
City, Boone County and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the Missouri
Missouri
River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi
Mississippi
River Valley south of St. Louis (see Missouri French ). Kansas
Kansas
City is home to large and growing immigrant communities from Latin
Latin
America esp. Mexico
Mexico
and Colombia
Colombia
, Africa (i.e. Sudan
Sudan
, Somalia and Nigeria
Nigeria
), and Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines
Philippines
; and Europe like the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(see Bosnian American ). A notable Cherokee Indian population exists in Missouri.

In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouri
Missouri
residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home.

In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people per household. The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. The median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita. There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) of Missourians living below the poverty line in 2010.

The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.

BIRTH DATA

In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were minorities.

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White 61,097 (81.1%) 60,968 (80.9%) 60,913 (81.1%)

> Non-Hispanic White 57,361 (76.2%) 57,150 (75.8%) 57,092 (76.1%)

Black 11,722 (15.6%) 11,783 (15.6%) 11,660 (15.5%)

Asian 2,075 (2.8%) 2,186 (2.9%) 2,129 (2.8%)

Native 402 (0.5%) 423 (0.6%) 359 (0.5%)

Hispanic (of any race) 3,931 (5.2%) 3,959 (5.3%) 4,042 (5.4%)

TOTAL MISSOURI 75,296 (100%) 75,360 (100%) 75,061 (100%)

LANGUAGE

The vast majority of people in Missouri
Missouri
speak English. Approximately 5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English at home. The Spanish language is spoken in small Latino communities in the St. Louis and Kansas
Kansas
City Metro areas.

Missouri
Missouri
is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known as Missouri French . Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves Créoles , are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the Illinois
Illinois
Country beginning in the late 17th century. It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and Louisiana
Louisiana
, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian French and Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French . Once widely spoken throughout the area, Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly speakers able to use it.

RELIGION

RELIGION IN MISSOURI (2014)

Religion

Percent

Protestant
Protestant
  58%

None   20%

Catholic
Catholic
  16%

Mormon
Mormon
  1%

Buddhist
Buddhist
  1%

Other faith   4%

According to a Pew Research study conducted in 2014, 80% of Missourians identify with a religion. 77% affiliate with Christianity and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of non-Christian religions. The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2% specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics (the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular").

Broken down, the religious demographics of Missouri
Missouri
are as follows:

* Christian – 77%

* Protestant
Protestant
- 58%

* Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
– 36% * Mainline Protestant
Protestant
– 16% * Historically Black Protestant
Protestant
– 6%

* Catholic
Catholic
– 16% * Mormon
Mormon
– 1% * Orthodox Christian –

* Indigenous people during De Soto\'s travels * Apalachee * Calusa * Creek * Jororo * Pensacola * Seminole
Seminole
* Timucua * Yustaga

FILIPINO PEOPLE

* Negrito * Igorot * Mangyan * Peoples of Palawan * Ati * Panay * Lumad * Bajau * Tagalog * Cebuano

OTHERS

* Taiwanese aborigines * Chamorro people

ARCHITECTURE

* Spanish Colonial style * by country * Colonial Baroque style * Forts * Missions

TRADE border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Real * Columbian Exchange * Manila galleon
Manila galleon
* Triangular trade
Triangular trade

PEOPLE border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Casta
Casta

* Peninsulars

* Criollo * Indios * Mestizo
Mestizo
* Castizo * Coyotes * Pardos * Zambo
Zambo
* Negros

PEOPLE

* Juan Bautista de Anza
Juan Bautista de Anza
* Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo * Francis Drake
Francis Drake
* Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
* Eusebio Kino * La Malinche * Fermín Lasuén * Limahong * Moctezuma II * Junípero Serra * Hasekura Tsunenaga

NEW SPAIN PORTAL

* v * t * e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

STATES

* Alabama
Alabama
* Arkansas
Arkansas
* Florida
Florida
* Georgia * Louisiana
Louisiana
* Mississippi
Mississippi
* North Carolina
North Carolina
* South Carolina
South Carolina
* Tennessee
Tennessee
* Texas
Texas

* Virginia
Virginia

* West Virginia
Virginia
1

STATES IN EXILE

* Kentucky
Kentucky
* Missouri

TERRITORY

* Arizona
Arizona
2

* 1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. * 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

* v * t * e

Political divisions of the United States
United States

STATES

* Alabama
Alabama
* Alaska
Alaska
* Arizona
Arizona
* Arkansas
Arkansas
* California
California
* Colorado
Colorado
* Connecticut
Connecticut
* Delaware
Delaware
* Florida
Florida
* Georgia * Hawaii
Hawaii
* Idaho
Idaho
* Illinois
Illinois
* Indiana
Indiana
* Iowa
Iowa
* Kansas
Kansas
* Kentucky
Kentucky
* Louisiana
Louisiana
* Maine
Maine
* Maryland
Maryland
* Massachusetts
Massachusetts
* Michigan
Michigan
* Minnesota
Minnesota
* Mississippi
Mississippi
* Missouri * Montana
Montana
* Nebraska
Nebraska
* Nevada
Nevada
* New Hampshire * New Jersey
New Jersey
* New Mexico
Mexico
* New York * North Carolina
North Carolina
* North Dakota * Ohio
Ohio
* Oklahoma
Oklahoma
* Oregon
Oregon
* Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
* Rhode Island
Rhode Island
* South Carolina
South Carolina
* South Dakota
South Dakota
* Tennessee
Tennessee
* Texas
Texas
* Utah
Utah
* Vermont
Vermont
* Virginia
Virginia
* Washington * West Virginia
Virginia
* Wisconsin
Wisconsin
* Wyoming
Wyoming

FEDERAL DISTRICT Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

INSULAR AREAS

* American Samoa * Guam
Guam
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* U.S. Virgin Islands

OUTLYING ISLANDS

* Baker Island * Howland Island
Howland Island
* Jarvis Island * Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
* Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
* Midway Atoll * Navassa Island
Navassa Island
* Palmyra Atoll * Wake Island
Wake Island

INDIAN RESERVATIONS

* List of Indian reservations

Coordinates : 38°30′N 92°30′W / 38.5°N 92.5°W / 38.5; -92.5

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 146566329 * LCCN : n79029210 * ISNI : 0000 0004 0382 5489 * GND : 4039591-1 * BNF : cb119374

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