MISSOURI is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th most populous state. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, KansasCity , Springfield , and Columbia . The capitol is in Jefferson Cityon the Missouri River. The state is the 21st most extensive . In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the eastern border of the state.
Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missourifor at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culturebuilt cities and mounds , before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage and Missourianations. The French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louisin 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule , the United Statesacquired the Louisiana Purchasein 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans , rushed into the new Missouri Territory. Many from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennesseesettled in the Boonslickarea of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland.
Missouriplayed a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express , Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and California Trailall began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri\'s role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louisand the Kansas City metropolitan areabecame centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis.
Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwesternand Southern United States. The musical styles of ragtime , Kansas City jazz, and St. LouisBlues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue , and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. St. Louisis also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Buschis the largest producer in the world. Missouri wineis produced in the nearby Missouri Rhinelandand Ozarks. Missouri\'s alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarksand Branson . U.S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri.
Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry and Nelly. Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones , H however, Missouri's most famous nickname is the "Show Me State", as Missourians are known for being skeptical.
* 1 Etymology and pronunciation
* 1.1 Nicknames
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Wildlife
* 3 History
* 3.1 Early nineteenth century * 3.2 American Civil War * 3.3 20th century to present
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Birth data * 4.2 Language * 4.3 Religion
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Taxation * 5.2 Energy
* 6 Transportation
* 6.1 Airports * 6.2 Rail * 6.3 Bus * 6.4 Rivers * 6.5 Roads
* 7 Law and government
* 7.1 Status as a political bellwether * 7.2 Laissez-fairealcohol and tobacco laws * 7.3 Counties
* 8 Cities and towns
* 9 Education
* 9.1 MissouriState Board of education * 9.2 Primary and secondary schools * 9.3 Colleges and universities
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Music * 10.2 Literature * 10.3 Film * 10.4 Sports
* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND PRONUNCIATION
The state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous MissouriIndians , a Siouan-language tribe. They were called the _ouemessourita_ (_wimihsoorita_ ), meaning "those who have dugout canoes ", by the Miami-Illinois languagespeakers. As the Illini were the first natives encountered by Europeans in the region, the latter adopted the Illini name for the Missouripeople.
The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations even among its present-day natives, the two most common being /mɪˈzɜːri/ ( listen ) and /məˈzɜːrə/ ( listen ). This situation of differing pronunciations has existed since the late-1600s. Further pronunciations also exist in Missourior elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either /mə-/ or /mɪ-/ ; the medial consonant as either /z/ or /s/ ; the vowel in the second syllable as either /ɜːr/ or /ʊər/ ; and the third syllable as ( listen ), ( listen ), centralized ( listen )), or even ∅ (in other words, a non-existent third syllable). Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English.
The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct," nor could any be clearly defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise. Politicians often employ multiple pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Often, informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-_ee_" or "Missour-_uh_", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations.
There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its license plates . This phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiverin 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use before the 1890s. Another one states that it is a reference to Missouriminers who were taken to Leadville, Coloradoto replace striking workers. Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining methods, they required frequent instruction.
Other nicknames for Missouriinclude "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and " Pennsylvaniaof the West". It is also known as the "CAVE STATE" because there are more than 6000 recorded caves in the state (second to Tennessee). Perry County is the county with the largest number of caves and the single longest cave.
The official state motto is Latin: _"Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto"_, which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."
Main article: Geography of Missouri Missouri, showing major cities and roads.
Missouriis landlocked and borders eight different states as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight. Missouriis bounded by Iowaon the north; by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennesseeacross the Mississippi Riveron the east; on the south by Arkansas; and by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska(the last across the MissouriRiver) on the west. Whereas the northern and southern boundaries are straight lines, the Missouri Bootheelprotrudes southerly into Arkansas. The two largest rivers are the Mississippi (which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially connecting the two largest metros of KansasCity and St. Louis.
Although it is usually today considered part of the Midwest , Missouriwas historically considered by many to be a border state , chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of the St. Louis. The counties that made up "Little Dixie " were those along the Missouri Riverin the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves.
In 2005, Missourireceived 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling 101,000 acres (410 km2), giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures.
A physiographic map of Missouri.
North of, and in some cases just south of, the Missouri Riverlie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here, rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the Canadian Shield to the MissouriRiver. Missourihas many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers . Southern Missouririses to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrianigneous St. Francois Mountains. This region also hosts karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the formation of sinkholes and caves. The Bell Mountain Wildernessof southern Missouri's Mark TwainNational Forest
The southeastern part of the state is known as the BOOTHEEL REGION, which is part of the MississippiAlluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment . This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest part of the state. It is also among the poorest, as the economy there is mostly agricultural. It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 .
Missourigenerally has a humid continental climate with cold snowy winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel , the climate becomes humid subtropical . Located in the interior United States, Missourioften experiences extreme temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Missouri's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded temperature is −40 °F (−40 °C) also at Warsaw on February 13, 1905.
Located in Tornado Alley, Missourialso receives extreme weather in the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. The most recent tornado in the state to cause damage and casualties was the 2011 Joplin tornado , which destroyed roughly one-third of the city of Joplin . The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages, killed 159 (+1 non-tornadic), and injured over 1,000 people. It was the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American history and 27th deadliest in the world. St. Louisand its suburbs also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the most recent memorable one being an EF4 tornado that damaged Lambert- St. LouisInternational Airport on April 22, 2011. One of the worst tornadoes in American history struck St. Louison May 27, 1896, killing at least 255 and causing $10 mil. damage ($3.9 bil. damage in 2009) or $4.35 billion in today's dollars.
Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Missouri cities in °F (°C).
CITY AVG. JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
Columbia High 37 (3) 44 (7) 55 (13) 66 (19) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 53 (12) 42 (6) 65.0 (18.3)
Columbia Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 43 (6) 53 (12) 62 (17) 66 (19) 64 (18) 55 (13) 44 (7) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 43.0 (6.1)
KansasCity High 36 (2) 43 (6) 54 (12) 65 (18) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 52 (11) 40 (4) 64.4 (18.0)
KansasCity Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 44 (7) 54 (12) 63 (17) 68 (20) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 44.0 (6.7)
Springfield High 42 (6) 48 (9) 58 (14) 68 (20) 76 (24) 85 (29) 90 (32) 90 (32) 81 (27) 71 (22) 56 (13) 46 (8) 67.6 (19.8)
Springfield Low 22 (−6) 26 (−3) 35 (2) 44 (7) 53 (12) 62 (17) 67 (19) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 35 (2) 26 (−3) 45.0 (7.2)
St. Louis High 40 (4) 45 (7) 56 (13) 67 (19) 76 (24) 85 (29) 89 (32) 88 (31) 80 (27) 69 (21) 56 (13) 43 (6) 66.2 (19.0)
St. Louis Low 24 (−4) 28 (−2) 37 (3) 47 (8) 57 (14) 67 (19) 71 (22) 69 (21) 61 (16) 49 (9) 38 (3) 27 (−3) 48.0 (8.9)
Missouriis home to a diversity of both flora and fauna . There is a large amount of fresh water present due to the Mississippi River, Missouri River, and Lake of the Ozarks, with numerous smaller tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. North of the MissouriRiver, the state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains, whereas south of the MissouriRiver, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central U.S. hardwood forest.
Main article: History of Missouri
Missouri, Westminister College Gymnasium in Fulton, Missouri
Indigenous peoplesinhabited Missourifor thousands of years before European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years. Beginning before 1000 CE , there arose the complex Mississippian culture , whose people created regional political centers at present-day St. Louisand across the Mississippi Riverat Cahokia, near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Their large cities included thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their surviving massive earthwork mounds , built for religious, political and social reasons, in platform , ridgetop and conical shapes. Cahokia was the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great Lakesto the Gulf of Mexico. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and most descendants left the area long before the arrival of Europeans. St. Louiswas at one time known as Mound City by the European Americans, because of the numerous surviving prehistoric mounds, since lost to urban development. The Mississippian culture left mounds throughout the middle Mississippiand Ohioriver valleys, extending into the southeast as well as the upper river. The Gateway Archin St. Louis
The first European settlers were mostly ethnic French Canadians , who created their first settlement in Missouriat present-day Ste. Genevieve , about an hour south of St. Louis. They had migrated about 1750 from the IllinoisCountry. They came from colonial villages on the east side of the MississippiRiver, where soils were becoming exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing population. Sainte-Geneviève became a thriving agricultural center, producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain annually downriver to Lower Louisianafor trade. Grain production in the IllinoisCountry was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana and especially the city of New Orleans.
St. Louiswas founded soon after by French fur traders , Pierre Laclède and stepson Auguste Chouteaufrom New Orleans in 1764. From 1764 to 1803, European control of the area west of the Mississippito the northernmost part of the Missouri Riverbasin, called Louisiana, was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, due to Treaty of Fontainebleau (in order to have Spain join with France in the war against England). The arrival of the Spanish in St. Louis was in September 1767.
St. Louisbecame the center of a regional fur trade with Native American tribes that extended up the Missouriand Mississippirivers, which dominated the regional economy for decades. Trading partners of major firms shipped their furs from St. Louisby river down to New Orleans for export to Europe. They provided a variety of goods to traders, for sale and trade with their Native American clients. The fur trade and associated businesses made St. Louisan early financial center and provided the wealth for some to build fine houses and import luxury items. Its location near the confluence of the Illinois River meant it also handled produce from the agricultural areas. River traffic and trade along the Mississippiwere integral to the state's economy, and as the area's first major city, St. Louisexpanded greatly after the invention of the steamboat and the increased river trade.
EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY
See also: History of slavery in Missouri
Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisianafor French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso , after it had been a Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States.
Part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchaseby the United States, Missouri earned the nickname _Gateway to the West_ because it served as a major departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West during the 19th century. St. Charles , just west of St. Louis, was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition , which ascended the Missouri Riverin 1804, in order to explore the western lands to the Pacific Ocean. St. Louiswas a major supply point for decades, for parties of settlers heading west.
As many of the early settlers in western Missourimigrated from the Upper South, they brought enslaved African Americansas agricultural laborers, and they desired to continue their culture and the institution of slavery . They settled predominantly in 17 counties along the Missouri River, in an area of flatlands that enabled plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie ." In 1821 the former Missouri Territorywas admitted as a slave state , in accordance with the Missouri Compromise, and with a temporary state capital in St. Charles. In 1826, the capital was shifted to its current, permanent location of Jefferson City, also on the Missouri River.
The state was rocked by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes. Casualties were few due to the sparse population.
Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth, the point where the KansasRiver enters the MissouriRiver. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary. In 1836 the Platte Purchasewas added to the northwest corner of the state after purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the MissouriRiver the border north of the KansasRiver. This addition increased the land area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about 66,500 square miles (172,000 km2) to Virginia's 65,000 square miles, which then included West Virginia). Fur Traders Descending the Missouriby Missouripainter George Caleb Bingham
In the early 1830s, Mormonmigrants from northern states and Canada began settling near Independence and areas just north of there. Conflicts over religion and slavery arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North). The MormonWar erupted in 1838. By 1839, with the help of an "Extermination Order" by Governor Lilburn Boggs, the old settlers forcefully expelled the Mormons from Missouriand confiscated their lands.
Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states and territories. From 1838 to 1839, a border dispute with Iowaover the so-called Honey Landsresulted in both states' calling-up of militias along the border.
With increasing migration, from the 1830s to the 1860s Missouri's population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late 1840s and 1850s. As a majority were Catholic, they set up their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly Protestant. Having fled famine and oppression in Ireland, and revolutionary upheaval in Germany, the immigrants were not sympathetic to slavery. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and then state network of Catholicchurches and schools. Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along the Missouri Riverand the beer industry in St. Louis.
Most Missourifarmers practiced subsistence farming before the American Civil War. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than five each. Planters , defined by some historians as those holding twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as "Little Dixie ", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River . The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of the state and nation. In 1860, enslaved African Americansmade up less than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012. In order to control the flooding of farmland and low-lying villages along the Mississippi, the state had completed construction of 140 miles (230 km) of levees along the river by 1860.
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri legislature called for the election of a special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union. Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jacksonordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louisfor training. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyonstruck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants , to march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louisin the incident that became known as the " St. LouisMassacre ".
These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard. In the face of Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson Cityon June 14, 1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri, Jackson called the state legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However, even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is generally given little credence. The Confederacy nonetheless recognized it on October 30, 1861.
With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces. The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal Missourigovernment. The federal government's decision enabled raising pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as volunteer regiments for the Union Army.
Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guardand Confederate troops from Arkansasand Texasunder General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson\'s Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouriand suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to Arkansasand later Marshall, Texas, in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army.
Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare . "Citizen soldiers" or insurgents such as Captain William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers , and William T. Andersonmade use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the MissouriPartisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth. The vigilante activities of the Bald Knobbersof the Ozarksin the 1880s were an unofficial continuation of insurgent mentality long after the official end of the war, and they are a favorite theme in Branson\'s self-image . Union Station in St. Louiswas the largest and busiest train station in the world when it opened in 1894. Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri, 1910. Photographed by Lewis Hineas part of the Progressive Erafight against child labor.
20TH CENTURY TO PRESENT
The Progressive Era(1890s to 1920s) saw numerous prominent leaders from Missouritrying to end corruption and modernize politics, government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical Protestants. Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and Democrat in the 1904 election . He promoted what he called "the MissouriIdea", the concept of Missourias a leader in public morality through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal, and enforced the Sunday-closing law. He helped enact Progressive legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision, regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor, railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and the Missourilibrary commission.
Between the Civil War and the end of World War II, Missouri transitioned from a rural economy to a hybrid industrial-service-agricultural economy as the Midwest rapidly industrialized. The expansion of railroads to the West transformed KansasCity into a major transportation hub within the nation. The growth of the Texascattle industry along with this increased rail infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made KansasCity a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from Texasbrought herds of cattle to Dodge Cityand other Kansastowns. There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for KansasCity, where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The first half of the twentieth century was the height of KansasCity's prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco skyscrapers as construction boomed.
In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around Springfield, which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed to the area, and medical personnel stopped the epidemic.
During the mid-1950s and 1960s, St. Louisand KansasCity suffered deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing, as did other Midwesternindustrial cities. In 1956 St. Charles claims to be the site of the first interstate highway project. Such highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave the city for newer housing developed in the suburbs, often former farmland where land was available at lower prices. These major cities have gone through decades of readjustment to develop different economies and adjust to demographic changes. Suburban areas have developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and services, such as major retail malls.
Missouripopulation density map.
EST. 2016 6,093,000
Source: 1910–2010 2015 estimate
Missourihad a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census; an increase of 392,369 (7.0 percent) since the year 2000. From 2000 to 2007, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United Statesresulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas– St. Louisand KansasCity . The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state .
In 2011, the racial composition of the state was:
* 84.0% White American(81.0% non-Hispanic white , 3.0% White Hispanic ) * 11.7% Black or African American * 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native * 1.7% Asian American * 0.1% Native Hawaiianand other Pacific Islander * 1.9% Multiracial American * 0.1% Some other race
In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).
MISSOURI RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010
White 87.7% 84.9% 82.8%
Black 10.7% 11.3% 11.6%
Asian 0.8% 1.1% 1.6%
Native 0.4% 0.4% 0.5%
Other race 0.4% 0.8% 1.3%
Two or more races – 1.5% 2.1%
The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United Statesis in TexasCounty , while the 2000 Census found the mean population center to be in Phelps County . The center of population of Missouriis in Osage County , in the city of Westphalia .
In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population).
The five largest ancestry groups in Missouriare: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent) and French (3.7 percent).
German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americansare a substantial part of the population in St. Louis (56.6% of African Americansin the state lived in St. Louisor St. LouisCounty as of the 2010 census), KansasCity, Boone County and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the MissouriRiver Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the MississippiRiver Valley south of St. Louis(see Missouri French). KansasCity is home to large and growing immigrant communities from LatinAmerica esp. Mexicoand Colombia, Africa (i.e. Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria), and Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines; and Europe like the former Yugoslavia(see Bosnian American). A notable Cherokee Indian population exists in Missouri.
In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouriresidents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home.
In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people per household. The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. The median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita. There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) Missourians living below the poverty line in 2010.
The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.
In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were minorities.
_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015
White 61,097 (81.1%) 60,968 (80.9%) 60,913 (81.1%)
> Non-Hispanic White 57,361 (76.2%) 57,150 (75.8%) 57,092 (76.1%)
Black 11,722 (15.6%) 11,783 (15.6%) 11,660 (15.5%)
Asian 2,075 (2.8%) 2,186 (2.9%) 2,129 (2.8%)
Native 402 (0.5%) 423 (0.6%) 359 (0.5%)
_Hispanic _ (of any race) _3,931 (5.2%)_ _3,959 (5.3%)_ _4,042 (5.4%)_
TOTAL MISSOURI 75,296 (100%) 75,360 (100%) 75,061 (100%)
The vast majority of people in Missourispeak English. Approximately 5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English at home. The Spanish languageis spoken in small Latino communities in the St. Louisand KansasCity Metro areas.
Missouriis home to an endangered dialect of the French language known as Missouri French. Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves _Créoles _, are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the IllinoisCountry beginning in the late 17th century. It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and Louisiana, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian Frenchand LouisianaCreole French . Once widely spoken throughout the area, Missouri Frenchis now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly speakers able to use it.
According to a Pew Research study conducted in 2014, 80% of Missourians identify with a religion. 77% affiliate with Christianity and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of non-Christian religions. The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2% specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics (the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular").