Missouri is a state in the
Midwestern United States. With over six
million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union.
The largest urban areas are
Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, and
Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City, located on the Missouri
River. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are
the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and
Mississippi River forms the eastern border of the
Humans have inhabited the land now known as
Missouri for at least
12,000 years. The
Mississippian culture built cities and mounds,
before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the
1600s they encountered the Osage and
Missouria nations. The French
established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste.
Genevieve in 1735 and
St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of
Spanish rule, the
United States acquired the
Louisiana Purchase in
1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African
Americans, rushed into the new
Missouri Territory. Many from Virginia,
Tennessee settled in the
Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri.
Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the
Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United
States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon
Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and
California Trail all began in Missouri.
As a border state, Missouri's role in the
American Civil War
American Civil War was
complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both
Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis and the
Kansas City metropolitan area
Kansas City metropolitan area became centers
of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into
114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis.
Missouri's culture blends elements from the
Midwestern and Southern
United States. The musical styles of ragtime,
Kansas City jazz, and
St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas
City-style barbecue, and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be
found across the state and beyond.
St. Louis is also a major center of
Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world.
Missouri wine is produced in the nearby
Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks.
Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United
States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations
include the Lake of the
Ozarks and Branson.
Well-known Missourians include U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark
Twain, Walt Disney,
Chuck Berry and Nelly. Some of the largest
companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts,
Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo
Advisors and O'Reilly Auto Parts.
Missouri has been called the "Mother
of the West" and the "Cave State"; however, Missouri's most famous
nickname is the "Show Me State", as Missourians are known for being
1 Etymology and pronunciation
3.1 Nineteenth century
3.2 American Civil War
3.3 Twentieth century
3.4 Twenty-first century
4.1 Birth data
7 Law and government
7.1 Status as a political bellwether
Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws
8 Cities and towns
Missouri State Board of Education
9.2 Primary and secondary schools
9.3 Colleges and universities
11 See also
13 External links
Etymology and pronunciation
The state is named for the
Missouri River, which was named after the
Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that
they were called the ouemessourita (wimihsoorita), meaning "those
who have dugout canoes", by the
Miami-Illinois language speakers.
This appears to be Folk Etymology. The
Illinois spoke an Algonquian
language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of
their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver &
Visit Those People." This would be an odd occurrence, as the French
who first explored & attempted to settle the
usually got their translations during that time fairly accurate, often
giving things French names that were exact translations of the native
Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would
translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the
river itself. This isn't entirely likely either, as this would be
coming out as "Maya Sunni" (Mah-yah soo-nee) Most likely, though, the
Missouri comes from Chiwere language, a fairly unique Siouan
dialect spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of
Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota,
Missouri & Nebraska.
The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations even among
its present-day natives, the two most common being
/mɪˈzɜːri/ ( listen) and
/məˈzɜːrə/ ( listen).  Further pronunciations
also exist in
Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving
the realization of the first syllable as either /mə-/ or /mɪ-/; the
medial consonant as either /z/ or /s/; the vowel in the second
syllable as either /ɜːr/ or /ʊər/; and the third syllable as
[i] ( listen), [ə] ( listen), centralized
[ɪ̈] ( listen)), or nothing. Any combination of these
phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American
The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance,
who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that
no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be clearly
defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern,
educated or otherwise. Politicians often employ multiple
pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater
number of listeners. Often, informal respellings of the state's
name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to
phonetically distinguish pronunciations.
There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's
unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its
license plates. This phrase has several origins. One is popularly
ascribed to a speech by Congressman
Willard Vandiver in 1899, who
declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton,
cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor
satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." This is
in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm
skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced." However,
according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use
before the 1890s. Another one states that it is a reference to
Missouri miners who were taken to
Leadville, Colorado to replace
striking workers. Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining
methods, they required frequent instruction.
Other nicknames for
Missouri include "The Lead State", "The Bullion
State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron
Mountain State", and "
Pennsylvania of the West". It is also known
as the "Cave State" because there are more than 6,000 recorded caves
in the state (second to Tennessee). Perry County is the county with
the largest number of caves and the single longest cave.
The official state motto is Latin: "Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto",
which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."
Main article: Geography of Missouri
Missouri, showing major cities and roads.
Missouri is landlocked and borders eight different states as does its
neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight.
Missouri is bounded by
Iowa on the north; by Illinois, Kentucky, and
Tennessee across the
Mississippi River on the east; on the south by
Arkansas; and by Oklahoma, Kansas, and
Nebraska (the last across the
Missouri River) on the west. Whereas the northern and southern
boundaries are straight lines, the
Missouri Bootheel protrudes
southerly into Arkansas. The two largest rivers are the Mississippi
(which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri
River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially
connecting the two largest metros of
Kansas City and St. Louis.
Although today it is usually considered part of the Midwest,
Missouri was historically seen by many as a border state, chiefly
because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as
a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of St.
Louis. The counties that made up "Little Dixie" were those along the
Missouri River in the center of the state, settled by Southern
migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves.
Missouri received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks
and other recreational areas totaling 101,000 acres (410 km2),
giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating
A physiographic map of Missouri
North of, and in some cases just south of, the
Missouri River lie the
Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here,
rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the
Canadian Shield to the
Missouri has many large river
bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. Southern
Missouri rises to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding
Precambrian igneous St. Francois Mountains. This region also hosts
karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the
formation of sinkholes and caves.
Bell Mountain Wilderness
Bell Mountain Wilderness of southern Missouri's Mark Twain
The southeastern part of the state is known as the
region, which is part of the
Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi
embayment. This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest
part of the state. It is also among the poorest, as the economy there
is mostly agricultural. It is also the most fertile, with cotton
and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four
New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812.
Main article: Climate of Missouri
Köppen climate types of Missouri
Missouri generally has a humid continental climate with cold snowy
winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. In the southern part of the
state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate becomes humid
subtropical. Located in the interior United States,
experiences extreme temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans
nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced
by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico.
Missouri's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C)
at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded
temperature is −40 °F (−40 °C) also at Warsaw on
February 13, 1905.
Located in Tornado Alley,
Missouri also receives extreme weather in
the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. The most recent
tornado in the state to cause damage and casualties was the 2011
Joplin tornado, which destroyed roughly one-third of the city of
Joplin. The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages,
killed 159 (+1 non-tornadic), and injured over 1,000 people. It was
the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the
U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American
history and 27th deadliest in the world.
St. Louis and its suburbs
also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the
most recent memorable one being an EF4 tornado that damaged
St. Louis International Airport on April 22, 2011. One of the
worst tornadoes in American history struck
St. Louis on May 27, 1896,
killing at least 255 and causing $10 mil. damage ($3.9 bil. damage in
2009) or $4.45 billion in today's dollars.
Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various
in °F (°C).
Main article: Wildlife of Missouri
Missouri River near Rocheport, Missouri
Missouri is home to a diversity of both flora and fauna. There is a
large amount of fresh water present due to the
Missouri River, and Lake of the Ozarks, with numerous smaller
tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. North of the
Missouri River, the
state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains, whereas south of
Missouri River, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central
U.S. hardwood forest.
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Main article: History of Missouri
Missouri, Westminister College Gymnasium in Fulton, Missouri
Indigenous peoples inhabited
Missouri for thousands of years before
European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along
the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years.
Beginning before 1000 CE, there arose the complex Mississippian
culture, whose people created regional political centers at
St. Louis and across the
Mississippi River at Cahokia,
near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Their large cities included
thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their
surviving massive earthwork mounds, built for religious, political and
social reasons, in platform, ridgetop and conical shapes.
the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great
Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and
most descendants left the area long before the arrival of Europeans.
St. Louis was at one time known as Mound City by the European
Americans, because of the numerous surviving prehistoric mounds, since
lost to urban development. The
Mississippian culture left mounds
throughout the middle
Ohio river valleys, extending
into the southeast as well as the upper river.
Gateway Arch in St. Louis
The first European settlers were mostly ethnic French Canadians, who
created their first settlement in
Missouri at present-day Ste.
Genevieve, about an hour south of St. Louis. They had migrated about
1750 from the
Illinois Country. They came from colonial villages on
the east side of the
Mississippi River, where soils were becoming
exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing
population. Sainte-Geneviève became a thriving agricultural center,
producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain
annually downriver to Lower
Louisiana for trade. Grain production in
Illinois Country was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana
and especially the city of New Orleans.
St. Louis was founded soon after by French fur traders, Pierre
Laclède and stepson
Auguste Chouteau from New Orleans in 1764. From
1764 to 1803, European control of the area west of the
the northernmost part of the
Missouri River basin, called Louisiana,
was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain,
due to Treaty of Fontainebleau (in order to have Spain join with
France in the war against England). The arrival of the Spanish in St.
Louis was in September 1767.
St. Louis became the center of a regional fur trade with Native
American tribes that extended up the
which dominated the regional economy for decades. Trading partners of
major firms shipped their furs from
St. Louis by river down to New
Orleans for export to Europe. They provided a variety of goods to
traders, for sale and trade with their Native American clients. The
fur trade and associated businesses made
St. Louis an early financial
center and provided the wealth for some to build fine houses and
import luxury items. Its location near the confluence of the Illinois
River meant it also handled produce from the agricultural areas. River
traffic and trade along the
Mississippi were integral to the state's
economy, and as the area's first major city,
St. Louis expanded
greatly after the invention of the steamboat and the increased river
See also: History of slavery in Missouri
Napoleon Bonaparte had gained
Louisiana for French ownership from
Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso, after it had been a
Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana
remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to
France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to
the United States.
Part of the 1803
Louisiana Purchase by the United States, Missouri
earned the nickname Gateway to the West because it served as a major
departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West
during the 19th century. St. Charles, just west of St. Louis, was the
starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark
Expedition, which ascended the
Missouri River in 1804, in order to
explore the western lands to the Pacific Ocean.
St. Louis was a major
supply point for decades, for parties of settlers heading west.
As many of the early settlers in western
Missouri migrated from the
Upper South, they brought enslaved
African Americans as agricultural
laborers, and they desired to continue their culture and the
institution of slavery. They settled predominantly in 17 counties
Missouri River, in an area of flatlands that enabled
plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie." In 1821 the
Missouri Territory was admitted as a slave state, in accordance
Missouri Compromise, and with a temporary state capital in
St. Charles. In 1826, the capital was shifted to its current,
permanent location of Jefferson City, also on the
The state was rocked by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes.
Casualties were few due to the sparse population.
Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as
the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth, the point where the
Kansas River enters the
Missouri River. The river has moved since this
designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary. In 1836 the
Platte Purchase was added to the northwest corner of the state after
purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the
the border north of the
Kansas River. This addition increased the land
area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time
(about 66,500 square miles (172,000 km2) to Virginia's 65,000
square miles, which then included West Virginia).
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri by
Missouri painter George Caleb
In the early 1830s,
Mormon migrants from northern states and Canada
began settling near Independence and areas just north of there.
Conflicts over religion and slavery arose between the 'old settlers'
(mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North). The
Mormon War erupted in 1838. By 1839, with the help of an
"Extermination Order" by Governor Lilburn Boggs, the old settlers
forcefully expelled the Mormons from
Missouri and confiscated their
Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states
and territories. From 1838 to 1839, a border dispute with
Honey Lands resulted in both states' calling-up of
militias along the border.
With increasing migration, from the 1830s to the 1860s Missouri's
population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers
were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in
the late 1840s and 1850s. As a majority were Catholic, they set up
their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly
Protestant. Having fled famine and oppression in Ireland, and
revolutionary upheaval in Germany, the immigrants were not sympathetic
to slavery. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and
then state network of
Catholic churches and schools.
Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along
Missouri River and the beer industry in St. Louis.
Missouri farmers practiced subsistence farming before the
American Civil War. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer
than five each. Planters, defined by some historians as those holding
twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as
"Little Dixie", in the central part of the state along the Missouri
River. The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of
the state and nation. In 1860, enslaved
African Americans made up less
than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012. In order to
control the flooding of farmland and low-lying villages along the
Mississippi, the state had completed construction of 140 miles
(230 km) of levees along the river by 1860.
American Civil War
Missouri in the American Civil War
Price's Raid in the Trans-
Mississippi Theater, 1864
After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri
legislature called for the election of a special convention on
secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union.
Claiborne F. Jackson
Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of
several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a
St. Louis for training. Alarmed at this action, Union General
Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state
troops to surrender. Lyon directed his soldiers, largely
non-English-speaking German immigrants, to march the prisoners through
the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of
civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners
as well as men, women and children of
St. Louis in the incident that
became known as the "
St. Louis Massacre".
These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor
Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on
secession, as head of the new
Missouri State Guard. In the face of
Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and
Price were forced to flee the capital of
Jefferson City on June 14,
1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri, Jackson called the state
legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However,
even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention
had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by
unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in
any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is
generally given little credence. The Confederacy nonetheless
recognized it on October 30, 1861.
With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators
largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of
its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces.
The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton
Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's
administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal
Missouri government. The federal government's decision enabled raising
pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as
volunteer regiments for the Union Army.
Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General
Missouri State Guard
Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from
Texas under General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the
battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of
Lexington, Missouri and
suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to
Arkansas and later Marshall, Texas, in the face of a largely
reinforced Union Army.
Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into
Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted
chiefly of guerrilla warfare. "Citizen soldiers" or insurgents such as
Captain William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger
William T. Anderson
William T. Anderson made use of quick, small-unit
tactics. Pioneered by the
Missouri Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies
also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during
the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James
brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth. The
vigilante activities of the
Bald Knobbers of the
Ozarks in the 1880s
were an unofficial continuation of insurgent mentality long after the
official end of the war, and they are a favorite theme in Branson's
Union Station in
St. Louis was the largest and busiest train station
in the world when it opened in 1894.
Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri, 1910. Photographed by
Lewis Hine as part of the
Progressive Era fight against child labor.
Progressive Era (1890s to 1920s) saw numerous prominent leaders
Missouri trying to end corruption and modernize politics,
government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who
made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical
Protestants. Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and
Democrat in the 1904 election. He promoted what he called "the
Missouri Idea", the concept of
Missouri as a leader in public morality
through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully
conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state
officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required
formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal,
and enforced the Sunday-closing law. He helped enact Progressive
legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision,
regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor,
railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of
efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established
during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and
Missouri library commission.
Between the Civil War and the end of World War II, Missouri
transitioned from a rural economy to a hybrid
industrial-service-agricultural economy as the Midwest rapidly
industrialized. The expansion of railroads to the West transformed
Kansas City into a major transportation hub within the nation. The
growth of the
Texas cattle industry along with this increased rail
infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made
Kansas City a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from
Texas brought herds of cattle to
Dodge City and other
There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for
where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The
first half of the twentieth century was the height of
prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco
skyscrapers as construction boomed.
In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around
Springfield, which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed
to the area, and medical personnel stopped the epidemic.
During the mid-1950s and 1960s,
St. Louis and
Kansas City suffered
deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing,
as did other
Midwestern industrial cities. In 1956 St. Charles claims
to be the site of the first interstate highway project. Such
highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave
the city for newer housing developed in the suburbs, often former
farmland where land was available at lower prices. These major cities
have gone through decades of readjustment to develop different
economies and adjust to demographic changes. Suburban areas have
developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and
services, such as major retail malls.
Missouri received national attention for the protests and
riots that followed the shooting of Michael Brown by a police officer
of Ferguson, which led Governor
Jay Nixon to call out the
Missouri National Guard. A grand jury declined to indict the
officer, and the
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of Justice concluded, after careful
investigation, that the police officer legitimately feared for his
safety. However, in a separate investigation, the Department of
Justice also found that the Ferguson Police Department and the City of
Ferguson relied on unconstitutional practices in order to balance the
city's budget through racially-motivated excessive fines and
punishments, that the Ferguson police "had used excessive and
dangerous force and had disproportionately targeted blacks," and
that the municipal court "emphasized revenue over public safety,
leading to routine breaches of citizens' constitutional guarantees of
due process and equal protection under the law."
A series of student protests at the
University of Missouri
University of Missouri against
what the protesters viewed as poor response by the administration to
racist incidents on campus began in September 2015.
On June 7, 2017, the National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People issued a warning to prospective African-American
travelers to Missouri. This is the first NAACP warning ever covering
an entire state.
Missouri population density map.
United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Missouri was 6,083,672 on July 1, 2015, a 1.58% increase since the
United States Census.
Missouri had a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census;
an increase of 392,369 (7.0 percent) since the year 2000. From 2000 to
2007, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the
last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of
88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from
United States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people,
and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638
people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live
within the state's two largest metropolitan areas–
St. Louis and
Kansas City. The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also
closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state.
In 2011, the racial composition of the state was:
White American (81.0% non-Hispanic white, 3.0% White Hispanic)
11.7% Black or African American
0.5% American Indian and
1.7% Asian American
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
1.9% Multiracial American
0.1% Some other race
In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin
(they may be of any race).
Missouri racial breakdown of population
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
Two or more races
The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United
States is in
Texas County, while the 2000 Census found the mean
population center to be in Phelps County. The center of population of
Missouri is in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia.
In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of
the state population).
The five largest ancestry groups in
Missouri are: German (27.4
percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5
percent) and French (3.7 percent).
German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri.
African Americans are a substantial part of the population in St.
Louis (56.6% of
African Americans in the state lived in
St. Louis or
St. Louis County as of the 2010 census),
Kansas City, Boone County and
in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the
Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri
Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the
Valley south of
St. Louis (see
Kansas City is home
to large and growing immigrant communities from
Latin America esp.
Mexico and Colombia, Africa (i.e. Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria), and
Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines; and Europe like
Yugoslavia (see Bosnian American). A notable Cherokee
Indian population exists in Missouri.
In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger
than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was
65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the
population. 81.3 percent of
Missouri residents were high school
graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a
bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were
foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than
English at home.
In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people
per household. The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the
median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. The
median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita.
There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) of Missourians living below the
poverty line in 2010.
The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.
In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both
by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
> Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic (of any race)
The vast majority of people in
Missouri speak English. Approximately
5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English
at home. The Spanish language is spoken in small Latino communities in
St. Louis and
Kansas City Metro areas.
Missouri is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known
Missouri French. Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves
Créoles, are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area
then known as the
Illinois Country beginning in the late 17th century.
It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and
Louisiana, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian
Louisiana Creole French. Once widely spoken throughout the
Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly
speakers able to use it.
According to a Pew Research study conducted in 2014, 80% of
Missourians identify with a religion. 77% affiliate with Christianity
and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of
non-Christian religions. The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2%
specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics
(the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular").
Broken down, the religious demographics of
Missouri are as follows:
Christian – 77%
Protestant - 58%
Protestant – 36%
Protestant – 16%
Protestant – 6%
Catholic – 16%
Mormon – 1%
Orthodox Christian – <1%
Jehovah's Witness – <1%
Other Christian – <1%
Non-Christian Religions – 3%
Jewish – <1%
Muslim – <1%
Buddhist – 1%
Hindu – <1%
Other World Religions – <1%
Unaffiliated (No religion) – 20%
Atheist – 2%
Agnostic – 3%
Nothing in particular – 15%
Don't know – <1%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the
Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention with 749,685; the Roman
with 724,315; and the
United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church with 226,409.
Among the other denominations there are approximately 93,000 Mormons
in 253 congregations, 25,000 Jewish adherents in 21 synagogues, 12,000
Muslims in 39 masjids, 7,000 Buddhists in 34 temples, 7,000 Hindus in
17 temples, 2,500 Unitarians in 9 congregations, 2,000
Baha'i in 17
Sikh temples, a
Zoroastrian temple, a
Jain temple and an
uncounted number of neopagans.
Several religious organizations have headquarters in Missouri,
including the Lutheran Church–
Missouri Synod, which has its
headquarters in Kirkwood, as well as the United Pentecostal Church
International in Hazelwood, both outside St. Louis.
Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community
of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter
Day Saints), the
Church of Christ (Temple Lot)
Church of Christ (Temple Lot) and the group Remnant
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This area and other parts
Missouri are also of significant religious and historical
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS
Church), which maintains several sites and visitors centers.
Springfield is the headquarters of the
Assemblies of God USA
Assemblies of God USA and the
Baptist Bible Fellowship International. The General Association of
General Baptists has its headquarters in Poplar Bluff. The Unity
Church is headquartered in Unity Village.
Missouri locations by per capita income
Commemorative US quarter featuring the Lewis and Clark expedition
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Missouri's total state
product in 2006 was $225.9 billion. per capita personal income in 2006
was $32,705, ranking 26th in the nation. Major industries include
aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals,
printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing,
financial services and beer.
The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy
products, hay, corn, poultry, sorghum, cotton, rice, and eggs.
Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and
7th for cattle.
Missouri is ranked in the top five states in the
nation for production of soy beans, and it is ranked fourth in the
nation for the production of rice. In 2001, there were 108,000 farms,
the second-largest number in any state after Texas.
promotes its rapidly growing wine industry. According to the Missouri
Partnership, Missouri's agriculture industry contributes $33 billion
in GDP to Missouri's economy, and generates $88 billion in sales and
more than 378,000 jobs.
Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. Other resources mined are
lead, coal, and crushed stone.
Missouri produces the most lead of all
of the states. Most of the lead mines are in the central eastern
portion of the state.
Missouri also ranks first or near first in the
production of lime, a key ingredient in Portland cement.
Missouri also has a growing science, agricultural technology and
biotechnology field. Monsanto, one of the largest biotech companies in
America, is based in St. Louis.
Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in
Missouri is the only state in the Union to have two Federal Reserve
Banks: one in
Kansas City (serving western Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska,
Oklahoma, Colorado, northern New Mexico, and Wyoming) and one in St.
Louis (serving eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana,
western Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and all of
The Federal Reserve Bank of
Kansas City services the western portion
of Missouri, as well as all of Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Wyoming,
Colorado, and northern New Mexico
The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in April 2017 was
3.9 percent. And in 2017,
Missouri became a right-to-work
Personal income is taxed in ten different earning brackets, ranging
from 1.5% to 6.0%. Missouri's sales tax rate for most items is 4.225%
with some additional local levies. More than 2,500
governments rely on property taxes levied on real property (real
estate) and personal property.
Most personal property is exempt, except for motorized vehicles.
Exempt real estate includes property owned by governments and property
used as nonprofit cemeteries, exclusively for religious worship, for
schools and colleges and for purely charitable purposes. There is no
inheritance tax and limited
Missouri estate tax related to federal
estate tax collection.
In 2017, the Tax Foundation rated
Missouri as having the 5th-best
corporate tax index, and the 15th-best overall tax climate.
Missouri's corporate income tax rate is 6.25%; however, 50% of federal
income tax payments may be deducted before computing taxable income,
leading to an effective rate of 5.2%.
Missouri had roughly 22,000 MW of installed electricity
generation capacity. In 2011, 82% of Missouri's electricity was
generated by coal. Ten percent was generated from the state's only
nuclear power plant, the Callaway Plant in Callaway County,
northeast of Jefferson City. Five percent was generated by natural
gas. One percent was generated by hydroelectric sources, such
as the dams for Truman Lake and Lake of the Ozarks.
Missouri has a
small but growing amount of wind and solar power—wind capacity
increased from 309 MW in 2009 to 459 MW in 2011, while photovoltaics
have increased from 0.2 MW to 1.3 MW over the same period. As
of 2016, Missouri's solar installations had reached 141 MW.
Oil wells in
Missouri produced 120,000 barrels of crude oil in fiscal
2012. There are no oil refineries in Missouri.
Missouri has two major airport hubs: Lambert–
St. Louis International
Kansas City International Airport. Southern
Springfield–Branson National Airport
Springfield–Branson National Airport (SGF) with multiple
non-stop destinations. Residents of
Mid-Missouri use Columbia
Regional Airport (COU) to fly to
Chicago (ORD), Dallas (DFW) or Denver
Amtrak station in Kirkwood.
Two of the nation's three busiest rail centers are in Missouri. Kansas
City is a major railroad hub for BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern
Kansas City Southern Railway, and Union Pacific Railroad, and
every class 1 railroad serves Missouri.
Kansas City is the second
largest freight rail center in the US (but is first in the amount of
tonnage handled). Like
St. Louis is a major destination
for train freight. Springfield remains an operational hub for BNSF
Kansas City Streetcar crossing Main Street near Union Station
Amtrak passenger trains serve
Kansas City, La Plata, Jefferson City,
St. Louis, Lee's Summit, Independence, Warrensburg, Hermann,
Washington, Kirkwood, Sedalia, and Poplar Bluff. A proposed high-speed
rail route in
Missouri as part of the
Chicago Hub Network
Chicago Hub Network has received
$31 million in funding.
The only urban light rail/subway system operating in
MetroLink, which connects the city of
St. Louis with suburbs in
St. Louis County. It is one of the largest systems (by
track mileage) in the United States. The
KC Streetcar in downtown
Kansas City opened in May 2016.
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center in
St. Louis is the
largest active multi-use transportation center in the state. It is in
downtown St. Louis, next to the historic Union Station complex. It
serves as a hub center/station for MetroLink, the MetroBus regional
bus system, Greyhound, Amtrak, and taxi services.
Mississippi River at Hannibal.
Many cities have regular fixed-route systems, and many rural counties
have rural public transit services.
inter-city bus service in Missouri. Megabus serves St. Louis, but
discontinued service to Columbia and
Kansas City in 2015.
Mississippi River and
Missouri River are commercially navigable
over their entire lengths in Missouri. The
Missouri was channelized
through dredging and jettys and the
Mississippi was given a series of
locks and dams to avoid rocks and deepen the river.
St. Louis is a
major destination for barge traffic on the Mississippi.
Missouri State Highway System, List of Interstate
Highways in Missouri, List of U.S. Routes in Missouri, List of state
highways in Missouri, and
Missouri supplemental route
Interstate 70 in Central Missouri.
Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge
Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge connecting
Cape Girardeau to East
Cape Girardeau, Illinois.
Following the passage of Amendment 3 in late 2004, the Missouri
Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smoother, Safer, Sooner
road-building program with a goal of bringing 2,200 miles
(3,500 km) of highways up to good condition by December 2007.
From 2006–2010 traffic deaths have decreased annually from 1,257 in
2005, to 1,096 in 2006, to 992 for 2007, to 960 for 2008, to 878 in
2009, to 821 in 2010.
Law and government
Governor of Missouri
Eric Greitens (R)
Lieutenant Governor of Missouri:
Mike Parson (R)
Missouri Secretary of State:
Jay Ashcroft (R)
Missouri State Auditor:
Nicole Galloway (D)
Missouri State Treasurer:
Eric Schmitt (R)
Missouri Attorney General:
Josh Hawley (R)
United States Senator:
Claire McCaskill (D)
United States Senator:
Roy Blunt (R)
Missouri Governor, Eric Greitens
Missouri State Capitol
Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City
Harry S. Truman, 33rd
President of the United States
President of the United States and the only one
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
Law and government of Missouri
Law and government of Missouri and List of Governors of
The current Constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the
state, was adopted in 1945. It provides for three branches of
government: the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. The
legislative branch consists of two bodies: the House of
Representatives and the Senate. These bodies comprise the Missouri
The House of Representatives has 163 members who are apportioned based
on the last decennial census. The Senate consists of 34 members from
districts of approximately equal populations. The judicial department
comprises the Supreme Court of Missouri, which has seven judges, the
Missouri Court of Appeals
Missouri Court of Appeals (an intermediate appellate court divided
into three districts), sitting in
Kansas City, St. Louis, and
Springfield, and 45 Circuit Courts which function as local trial
courts. The executive branch is headed by the
Governor of Missouri
Governor of Missouri and
includes five other statewide elected offices. Following the death of
Tom Schweich in 2015, only one of Missouri's statewide elected offices
are held by Democrats.
Harry S Truman
Harry S Truman (1884–1972), the 33rd President of the United States
(Democrat, 1945–1953), was born in Lamar. He was a judge in Jackson
County and then represented the state in the
United States Senate
United States Senate for
ten years, before being elected Vice-President in 1944. He lived in
Independence after retiring.
Status as a political bellwether
Further information: Political party strength in Missouri
Missouri is widely regarded as a bellwether in American politics,
often making it a swing state. The state had a longer stretch of
supporting the winning presidential candidate than any other state,
having voted with the nation in every election from 1904 to 2004 with
a single exception: 1956, when Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson of
Illinois lost the election despite carrying Missouri. The
state's status as a bellwether has been questioned in recent years, as
Missouri twice voted against Democrat Barack Obama, who nonetheless
widely prevailed in the 2008 and 2012 elections. Missouri's nearly 10%
margin in favor of the losing
Mitt Romney in 2012 suggests the state
is starting to trend more Republican in presidential contests.
On October 24, 2012, there were 4,190,936 registered voters. At
the state level, both Democratic Senator
Claire McCaskill and
Jay Nixon were re-elected. On November 8, 2016,
there were 4,223,787 registered voters, with 2,811,549 voting
Presidential elections results (1900–2016)
Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws
Alcohol laws of Missouri
Alcohol laws of Missouri and List of smoking bans in
United States § Missouri
Missouri has been known for its population's generally "stalwart,
conservative, noncredulous" attitude toward regulatory regimes, which
is one of the origins of the state's unofficial nickname, the "Show-Me
State". As a result, and combined with the fact that
one of America's leading alcohol states, regulation of alcohol and
Missouri is among the most laissez-faire in America. For
2013, the annual "Freedom in the 50 States" study prepared by the
Mercatus Center at
George Mason University
George Mason University ranked
Missouri as #3 in
America for alcohol freedom and #1 for tobacco freedom (#7 for freedom
overall). The study notes that Missouri's "alcohol regime is one
of the least restrictive in the United States, with no blue laws and
taxes well below average", and that "
Missouri ranks best in the nation
on tobacco freedom".
Missouri law makes it "an improper employment practice" for an
employer to refuse to hire, to fire, or otherwise to disadvantage any
person because that person lawfully uses alcohol and/or tobacco
products when he or she is not at work.
With a large German immigrant population and the development of a
Missouri always has had among the most permissive
alcohol laws in the United States. It never enacted statewide
Missouri voters rejected prohibition in three separate
referenda in 1910, 1912, and 1918. Alcohol regulation did not begin in
Missouri until 1934.
Today, alcohol laws are controlled by the state government, and local
jurisdictions are prohibited from going beyond those state laws.
Missouri has no statewide open container law or prohibition on
drinking in public, no alcohol-related blue laws, no local option, no
precise locations for selling liquor by the package (allowing even
drug stores and gas stations to sell any kind of liquor), and no
differentiation of laws based on alcohol percentage. State law
protects persons from arrest or criminal penalty for public
Missouri law expressly prohibits any jurisdiction from going dry.
Missouri law also expressly allows parents and guardians to serve
alcohol to their children. The Power & Light District in
Kansas City is one of the few places in the
United States where a
state law explicitly allows persons over the age of 21 to possess and
consume open containers of alcohol in the street (as long as the
beverage is in a plastic cup).
As for tobacco (as of July 2016),
Missouri has the lowest cigarette
excise taxes in the United States, at 17 cents per pack, and the
state electorate voted in 2002, 2006, 2012, and twice in 2016 to keep
it that way. In 2007,
Forbes named Missouri's largest
metropolitan area, St. Louis, America's "best city for
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008
Missouri had the fourth highest percentage of adult smokers among U.S
states, at 24.5%. Although Missouri's minimum age for purchase
and distribution of tobacco products is 18, tobacco products can be
distributed to persons under 18 by family members on private
No statewide smoking ban ever has been seriously entertained before
Missouri General Assembly, and in October 2008, a statewide survey
Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services found that
only 27.5% of Missourians support a statewide ban on smoking in all
bars and restaurants.
Missouri state law permits restaurants
seating less than 50 people, bars, bowling alleys, and billiard
parlors to decide their own smoking policies, without limitation.
The highly photographed Jasper County Courthouse in Carthage, Missouri
is listed in the National Register of Historic Places
See also: List of counties in Missouri
Missouri has 114 counties and one independent city (St. Louis).
The largest county by size is
Texas County (1,179 sq. miles) and
Shannon County is second (1,004 sq. miles). Worth County is the
smallest (266 sq. miles). The independent city of
St. Louis has only
62 square miles (160 km2) of area.
St. Louis City is the most
densely populated area (5,140.1 per sq. mi.) in Missouri.
The largest county by population (2012 estimate) is
St. Louis County
(1,000,438 residents), with Jackson County second (677,377 residents),
St. Charles third (368,666), and
St. Louis fourth (318,172). Worth
County is the least populous with 2,171 (2010 census) residents.
Cities and towns
List of cities in Missouri
List of cities in Missouri and List of towns and villages in
Largest cities or towns in Missouri
Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass
Jefferson City is the capital of Missouri.
The five largest cities in
Kansas City, St. Louis,
Springfield, Columbia, and Independence.
St. Louis is the principal city of the largest metropolitan area in
Missouri, composed of 17 counties and the independent city of St.
Louis; eight of those counties lie in Illinois. As of 2012 St. Louis
was the 20th-largest metropolitan area in the nation with 2.90 million
people. However, if ranked using Combined Statistical Area, it is
19th-largest with 2.92 million people in 2015. Some of the major
cities making up the
St. Louis Metro area in
Missouri are St. Charles,
St. Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Creve Coeur, Wildwood, Maryland
Heights, O'Fallon, Clayton, Ballwin, and University City.
Kansas City is Missouri's largest city and the principal city of the
Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area, including
six counties in the state of Kansas. As of 2012, it was the
26th-largest metropolitan area in the nation, with 2.38 million
people. In the
Combined Statistical Area
Combined Statistical Area in 2015, it ranked 24th with
2.43 million. Some of the other major cities comprising the Kansas
City metro area in
Missouri include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue
Springs, Raytown, Liberty, and Gladstone.
Branson is a major tourist attraction in the
Ozarks of southwestern
Main article: Education in Missouri
Missouri State Board of Education
Missouri State Board of Education has general authority over all
public education in the state of Missouri. It is made up of eight
citizens appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Missouri
Primary and secondary schools
List of school districts in Missouri
List of school districts in Missouri and List of high
schools in Missouri
Education is compulsory from ages seven to seventeen, and it is
required that any parent, guardian or other person with custody of a
child between the ages of seven and seventeen the compulsory
attendance age for the district, must ensure that the child is
enrolled in and regularly attends public, private, parochial school,
home school or a combination of schools for the full term of the
school year. Compulsory attendance also ends when children complete
sixteen credits in high school.
Missouri between the ages of five and seven are not
required to be enrolled in school. However, if they are enrolled in a
public school their parent, guardian or custodian must ensure that
they regularly attend.
Missouri schools are commonly but not exclusively divided into three
tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle
school or junior high school and high school. The public schools
system includes kindergarten to 12th grade. District territories are
often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and
junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in
another district. High school athletics and competitions are governed
Missouri State High School Activities Association
Missouri State High School Activities Association (MSHSAA).
Homeschooling is legal in
Missouri and is an option to meet the
compulsory education requirement. It is neither monitored nor
regulated by the state's Department of Elementary and Secondary
Another gifted school is the
Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics
and Computing, which is at the Northwest
Missouri State University.
Colleges and universities
See also: List of colleges and universities in Missouri
Jesse Hall on the
University of Missouri
University of Missouri campus
Brookings Hall at Washington University in St. Louis.
University of Missouri
University of Missouri System is Missouri's statewide public
university system. The flagship institution and largest university in
the state is the
University of Missouri
University of Missouri in Columbia. The others in the
system are University of Missouri–
Kansas City, University of
Missouri–St. Louis, and
Missouri University of Science and
Technology in Rolla.
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century the state
established a series of normal schools in each region of the state,
originally named after the geographic districts: Northeast Missouri
State University (now Truman State University) (1867), Central
Missouri State University
Missouri State University (now the University of Central Missouri)
Southeast Missouri State University
Southeast Missouri State University (1873), Southwest Missouri
State University (now
Missouri State University) (1905), Northwest
Missouri State University
Missouri State University (1905),
Missouri Western State University
Missouri Southern State University
Missouri Southern State University (1937). Lincoln
Harris–Stowe State University
Harris–Stowe State University were established in the
mid-nineteenth century and are historically black colleges and
Among private institutions Washington University in
St. Louis and
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University are two top ranked schools in the US.
There are numerous junior colleges, trade schools, church universities
and other private universities in the state.
A.T. Still University
A.T. Still University was
the first osteopathic medical school in the world. Hannibal–LaGrange
University in Hannibal, Missouri, was one of the first colleges west
Mississippi (founded 1858 in LaGrange, Missouri, and moved to
Hannibal in 1928).
The state funds a $2000, renewable merit-based scholarship, Bright
Flight, given to the top three percent of
Missouri high school
graduates who attend a university in-state.
The 19th century border wars between
continued as a sports rivalry between the
University of Missouri
University of Missouri and
University of Kansas. The rivalry was chiefly expressed through
football and basketball games between the two universities, but since
Missouri left the
Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference in 2012, the teams no longer
regularly play one another. It was the oldest college rivalry west of
Mississippi River and the second-oldest in the nation. Each year
when the universities met to play, the game was coined the "Border
War." An exchange occurred following the game where the winner took a
historic Indian War Drum, which had been passed back and forth for
Kansas no longer have an annual game
University of Missouri
University of Missouri moved to the Southeastern Conference,
tension still exists between the two schools.
The historic Gem Theatre, located in
Kansas City's renowned 18th and
Vine Jazz District.
Many well-known musicians were born or have lived in Missouri. These
include guitarist and rock pioneer Chuck Berry, singer and actress
Josephine Baker, "Queen of Rock" Tina Turner, pop singer-songwriter
Sheryl Crow, Michael McDonald of the Doobie Brothers, and rappers
Chingy and Akon, all of whom are either current or former
residents of St. Louis.
Country singers from
Missouri include New Franklin native Sara Evans,
Cantwell native Ferlin Husky, West Plains native Porter Wagoner, Tyler
Farr of Garden City, and Mora native Leroy Van Dyke, along with
bluegrass musician Rhonda Vincent, a native of Greentop. Rapper Eminem
was born in St. Joseph and also lived in Savannah and
Scott Joplin lived in
St. Louis and Sedalia. Jazz
Charlie Parker lived in
Kansas City. Rock and Roll singer
Steve Walsh of the group
Kansas was born in
St. Louis and grew up in
Kansas City Symphony and the
St. Louis Symphony Orchestra are the
state's major orchestras. The latter is the nation's second-oldest
symphony orchestra and achieved prominence in recent years under
conductor Leonard Slatkin. Branson is well known for its music
theaters, most of which bear the name of a star performer or musical
Missouri is the native state of Mark Twain. His novels The Adventures
of Tom Sawyer and
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn are set in his
boyhood hometown of Hannibal. Authors Kate Chopin,
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot and
Tennessee Williams were from St. Louis.
Kansas City-born writer
William Least Heat-Moon
William Least Heat-Moon resides in Rocheport. He is best known for
Blue Highways, a chronicle of his travels to small towns across
America, which was on the
New York Times
New York Times Bestseller list for 42 weeks
Filmmaker, animator, and businessman
Walt Disney spent part of his
childhood in the Linn County town of Marceline before settling in
Kansas City. Disney began his artistic career in
Kansas City, where he
founded the Laugh-O-Gram Studio.
Several film versions of Mark Twain's novels The Adventures of Tom
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn have been made. Meet Me
in St. Louis, a musical involving the 1904
St. Louis World's Fair,
starred Judy Garland. Part of the 1983 road movie National Lampoon's
Vacation was shot on location in Missouri, for the Griswold's trip
Chicago to Los Angeles. The Thanksgiving holiday film Planes,
Trains, and Automobiles was partially shot at Lambert–St. Louis
International Airport. White Palace was filmed in St. Louis. The
award-winning 2010 film
Winter's Bone was shot in the
Missouri. Up in the Air starring George Clooney was filmed in St.
Louis. John Carpernter's
Escape from New York
Escape from New York was filmed in Saint
Louis in the early eighties, due to the high number of abandoned
buildings in the city. Part of the 1973 movie, Paper Moon, which
starred Ryan and Tatum O'Neal, was filmed in St. Joseph. Most of HBO's
film Truman was filmed in
Kansas City, Independence, and the
surrounding area. Gary Sinise won an Emmy for his portrayal of Harry
Truman in the 1995 film. "Ride With the Devil", starring Jewel and
Tobey Maguire, was also filmed in the countryside of Jackson County
(also where the historic events of the film took place). Gone Girl, a
2014 film starring Ben Affleck, Rosamund Pike, Neil Patrick Harris,
and Tyler Perry, was filmed in Cape Girardeau.
Main article: Sport in Missouri
Missouri hosted the
1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics at St. Louis, the first time
the games were hosted in the United States.
St. Louis Cardinals playing at Busch Stadium.
Missouri has four major sports teams: the Royals and Cardinals of MLB,
the Chiefs of the NFL, and the Blues of the NHL.
Professional major league teams
St. Louis Cardinals and
Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Chiefs
St. Louis Blues
Former professional major league teams
National Football League:
St. Louis Cardinals (moved from
Chicago in 1960; moved to Tempe,
Arizona in 1988 and are now the
St. Louis All Stars (active in 1923 only)
Kansas City Blues/Cowboys (active 1924–1926, folded)
St. Louis Gunners (independent team, joined the NFL for the last three
weeks of the 1934 season and folded thereafter)
St. Louis Rams 1995–2015 moved from Los Angeles and then back to Los
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball (American League):
St. Louis Browns (moved from
Milwaukee in 1902; moved to Baltimore,
Maryland after the 1953 season and are now the
Kansas City Athletics (moved from
Philadelphia in 1955; moved to
California after the 1967 season and are now the Oakland
National Basketball Association:
St. Louis Bombers (charter BAA franchise in 1946, joined the NBA when
it formed in 1949; ceased operations in 1950)
St. Louis Hawks (moved from
Milwaukee in 1955; moved to
1968 and are now the
Kansas City Kings (moved from
Cincinnati in 1972; moved to Sacramento
in 1985 and are now the Sacramento Kings; prior to locating in Kansas
City, they were known as the
National Hockey League:
Kansas City Scouts (1974 expansion team, moved to Denver,
1976 and became the
Colorado Rockies, and would move again to Newark,
New Jersey; now called the
New Jersey Devils)
St. Louis Eagles (1934 relocation of the original Ottawa Senators,
folded after the 1934–35 season)
Major League Soccer:
Kansas City Wiz/
Kansas City Wizards (founded in 1995, but moved from
Kansas City, Missouri, to
Kansas City, Kansas, in 2010 and became
Index of Missouri-related articles
Outline of Missouri
Outline of Missouri – organized list of topics about Missouri
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22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
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^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
Retrieved July 10, 2007.
^ "Census Regions of the United States" (PDF). www.census.gov. U.S.
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Pony Express National Historic Trail".
^ McCafferty, Michael. 2004. "Correction: Etymology of Missouri"
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Missouri Digital Heritage,
Missouri State Guide, from the Library of Congress
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Energy & Environmental Data for Missouri, US: DoE
Missouri State Facts, USDA
"American Library Association Government Documents Roundtable", List
of searchable databases produced by
Missouri state agencies
Missouri at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Missouri History, Geology, Culture, UM system
Historic Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Missouri, UM system, archived
from the original on April 10, 2011
1930 Platbooks of
Missouri Counties, UM system
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on August 10, 1821 (24th)
Topics related to Missouri
Show Me State
State of Missouri
Jefferson City (capital)
Seal of Missouri
Dissected Till Plains
Four State Area
Henry Shaw Ozark Corridor
St. Francois Mountains
St. Louis (City)
St. Louis (County)
Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Missouri
State capital: Carrie Tergin (Jefferson City)
Protected areas of Missouri
Gateway Arch National Park
George Washington Carver
National Historic Sites:
Harry S. Truman
Ulysses S. Grant
National Wildlife Refuges:
Other Protected Areas:
Ozark National Scenic Riverways
Sam A. Baker
Big Oak Tree
Big Sugar Creek
Ha Ha Tonka
Harry S Truman
Lake of the Ozarks
Lewis and Clark
Pomme de Terre
Rock Island Trail
Rock Bridge Memorial
Roger Pryor Pioneer Backcountry
Taum Sauk Mountain
Trail of Tears
Watkins Woolen Mill
State Historic Sites:
Battle of Athens
Battle of Carthage
Battle of Island Mound
Battle of Lexington
Thomas Hart Benton Home and Studio
Nathan Boone Homestead
Gov. Daniel Dunklin's Grave
Felix Vallé House
Missouri State Capitol
Gen. John J. Pershing Boyhood Home
Harry S Truman
Harry S Truman Birthplace
Locust Creek Covered Bridge
Mark Twain Birthplace
Missouri State Capitol
Missouri State Museum
Sandy Creek Covered Bridge
Scott Joplin House
Union Covered Bridge
Watkins Woolen Mill
Missouri conservation areas
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Missouri Department of Natural Resources
Midwestern United States
Government and Politics
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Domaine du roy
Louisiana (1682–1762, 1802–1803)
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List of towns
Fort de Buade
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Fortress of Louisbourg
St. Louis (Illinois)
St. Louis (Texas)
List of Forts
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Company of 100 Associates
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Ruy López de Villalobos
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priests, & bishops
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Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
New Spain Portal
Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)
States in exile
1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863.
2 Organized January 18, 1862.
Political divisions of the United States
Northern Mariana Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
List of Indian reservations
Coordinates: 38°30′N 92°30′W / 38.5°N 92.5°W / 38.5;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0382 5489