HOME
The Info List - Missouri


--- Advertisement ---



Missouri
Missouri
is a state in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States.[5] With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City, located on the Missouri River. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the eastern border of the state. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri
Missouri
for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage and Missouria
Missouria
nations. The French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States
United States
acquired the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri
Missouri
Territory. Many from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Tennessee
settled in the Boonslick
Boonslick
area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri
Missouri
Rhineland. Missouri
Missouri
played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and California Trail
California Trail
all began in Missouri.[6] As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War
American Civil War
was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis
and the Kansas City metropolitan area
Kansas City metropolitan area
became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwestern
Midwestern
and Southern United States. The musical styles of ragtime, Kansas
Kansas
City jazz, and St. Louis
St. Louis
Blues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. St. Louis
St. Louis
is also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine
Missouri wine
is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland
Missouri Rhineland
and Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks
Ozarks
and Branson. Well-known Missourians include U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
and Nelly. Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors and O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri
Missouri
has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; however, Missouri's most famous nickname is the "Show Me State", as Missourians are known for being skeptical.

Contents

1 Etymology and pronunciation

1.1 Nicknames

2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate 2.3 Wildlife

3 History

3.1 Nineteenth century 3.2 American Civil War 3.3 Twentieth century 3.4 Twenty-first century

4 Demographics

4.1 Birth data 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Taxation 5.2 Energy

6 Transportation

6.1 Airports 6.2 Rail 6.3 Bus 6.4 Rivers 6.5 Roads

7 Law and government

7.1 Status as a political bellwether 7.2 Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws 7.3 Counties

8 Cities and towns 9 Education

9.1 Missouri
Missouri
State Board of Education 9.2 Primary and secondary schools 9.3 Colleges and universities

10 Culture

10.1 Music 10.2 Literature 10.3 Film 10.4 Sports

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Etymology and pronunciation The state is named for the Missouri
Missouri
River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri
Missouri
Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita (wimihsoorita[7]), meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language
Miami-Illinois language
speakers.[8] This appears to be Folk Etymology. The Illinois
Illinois
spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."[9] This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored & attempted to settle the Mississippi
Mississippi
River usually got their translations during that time fairly accurate, often giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue(s). Assuming Missouri
Missouri
were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself.[10] This isn't entirely likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" (Mah-yah soo-nee) Most likely, though, the name Missouri
Missouri
comes from Chiwere language, a fairly unique Siouan dialect spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, Missouri
Missouri
& Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations even among its present-day natives,[11] the two most common being /mɪˈzɜːri/ ( listen) and /məˈzɜːrə/ ( listen).[12] [13] Further pronunciations also exist in Missouri
Missouri
or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either /mə-/ or /mɪ-/; the medial consonant as either /z/ or /s/; the vowel in the second syllable as either /ɜːr/ or /ʊər/;[14] and the third syllable as [i] ( listen), [ə] ( listen), centralized [ɪ̈] ( listen)), or nothing.[13] Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English. The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be clearly defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.[15] Politicians often employ multiple pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners.[11] Often, informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. Nicknames There is no official state nickname.[16] However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its license plates. This phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced."[17] However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use before the 1890s.[18] Another one states that it is a reference to Missouri
Missouri
miners who were taken to Leadville, Colorado
Leadville, Colorado
to replace striking workers. Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining methods, they required frequent instruction.[16] Other nicknames for Missouri
Missouri
include "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and " Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
of the West".[19] It is also known as the "Cave State" because there are more than 6,000 recorded caves in the state (second to Tennessee). Perry County is the county with the largest number of caves and the single longest cave.[20] The official state motto is Latin: "Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto", which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."[21] Geography Main article: Geography of Missouri

Missouri, showing major cities and roads.

Missouri
Missouri
is landlocked and borders eight different states as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight. Missouri
Missouri
is bounded by Iowa
Iowa
on the north; by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Tennessee
across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
on the east; on the south by Arkansas; and by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska
Nebraska
(the last across the Missouri
Missouri
River) on the west. Whereas the northern and southern boundaries are straight lines, the Missouri Bootheel
Missouri Bootheel
protrudes southerly into Arkansas. The two largest rivers are the Mississippi (which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially connecting the two largest metros of Kansas
Kansas
City and St. Louis. Although today it is usually considered part of the Midwest,[22][23] Missouri
Missouri
was historically seen by many as a border state, chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of St. Louis. The counties that made up "Little Dixie" were those along the Missouri River
Missouri River
in the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves. In 2005, Missouri
Missouri
received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling 101,000 acres (410 km2), giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures.[24] Topography

A physiographic map of Missouri

North of, and in some cases just south of, the Missouri River
Missouri River
lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here, rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the Canadian Shield to the Missouri
Missouri
River. Missouri
Missouri
has many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. Southern Missouri
Missouri
rises to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian
Precambrian
igneous St. Francois Mountains. This region also hosts karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the formation of sinkholes and caves.[25]

The Bell Mountain Wilderness
Bell Mountain Wilderness
of southern Missouri's Mark Twain National Forest

The southeastern part of the state is known as the Missouri
Missouri
Bootheel region, which is part of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest part of the state. It is also among the poorest, as the economy there is mostly agricultural.[26] It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812. Climate Main article: Climate of Missouri

Köppen climate types of Missouri

Missouri
Missouri
generally has a humid continental climate with cold snowy winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate becomes humid subtropical. Located in the interior United States, Missouri
Missouri
often experiences extreme temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Missouri's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded temperature is −40 °F (−40 °C) also at Warsaw on February 13, 1905. Located in Tornado Alley, Missouri
Missouri
also receives extreme weather in the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. The most recent tornado in the state to cause damage and casualties was the 2011 Joplin tornado, which destroyed roughly one-third of the city of Joplin. The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages, killed 159 (+1 non-tornadic), and injured over 1,000 people. It was the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American history and 27th deadliest in the world. St. Louis
St. Louis
and its suburbs also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the most recent memorable one being an EF4 tornado that damaged Lambert- St. Louis
St. Louis
International Airport on April 22, 2011. One of the worst tornadoes in American history struck St. Louis
St. Louis
on May 27, 1896, killing at least 255 and causing $10 mil. damage ($3.9 bil. damage in 2009) or $4.45 billion in today's dollars.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Missouri
Missouri
cities in °F (°C).

City Avg. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Columbia High 37 (3) 44 (7) 55 (13) 66 (19) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 53 (12) 42 (6) 65.0 (18.3)

Columbia Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 43 (6) 53 (12) 62 (17) 66 (19) 64 (18) 55 (13) 44 (7) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 43.0 (6.1)

Kansas
Kansas
City High 36 (2) 43 (6) 54 (12) 65 (18) 75 (24) 84 (29) 89 (32) 87 (31) 79 (26) 68 (20) 52 (11) 40 (4) 64.4 (18.0)

Kansas
Kansas
City Low 18 (−8) 23 (−5) 33 (1) 44 (7) 54 (12) 63 (17) 68 (20) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 33 (1) 22 (−6) 44.0 (6.7)

Springfield High 42 (6) 48 (9) 58 (14) 68 (20) 76 (24) 85 (29) 90 (32) 90 (32) 81 (27) 71 (22) 56 (13) 46 (8) 67.6 (19.8)

Springfield Low 22 (−6) 26 (−3) 35 (2) 44 (7) 53 (12) 62 (17) 67 (19) 66 (19) 57 (14) 46 (8) 35 (2) 26 (−3) 45.0 (7.2)

St. Louis High 40 (4) 45 (7) 56 (13) 67 (19) 76 (24) 85 (29) 89 (32) 88 (31) 80 (27) 69 (21) 56 (13) 43 (6) 66.2 (19.0)

St. Louis Low 24 (−4) 28 (−2) 37 (3) 47 (8) 57 (14) 67 (19) 71 (22) 69 (21) 61 (16) 49 (9) 38 (3) 27 (−3) 48.0 (8.9)

Source:[27]

Wildlife Main article: Wildlife of Missouri

Missouri River
Missouri River
near Rocheport, Missouri

Missouri
Missouri
is home to a diversity of both flora and fauna. There is a large amount of fresh water present due to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, Missouri
Missouri
River, and Lake of the Ozarks, with numerous smaller tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. North of the Missouri
Missouri
River, the state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains, whereas south of the Missouri
Missouri
River, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central U.S. hardwood forest. History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: History of Missouri

External video

Missouri, Westminister College Gymnasium in Fulton, Missouri

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
inhabited Missouri
Missouri
for thousands of years before European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years. Beginning before 1000 CE, there arose the complex Mississippian culture, whose people created regional political centers at present-day St. Louis
St. Louis
and across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at Cahokia, near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Their large cities included thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their surviving massive earthwork mounds, built for religious, political and social reasons, in platform, ridgetop and conical shapes. Cahokia
Cahokia
was the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and most descendants left the area long before the arrival of Europeans. St. Louis
St. Louis
was at one time known as Mound City by the European Americans, because of the numerous surviving prehistoric mounds, since lost to urban development. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
left mounds throughout the middle Mississippi
Mississippi
and Ohio
Ohio
river valleys, extending into the southeast as well as the upper river.

The Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
in St. Louis

The first European settlers were mostly ethnic French Canadians, who created their first settlement in Missouri
Missouri
at present-day Ste. Genevieve, about an hour south of St. Louis. They had migrated about 1750 from the Illinois
Illinois
Country. They came from colonial villages on the east side of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, where soils were becoming exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing population. Sainte-Geneviève became a thriving agricultural center, producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain annually downriver to Lower Louisiana
Louisiana
for trade. Grain production in the Illinois
Illinois
Country was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana and especially the city of New Orleans. St. Louis
St. Louis
was founded soon after by French fur traders, Pierre Laclède and stepson Auguste Chouteau
Auguste Chouteau
from New Orleans in 1764. From 1764 to 1803, European control of the area west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
to the northernmost part of the Missouri River
Missouri River
basin, called Louisiana, was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, due to Treaty of Fontainebleau[28] (in order to have Spain join with France in the war against England). The arrival of the Spanish in St. Louis was in September 1767. St. Louis
St. Louis
became the center of a regional fur trade with Native American tribes that extended up the Missouri
Missouri
and Mississippi
Mississippi
rivers, which dominated the regional economy for decades. Trading partners of major firms shipped their furs from St. Louis
St. Louis
by river down to New Orleans for export to Europe. They provided a variety of goods to traders, for sale and trade with their Native American clients. The fur trade and associated businesses made St. Louis
St. Louis
an early financial center and provided the wealth for some to build fine houses and import luxury items. Its location near the confluence of the Illinois River meant it also handled produce from the agricultural areas. River traffic and trade along the Mississippi
Mississippi
were integral to the state's economy, and as the area's first major city, St. Louis
St. Louis
expanded greatly after the invention of the steamboat and the increased river trade. Nineteenth century See also: History of slavery in Missouri Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana
Louisiana
for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso, after it had been a Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States. Part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
by the United States, Missouri earned the nickname Gateway to the West because it served as a major departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West during the 19th century. St. Charles, just west of St. Louis, was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which ascended the Missouri River
Missouri River
in 1804, in order to explore the western lands to the Pacific Ocean. St. Louis
St. Louis
was a major supply point for decades, for parties of settlers heading west. As many of the early settlers in western Missouri
Missouri
migrated from the Upper South, they brought enslaved African Americans
African Americans
as agricultural laborers, and they desired to continue their culture and the institution of slavery. They settled predominantly in 17 counties along the Missouri
Missouri
River, in an area of flatlands that enabled plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie." In 1821 the former Missouri Territory
Missouri Territory
was admitted as a slave state, in accordance with the Missouri
Missouri
Compromise, and with a temporary state capital in St. Charles. In 1826, the capital was shifted to its current, permanent location of Jefferson City, also on the Missouri
Missouri
River. The state was rocked by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes. Casualties were few due to the sparse population. Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth,[29] the point where the Kansas
Kansas
River enters the Missouri
Missouri
River. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary.[30] In 1836 the Platte Purchase
Platte Purchase
was added to the northwest corner of the state after purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the Missouri
Missouri
River the border north of the Kansas
Kansas
River. This addition increased the land area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about 66,500 square miles (172,000 km2) to Virginia's 65,000 square miles, which then included West Virginia).[31]

Fur Traders Descending the Missouri
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri
by Missouri
Missouri
painter George Caleb Bingham

In the early 1830s, Mormon
Mormon
migrants from northern states and Canada began settling near Independence and areas just north of there. Conflicts over religion and slavery arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North). The Mormon
Mormon
War erupted in 1838. By 1839, with the help of an "Extermination Order" by Governor Lilburn Boggs, the old settlers forcefully expelled the Mormons from Missouri
Missouri
and confiscated their lands. Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states and territories. From 1838 to 1839, a border dispute with Iowa
Iowa
over the so-called Honey Lands
Honey Lands
resulted in both states' calling-up of militias along the border. With increasing migration, from the 1830s to the 1860s Missouri's population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late 1840s and 1850s. As a majority were Catholic, they set up their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly Protestant. Having fled famine and oppression in Ireland, and revolutionary upheaval in Germany, the immigrants were not sympathetic to slavery. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and then state network of Catholic
Catholic
churches and schools. Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along the Missouri River
Missouri River
and the beer industry in St. Louis. Most Missouri
Missouri
farmers practiced subsistence farming before the American Civil War. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than five each. Planters, defined by some historians as those holding twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as "Little Dixie", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River. The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of the state and nation. In 1860, enslaved African Americans
African Americans
made up less than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012.[32] In order to control the flooding of farmland and low-lying villages along the Mississippi, the state had completed construction of 140 miles (230 km) of levees along the river by 1860.[33] American Civil War Main article: Missouri
Missouri
in the American Civil War

Price's Raid
Price's Raid
in the Trans- Mississippi
Mississippi
Theater, 1864

After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri legislature called for the election of a special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union. Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson
Claiborne F. Jackson
ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louis
St. Louis
for training. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyon
Nathaniel Lyon
struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants, to march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis
St. Louis
in the incident that became known as the " St. Louis
St. Louis
Massacre". These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri
Missouri
State Guard. In the face of Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson City
Jefferson City
on June 14, 1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri, Jackson called the state legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However, even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is generally given little credence. The Confederacy nonetheless recognized it on October 30, 1861. With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces. The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal Missouri
Missouri
government. The federal government's decision enabled raising pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as volunteer regiments for the Union Army. Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard
Missouri State Guard
and Confederate troops from Arkansas
Arkansas
and Texas
Texas
under General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri
Lexington, Missouri
and suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to Arkansas
Arkansas
and later Marshall, Texas, in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army. Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare. "Citizen soldiers" or insurgents such as Captain William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson
William T. Anderson
made use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the Missouri
Missouri
Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth.[34] The vigilante activities of the Bald Knobbers
Bald Knobbers
of the Ozarks
Ozarks
in the 1880s were an unofficial continuation of insurgent mentality long after the official end of the war, and they are a favorite theme in Branson's self-image.[35]

Union Station in St. Louis
St. Louis
was the largest and busiest train station in the world when it opened in 1894.

Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri, 1910. Photographed by Lewis Hine
Lewis Hine
as part of the Progressive Era
Progressive Era
fight against child labor.

Twentieth century The Progressive Era
Progressive Era
(1890s to 1920s) saw numerous prominent leaders from Missouri
Missouri
trying to end corruption and modernize politics, government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical Protestants. Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and Democrat in the 1904 election. He promoted what he called "the Missouri
Missouri
Idea", the concept of Missouri
Missouri
as a leader in public morality through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal, and enforced the Sunday-closing law. He helped enact Progressive legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision, regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor, railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and the Missouri
Missouri
library commission.[36] Between the Civil War and the end of World War II, Missouri transitioned from a rural economy to a hybrid industrial-service-agricultural economy as the Midwest rapidly industrialized. The expansion of railroads to the West transformed Kansas
Kansas
City into a major transportation hub within the nation. The growth of the Texas
Texas
cattle industry along with this increased rail infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made Kansas
Kansas
City a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from Texas
Texas
brought herds of cattle to Dodge City
Dodge City
and other Kansas
Kansas
towns. There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for Kansas
Kansas
City, where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The first half of the twentieth century was the height of Kansas
Kansas
City's prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco skyscrapers as construction boomed. In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around Springfield, which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed to the area, and medical personnel stopped the epidemic. During the mid-1950s and 1960s, St. Louis
St. Louis
and Kansas
Kansas
City suffered deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing, as did other Midwestern
Midwestern
industrial cities. In 1956 St. Charles claims to be the site of the first interstate highway project.[37] Such highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave the city for newer housing developed in the suburbs, often former farmland where land was available at lower prices. These major cities have gone through decades of readjustment to develop different economies and adjust to demographic changes. Suburban areas have developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and services, such as major retail malls. Twenty-first century In 2014, Missouri
Missouri
received national attention for the protests and riots that followed the shooting of Michael Brown by a police officer of Ferguson,[38][39][40] which led Governor Jay Nixon
Jay Nixon
to call out the Missouri
Missouri
National Guard.[41][42] A grand jury declined to indict the officer, and the U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of Justice
concluded, after careful investigation, that the police officer legitimately feared for his safety.[43] However, in a separate investigation, the Department of Justice also found that the Ferguson Police Department and the City of Ferguson relied on unconstitutional practices in order to balance the city's budget through racially-motivated excessive fines and punishments,[44] that the Ferguson police "had used excessive and dangerous force and had disproportionately targeted blacks,"[45] and that the municipal court "emphasized revenue over public safety, leading to routine breaches of citizens' constitutional guarantees of due process and equal protection under the law."[46] A series of student protests at the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
against what the protesters viewed as poor response by the administration to racist incidents on campus began in September 2015.[47][48] On June 7, 2017, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People issued a warning to prospective African-American travelers to Missouri. This is the first NAACP warning ever covering an entire state.[49][50] Demographics

Missouri
Missouri
population density map.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1810 19,783

1820 66,586

236.6%

1830 140,455

110.9%

1840 383,702

173.2%

1850 682,044

77.8%

1860 1,182,012

73.3%

1870 1,721,295

45.6%

1880 2,168,380

26.0%

1890 2,679,185

23.6%

1900 3,106,665

16.0%

1910 3,293,335

6.0%

1920 3,404,055

3.4%

1930 3,629,367

6.6%

1940 3,784,664

4.3%

1950 3,954,653

4.5%

1960 4,319,813

9.2%

1970 4,676,501

8.3%

1980 4,916,686

5.1%

1990 5,117,073

4.1%

2000 5,595,211

9.3%

2010 5,988,927

7.0%

Est. 2017 6,113,532

2.1%

Source: 1910–2010[51] 2015 estimate[52]

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Missouri
Missouri
was 6,083,672 on July 1, 2015, a 1.58% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[52] Missouri
Missouri
had a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census; an increase of 392,369 (7.0 percent) since the year 2000. From 2000 to 2007, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas– St. Louis
St. Louis
and Kansas
Kansas
City. The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state. In 2011, the racial composition of the state was:

84.0% White American
White American
(81.0% non-Hispanic white, 3.0% White Hispanic) 11.7% Black or African American 0.5% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 1.7% Asian American 0.1% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander 1.9% Multiracial American 0.1% Some other race

In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[53]

Missouri
Missouri
racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1990[54] 2000[55] 2010[56]

White 87.7% 84.9% 82.8%

Black 10.7% 11.3% 11.6%

Asian 0.8% 1.1% 1.6%

Native 0.4% 0.4% 0.5%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.4% 0.8% 1.3%

Two or more races – 1.5% 2.1%

The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United States is in Texas
Texas
County, while the 2000 Census found the mean population center to be in Phelps County. The center of population of Missouri
Missouri
is in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia.[57] In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population). The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri
Missouri
are: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent) and French (3.7 percent). German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americans
African Americans
are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis (56.6% of African Americans
African Americans
in the state lived in St. Louis
St. Louis
or St. Louis
St. Louis
County as of the 2010 census), Kansas
Kansas
City, Boone County and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the Missouri
Missouri
River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi
Mississippi
River Valley south of St. Louis
St. Louis
(see Missouri
Missouri
French). Kansas
Kansas
City is home to large and growing immigrant communities from Latin
Latin
America esp. Mexico
Mexico
and Colombia, Africa (i.e. Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria), and Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines; and Europe like the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(see Bosnian American). A notable Cherokee Indian population exists in Missouri. In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouri
Missouri
residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home. In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people per household. The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. The median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita. There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) of Missourians living below the poverty line in 2010. The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes. Birth data In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[58] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[59] 2014[60] 2015[61]

White 61,097 (81.1%) 60,968 (80.9%) 60,913 (81.1%)

> Non-Hispanic White 57,361 (76.2%) 57,150 (75.8%) 57,092 (76.1%)

Black 11,722 (15.6%) 11,783 (15.6%) 11,660 (15.5%)

Asian 2,075 (2.8%) 2,186 (2.9%) 2,129 (2.8%)

Native 402 (0.5%) 423 (0.6%) 359 (0.5%)

Hispanic (of any race) 3,931 (5.2%) 3,959 (5.3%) 4,042 (5.4%)

Total Missouri 75,296 (100%) 75,360 (100%) 75,061 (100%)

Language The vast majority of people in Missouri
Missouri
speak English. Approximately 5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English at home. The Spanish language is spoken in small Latino communities in the St. Louis
St. Louis
and Kansas
Kansas
City Metro areas.[62] Missouri
Missouri
is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known as Missouri
Missouri
French. Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves Créoles, are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the Illinois
Illinois
Country beginning in the late 17th century. It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and Louisiana, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian French and Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French. Once widely spoken throughout the area, Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly speakers able to use it.[63][64] Religion

Religion in Missouri
Missouri
(2014)[65]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

58%

None

20%

Catholic

16%

Mormon

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other faith

4%

According to a Pew Research study[66] conducted in 2014, 80% of Missourians identify with a religion. 77% affiliate with Christianity and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of non-Christian religions. The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2% specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics (the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular"). Broken down, the religious demographics of Missouri
Missouri
are as follows:

Christian – 77%

Protestant
Protestant
- 58%

Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
– 36% Mainline Protestant
Protestant
– 16% Historically Black Protestant
Protestant
– 6%

Catholic
Catholic
– 16% Mormon
Mormon
– 1% Orthodox Christian – <1% Jehovah's Witness – <1% Other Christian – <1%

Non-Christian Religions – 3%

Jewish – <1% Muslim – <1% Buddhist
Buddhist
– 1% Hindu – <1% Other World Religions – <1%

Unaffiliated (No religion) – 20%

Atheist – 2% Agnostic – 3% Nothing in particular – 15%

Don't know – <1%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
with 749,685; the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church with 724,315; and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 226,409.[67] Among the other denominations there are approximately 93,000 Mormons in 253 congregations, 25,000 Jewish adherents in 21 synagogues, 12,000 Muslims in 39 masjids, 7,000 Buddhists in 34 temples, 7,000 Hindus in 17 temples, 2,500 Unitarians in 9 congregations, 2,000 Baha'i
Baha'i
in 17 temples, 5 Sikh
Sikh
temples, a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
temple, a Jain
Jain
temple and an uncounted number of neopagans.[68] Several religious organizations have headquarters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, as well as the United Pentecostal Church International in Hazelwood, both outside St. Louis. Independence, near Kansas
Kansas
City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), the Church of Christ (Temple Lot)
Church of Christ (Temple Lot)
and the group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This area and other parts of Missouri
Missouri
are also of significant religious and historical importance to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
(LDS Church), which maintains several sites and visitors centers. Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God USA
Assemblies of God USA
and the Baptist Bible Fellowship International. The General Association of General Baptists has its headquarters in Poplar Bluff. The Unity Church is headquartered in Unity Village. Economy See also: Missouri
Missouri
locations by per capita income

Commemorative US quarter featuring the Lewis and Clark expedition

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that Missouri's total state product in 2006 was $225.9 billion. per capita personal income in 2006 was $32,705,[24] ranking 26th in the nation. Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing, financial services and beer. The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, sorghum, cotton, rice, and eggs. Missouri
Missouri
is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle. Missouri
Missouri
is ranked in the top five states in the nation for production of soy beans, and it is ranked fourth in the nation for the production of rice. In 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second-largest number in any state after Texas. Missouri
Missouri
actively promotes its rapidly growing wine industry. According to the Missouri Partnership, Missouri's agriculture industry contributes $33 billion in GDP to Missouri's economy, and generates $88 billion in sales and more than 378,000 jobs.[69] Missouri
Missouri
has vast quantities of limestone. Other resources mined are lead, coal, and crushed stone. Missouri
Missouri
produces the most lead of all of the states. Most of the lead mines are in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri
Missouri
also ranks first or near first in the production of lime, a key ingredient in Portland cement. Missouri
Missouri
also has a growing science, agricultural technology and biotechnology field. Monsanto, one of the largest biotech companies in America, is based in St. Louis. Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance. Missouri
Missouri
is the only state in the Union to have two Federal Reserve Banks: one in Kansas
Kansas
City (serving western Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Colorado, northern New Mexico, and Wyoming) and one in St. Louis (serving eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and all of Arkansas).[70]

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas
Kansas
City services the western portion of Missouri, as well as all of Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in April 2017 was 3.9 percent.[71] And in 2017, Missouri
Missouri
became a right-to-work state.[72] Taxation Personal income is taxed in ten different earning brackets, ranging from 1.5% to 6.0%. Missouri's sales tax rate for most items is 4.225% with some additional local levies. More than 2,500 Missouri
Missouri
local governments rely on property taxes levied on real property (real estate) and personal property. Most personal property is exempt, except for motorized vehicles. Exempt real estate includes property owned by governments and property used as nonprofit cemeteries, exclusively for religious worship, for schools and colleges and for purely charitable purposes. There is no inheritance tax and limited Missouri
Missouri
estate tax related to federal estate tax collection. In 2017, the Tax Foundation rated Missouri
Missouri
as having the 5th-best corporate tax index,[73] and the 15th-best overall tax climate.[73] Missouri's corporate income tax rate is 6.25%; however, 50% of federal income tax payments may be deducted before computing taxable income, leading to an effective rate of 5.2%.[74] Energy In 2012, Missouri
Missouri
had roughly 22,000 MW of installed electricity generation capacity.[75] In 2011, 82% of Missouri's electricity was generated by coal.[76] Ten percent was generated from the state's only nuclear power plant,[76] the Callaway Plant in Callaway County, northeast of Jefferson City. Five percent was generated by natural gas.[76] One percent was generated by hydroelectric sources,[76] such as the dams for Truman Lake and Lake of the Ozarks. Missouri
Missouri
has a small but growing amount of wind and solar power—wind capacity increased from 309 MW in 2009 to 459 MW in 2011, while photovoltaics have increased from 0.2 MW to 1.3 MW over the same period.[77][78] As of 2016, Missouri's solar installations had reached 141 MW.[79] Oil wells in Missouri
Missouri
produced 120,000 barrels of crude oil in fiscal 2012.[80] There are no oil refineries in Missouri.[78][81] Transportation Airports Missouri
Missouri
has two major airport hubs: Lambert– St. Louis
St. Louis
International Airport and Kansas
Kansas
City International Airport. Southern Missouri
Missouri
has the Springfield–Branson National Airport
Springfield–Branson National Airport
(SGF) with multiple non-stop destinations.[82] Residents of Mid-Missouri
Mid-Missouri
use Columbia Regional Airport (COU) to fly to Chicago
Chicago
(ORD), Dallas (DFW) or Denver (DEN).[83] Rail

Amtrak
Amtrak
station in Kirkwood.

Two of the nation's three busiest rail centers are in Missouri. Kansas City is a major railroad hub for BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas
Kansas
City Southern Railway, and Union Pacific Railroad, and every class 1 railroad serves Missouri. Kansas
Kansas
City is the second largest freight rail center in the US (but is first in the amount of tonnage handled). Like Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis
St. Louis
is a major destination for train freight. Springfield remains an operational hub for BNSF Railway.

Kansas
Kansas
City Streetcar crossing Main Street near Union Station

Amtrak
Amtrak
passenger trains serve Kansas
Kansas
City, La Plata, Jefferson City, St. Louis, Lee's Summit, Independence, Warrensburg, Hermann, Washington, Kirkwood, Sedalia, and Poplar Bluff. A proposed high-speed rail route in Missouri
Missouri
as part of the Chicago Hub Network
Chicago Hub Network
has received $31 million in funding.[84] The only urban light rail/subway system operating in Missouri
Missouri
is MetroLink, which connects the city of St. Louis
St. Louis
with suburbs in Illinois
Illinois
and St. Louis
St. Louis
County. It is one of the largest systems (by track mileage) in the United States. The KC Streetcar
KC Streetcar
in downtown Kansas
Kansas
City opened in May 2016.[85] The Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center
in St. Louis
St. Louis
is the largest active multi-use transportation center in the state. It is in downtown St. Louis, next to the historic Union Station complex. It serves as a hub center/station for MetroLink, the MetroBus regional bus system, Greyhound, Amtrak, and taxi services. Bus

Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at Hannibal.

Many cities have regular fixed-route systems, and many rural counties have rural public transit services. Greyhound
Greyhound
and Trailways
Trailways
provide inter-city bus service in Missouri. Megabus serves St. Louis, but discontinued service to Columbia and Kansas
Kansas
City in 2015.[86] Rivers The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and Missouri River
Missouri River
are commercially navigable over their entire lengths in Missouri. The Missouri
Missouri
was channelized through dredging and jettys and the Mississippi
Mississippi
was given a series of locks and dams to avoid rocks and deepen the river. St. Louis
St. Louis
is a major destination for barge traffic on the Mississippi. Roads Main articles: Missouri
Missouri
State Highway System, List of Interstate Highways in Missouri, List of U.S. Routes in Missouri, List of state highways in Missouri, and Missouri
Missouri
supplemental route

Interstate 70
Interstate 70
in Central Missouri.

The Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge
Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge
connecting Cape Girardeau
Cape Girardeau
to East Cape Girardeau, Illinois.

Following the passage of Amendment 3 in late 2004, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smoother, Safer, Sooner road-building program with a goal of bringing 2,200 miles (3,500 km) of highways up to good condition by December 2007. From 2006–2010 traffic deaths have decreased annually from 1,257 in 2005, to 1,096 in 2006, to 992 for 2007, to 960 for 2008, to 878 in 2009, to 821 in 2010.[87] Law and government

Missouri
Missouri
Government

Governor of Missouri Eric Greitens
Eric Greitens
(R)

Lieutenant Governor of Missouri: Mike Parson
Mike Parson
(R)

Missouri
Missouri
Secretary of State: Jay Ashcroft (R)

Missouri
Missouri
State Auditor: Nicole Galloway
Nicole Galloway
(D)

Missouri
Missouri
State Treasurer: Eric Schmitt
Eric Schmitt
(R)

Missouri
Missouri
Attorney General: Josh Hawley (R)

Senior United States
United States
Senator: Claire McCaskill
Claire McCaskill
(D)

Junior United States
United States
Senator: Roy Blunt
Roy Blunt
(R)

Missouri
Missouri
Governor, Eric Greitens

The Missouri State Capitol
Missouri State Capitol
in Jefferson City

Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States
President of the United States
and the only one from Missouri

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Main articles: Law and government of Missouri
Law and government of Missouri
and List of Governors of Missouri The current Constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945. It provides for three branches of government: the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. The legislative branch consists of two bodies: the House of Representatives and the Senate. These bodies comprise the Missouri General Assembly. The House of Representatives has 163 members who are apportioned based on the last decennial census. The Senate consists of 34 members from districts of approximately equal populations. The judicial department comprises the Supreme Court of Missouri, which has seven judges, the Missouri Court of Appeals
Missouri Court of Appeals
(an intermediate appellate court divided into three districts), sitting in Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis, and Springfield, and 45 Circuit Courts which function as local trial courts. The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Missouri
Governor of Missouri
and includes five other statewide elected offices. Following the death of Tom Schweich in 2015, only one of Missouri's statewide elected offices are held by Democrats. Harry S Truman
Harry S Truman
(1884–1972), the 33rd President of the United States (Democrat, 1945–1953), was born in Lamar. He was a judge in Jackson County and then represented the state in the United States Senate
United States Senate
for ten years, before being elected Vice-President in 1944. He lived in Independence after retiring. Status as a political bellwether Main article: Missouri
Missouri
bellwether Further information: Political party strength in Missouri Missouri
Missouri
is widely regarded as a bellwether in American politics, often making it a swing state. The state had a longer stretch of supporting the winning presidential candidate than any other state, having voted with the nation in every election from 1904 to 2004 with a single exception: 1956, when Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson of neighboring Illinois
Illinois
lost the election despite carrying Missouri. The state's status as a bellwether has been questioned in recent years, as Missouri
Missouri
twice voted against Democrat Barack Obama, who nonetheless widely prevailed in the 2008 and 2012 elections. Missouri's nearly 10% margin in favor of the losing Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
in 2012 suggests the state is starting to trend more Republican in presidential contests. On October 24, 2012, there were 4,190,936 registered voters.[88] At the state level, both Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill
Claire McCaskill
and Democratic Governor Jay Nixon
Jay Nixon
were re-elected. On November 8, 2016, there were 4,223,787 registered voters, with 2,811,549 voting (66.6%).[89]

Presidential elections results (1900–2016)

Year Republican Democratic Third parties

2016 56.8% 1,594,511 38.1% 1,071,068

2012 53.88% 1,478,959 44.26% 1,215,030 1.86% 50,943

2008 49.39% 1,445,814 49.25% 1,441,911 1.36% 39,889

2004 53.30% 1,455,713 46.10% 1,259,171 0.60% 16,480

2000 50.42% 1,189,924 47.08% 1,111,138 2.50% 58,830

1996 41.24% 890,016 47.54% 1,025,935 11.22% 242,114

1992 33.92% 811,159 44.07% 1,053,873 22.00% 526,238

1988 51.83% 1,084,953 47.85% 1,001,619 0.32% 6,656

1984 60.02% 1,274,188 39.98% 848,583 0.00% None

1980 51.16% 1,074,181 44.35% 931,182 4.49% 94,461

1976 47.47% 927,443 51.10% 998,387 1.42% 27,770

1972 62.29% 1,154,058 37.71% 698,531 0.00% None

1968 44.87% 811,932 43.74% 791,444 11.39% 206,126

1964 35.95% 653,535 64.05% 1,164,344 0.00% None

1960 49.74% 962,221 50.26% 972,201 0.00% None

1956 49.89% 914,289 50.11% 918,273 0.00% None

1952 50.71% 959,429 49.14% 929,830 0.15% 2,803

1948 41.49% 655,039 58.11% 917,315 0.39% 6,274

1944 48.43% 761,524 51.37% 807,804 0.20% 3,146

1940 47.50% 871,009 52.27% 958,476 0.23% 4,244

1936 38.16% 697,891 60.76% 1,111,043 1.08% 19,701

1932 35.08% 564,713 63.69% 1,025,406 1.22% 19,775

1928 55.58% 834,080 44.15% 662,562 0.27% 4,079

1924 49.58% 648,486 43.79% 572,753 6.63% 86,719

1920 54.56% 727,162 43.13% 574,799 2.32% 30,839

1916 46.94% 369,339 50.59% 398,032 2.46% 19,398

1912 29.75% 207,821 47.35% 330,746 22.89% 159,999

1908 48.50% 347,203 48.41% 346,574 3.08% 22,150

1904 49.93% 321,449 46.02% 296,312 4.05% 26,100

1900 45.94% 314,092 51.48% 351,922 2.58% 17,642

Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws Main articles: Alcohol laws of Missouri
Alcohol laws of Missouri
and List of smoking bans in the United States
United States
§ Missouri Missouri
Missouri
has been known for its population's generally "stalwart, conservative, noncredulous" attitude toward regulatory regimes, which is one of the origins of the state's unofficial nickname, the "Show-Me State".[90] As a result, and combined with the fact that Missouri
Missouri
is one of America's leading alcohol states, regulation of alcohol and tobacco in Missouri
Missouri
is among the most laissez-faire in America. For 2013, the annual "Freedom in the 50 States" study prepared by the Mercatus Center
Mercatus Center
at George Mason University
George Mason University
ranked Missouri
Missouri
as #3 in America for alcohol freedom and #1 for tobacco freedom (#7 for freedom overall).[91] The study notes that Missouri's "alcohol regime is one of the least restrictive in the United States, with no blue laws and taxes well below average", and that " Missouri
Missouri
ranks best in the nation on tobacco freedom".[91] Missouri
Missouri
law makes it "an improper employment practice" for an employer to refuse to hire, to fire, or otherwise to disadvantage any person because that person lawfully uses alcohol and/or tobacco products when he or she is not at work.[92] With a large German immigrant population and the development of a brewing industry, Missouri
Missouri
always has had among the most permissive alcohol laws in the United States. It never enacted statewide prohibition. Missouri
Missouri
voters rejected prohibition in three separate referenda in 1910, 1912, and 1918. Alcohol regulation did not begin in Missouri
Missouri
until 1934. Today, alcohol laws are controlled by the state government, and local jurisdictions are prohibited from going beyond those state laws. Missouri
Missouri
has no statewide open container law or prohibition on drinking in public, no alcohol-related blue laws, no local option, no precise locations for selling liquor by the package (allowing even drug stores and gas stations to sell any kind of liquor), and no differentiation of laws based on alcohol percentage. State law protects persons from arrest or criminal penalty for public intoxication.[93] Missouri
Missouri
law expressly prohibits any jurisdiction from going dry.[94] Missouri
Missouri
law also expressly allows parents and guardians to serve alcohol to their children.[95] The Power & Light District in Kansas
Kansas
City is one of the few places in the United States
United States
where a state law explicitly allows persons over the age of 21 to possess and consume open containers of alcohol in the street (as long as the beverage is in a plastic cup).[96] As for tobacco (as of July 2016), Missouri
Missouri
has the lowest cigarette excise taxes in the United States, at 17 cents per pack,[97] and the state electorate voted in 2002, 2006, 2012, and twice in 2016 to keep it that way.[98][99] In 2007, Forbes
Forbes
named Missouri's largest metropolitan area, St. Louis, America's "best city for smokers".[100][101] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008 Missouri
Missouri
had the fourth highest percentage of adult smokers among U.S states, at 24.5%.[102] Although Missouri's minimum age for purchase and distribution of tobacco products is 18, tobacco products can be distributed to persons under 18 by family members on private property.[103] No statewide smoking ban ever has been seriously entertained before the Missouri
Missouri
General Assembly, and in October 2008, a statewide survey by the Missouri
Missouri
Department of Health and Senior Services found that only 27.5% of Missourians support a statewide ban on smoking in all bars and restaurants.[104] Missouri
Missouri
state law permits restaurants seating less than 50 people, bars, bowling alleys, and billiard parlors to decide their own smoking policies, without limitation.[105] Counties

The highly photographed Jasper County Courthouse in Carthage, Missouri is listed in the National Register of Historic Places

See also: List of counties in Missouri Missouri
Missouri
has 114 counties and one independent city (St. Louis). The largest county by size is Texas
Texas
County (1,179 sq. miles) and Shannon County is second (1,004 sq. miles). Worth County is the smallest (266 sq. miles). The independent city of St. Louis
St. Louis
has only 62 square miles (160 km2) of area. St. Louis
St. Louis
City is the most densely populated area (5,140.1 per sq. mi.) in Missouri. The largest county by population (2012 estimate) is St. Louis
St. Louis
County (1,000,438 residents), with Jackson County second (677,377 residents), St. Charles third (368,666), and St. Louis
St. Louis
fourth (318,172). Worth County is the least populous with 2,171 (2010 census) residents. Cities and towns See also: List of cities in Missouri
List of cities in Missouri
and List of towns and villages in Missouri

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Missouri Source:[106]

Rank Name County Pop.

Kansas
Kansas
City

St. Louis 1 Kansas
Kansas
City Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass 481,420

Springfield

Columbia

2 St. Louis Independent city 311,404

3 Springfield Greene 167,319

4 Columbia Boone 120,612

5 Independence Jackson 117,030

6 Lee's Summit Jackson 96,076

7 O'Fallon St. Charles 86,274

8 St. Joseph Buchanan 76,472

9 St. Charles St. Charles 69,293

10 St. Peters St. Charles 57,289

Jefferson City
Jefferson City
is the capital of Missouri. The five largest cities in Missouri
Missouri
are Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis, Springfield, Columbia, and Independence.[106] St. Louis
St. Louis
is the principal city of the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, composed of 17 counties and the independent city of St. Louis; eight of those counties lie in Illinois. As of 2012 St. Louis was the 20th-largest metropolitan area in the nation with 2.90 million people. However, if ranked using Combined Statistical Area, it is 19th-largest with 2.92 million people in 2015. Some of the major cities making up the St. Louis
St. Louis
Metro area in Missouri
Missouri
are St. Charles, St. Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Creve Coeur, Wildwood, Maryland Heights, O'Fallon, Clayton, Ballwin, and University City. Kansas
Kansas
City is Missouri's largest city and the principal city of the fifteen-county Kansas
Kansas
City Metropolitan Statistical Area, including six counties in the state of Kansas. As of 2012, it was the 26th-largest metropolitan area in the nation, with 2.38 million people. In the Combined Statistical Area
Combined Statistical Area
in 2015, it ranked 24th with 2.43 million. Some of the other major cities comprising the Kansas City metro area in Missouri
Missouri
include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue Springs, Raytown, Liberty, and Gladstone. Branson is a major tourist attraction in the Ozarks
Ozarks
of southwestern Missouri. Education Main article: Education in Missouri Missouri
Missouri
State Board of Education The Missouri State Board of Education has general authority over all public education in the state of Missouri. It is made up of eight citizens appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Missouri Senate. Primary and secondary schools See also: List of school districts in Missouri
List of school districts in Missouri
and List of high schools in Missouri Education is compulsory from ages seven to seventeen, and it is required that any parent, guardian or other person with custody of a child between the ages of seven and seventeen the compulsory attendance age for the district, must ensure that the child is enrolled in and regularly attends public, private, parochial school, home school or a combination of schools for the full term of the school year. Compulsory attendance also ends when children complete sixteen credits in high school. Children in Missouri
Missouri
between the ages of five and seven are not required to be enrolled in school. However, if they are enrolled in a public school their parent, guardian or custodian must ensure that they regularly attend. Missouri
Missouri
schools are commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. The public schools system includes kindergarten to 12th grade. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. High school athletics and competitions are governed by the Missouri State High School Activities Association
Missouri State High School Activities Association
(MSHSAA). Homeschooling
Homeschooling
is legal in Missouri
Missouri
and is an option to meet the compulsory education requirement. It is neither monitored nor regulated by the state's Department of Elementary and Secondary Education[107] Another gifted school is the Missouri
Missouri
Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing, which is at the Northwest Missouri
Missouri
State University. Colleges and universities See also: List of colleges and universities in Missouri

Jesse Hall
Jesse Hall
on the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
campus

Brookings Hall at Washington University in St. Louis.

The University of Missouri
University of Missouri
System is Missouri's statewide public university system. The flagship institution and largest university in the state is the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
in Columbia. The others in the system are University of Missouri– Kansas
Kansas
City, University of Missouri–St. Louis, and Missouri
Missouri
University of Science and Technology in Rolla. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century the state established a series of normal schools in each region of the state, originally named after the geographic districts: Northeast Missouri State University (now Truman State University) (1867), Central Missouri State University
Missouri State University
(now the University of Central Missouri) (1871), Southeast Missouri State University
Southeast Missouri State University
(1873), Southwest Missouri State University (now Missouri
Missouri
State University) (1905), Northwest Missouri State University
Missouri State University
(1905), Missouri
Missouri
Western State University (1915), and Missouri Southern State University
Missouri Southern State University
(1937). Lincoln University and Harris–Stowe State University
Harris–Stowe State University
were established in the mid-nineteenth century and are historically black colleges and universities. Among private institutions Washington University in St. Louis
St. Louis
and Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
are two top ranked schools in the US.[108] There are numerous junior colleges, trade schools, church universities and other private universities in the state. A.T. Still University
A.T. Still University
was the first osteopathic medical school in the world. Hannibal–LaGrange University in Hannibal, Missouri, was one of the first colleges west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
(founded 1858 in LaGrange, Missouri, and moved to Hannibal in 1928[109]). The state funds a $2000, renewable merit-based scholarship, Bright Flight, given to the top three percent of Missouri
Missouri
high school graduates who attend a university in-state. The 19th century border wars between Missouri
Missouri
and Kansas
Kansas
have continued as a sports rivalry between the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
and University of Kansas. The rivalry was chiefly expressed through football and basketball games between the two universities, but since Missouri
Missouri
left the Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference
in 2012, the teams no longer regularly play one another. It was the oldest college rivalry west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the second-oldest in the nation. Each year when the universities met to play, the game was coined the "Border War." An exchange occurred following the game where the winner took a historic Indian War Drum, which had been passed back and forth for decades. Though Missouri
Missouri
and Kansas
Kansas
no longer have an annual game after the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
moved to the Southeastern Conference, tension still exists between the two schools.

Culture Music

The historic Gem Theatre, located in Kansas
Kansas
City's renowned 18th and Vine Jazz District.

Many well-known musicians were born or have lived in Missouri. These include guitarist and rock pioneer Chuck Berry, singer and actress Josephine Baker, "Queen of Rock" Tina Turner, pop singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow, Michael McDonald of the Doobie Brothers, and rappers Nelly, Chingy
Chingy
and Akon, all of whom are either current or former residents of St. Louis. Country singers from Missouri
Missouri
include New Franklin native Sara Evans, Cantwell native Ferlin Husky, West Plains native Porter Wagoner, Tyler Farr of Garden City, and Mora native Leroy Van Dyke, along with bluegrass musician Rhonda Vincent, a native of Greentop. Rapper Eminem was born in St. Joseph and also lived in Savannah and Kansas
Kansas
City. Ragtime
Ragtime
composer Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
lived in St. Louis
St. Louis
and Sedalia. Jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker
lived in Kansas
Kansas
City. Rock and Roll singer Steve Walsh of the group Kansas
Kansas
was born in St. Louis
St. Louis
and grew up in St. Joseph. The Kansas
Kansas
City Symphony and the St. Louis
St. Louis
Symphony Orchestra are the state's major orchestras. The latter is the nation's second-oldest symphony orchestra and achieved prominence in recent years under conductor Leonard Slatkin. Branson is well known for its music theaters, most of which bear the name of a star performer or musical group. Literature Missouri
Missouri
is the native state of Mark Twain. His novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
are set in his boyhood hometown of Hannibal. Authors Kate Chopin, T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
and Tennessee
Tennessee
Williams were from St. Louis. Kansas
Kansas
City-born writer William Least Heat-Moon
William Least Heat-Moon
resides in Rocheport. He is best known for Blue Highways, a chronicle of his travels to small towns across America, which was on the New York Times
New York Times
Bestseller list for 42 weeks in 1982–1983. Film Filmmaker, animator, and businessman Walt Disney
Walt Disney
spent part of his childhood in the Linn County town of Marceline before settling in Kansas
Kansas
City. Disney began his artistic career in Kansas
Kansas
City, where he founded the Laugh-O-Gram Studio. Several film versions of Mark Twain's novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
have been made. Meet Me in St. Louis, a musical involving the 1904 St. Louis
St. Louis
World's Fair, starred Judy Garland. Part of the 1983 road movie National Lampoon's Vacation was shot on location in Missouri, for the Griswold's trip from Chicago
Chicago
to Los Angeles. The Thanksgiving holiday film Planes, Trains, and Automobiles was partially shot at Lambert–St. Louis International Airport. White Palace was filmed in St. Louis. The award-winning 2010 film Winter's Bone
Winter's Bone
was shot in the Ozarks
Ozarks
of Missouri. Up in the Air starring George Clooney was filmed in St. Louis. John Carpernter's Escape from New York
Escape from New York
was filmed in Saint Louis in the early eighties, due to the high number of abandoned buildings in the city. Part of the 1973 movie, Paper Moon, which starred Ryan and Tatum O'Neal, was filmed in St. Joseph. Most of HBO's film Truman was filmed in Kansas
Kansas
City, Independence, and the surrounding area. Gary Sinise won an Emmy for his portrayal of Harry Truman in the 1995 film. "Ride With the Devil", starring Jewel and Tobey Maguire, was also filmed in the countryside of Jackson County (also where the historic events of the film took place). Gone Girl, a 2014 film starring Ben Affleck, Rosamund Pike, Neil Patrick Harris, and Tyler Perry, was filmed in Cape Girardeau. Sports Main article: Sport in Missouri Missouri
Missouri
hosted the 1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics
at St. Louis, the first time the games were hosted in the United States.

The St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals playing at Busch Stadium.

Missouri
Missouri
has four major sports teams: the Royals and Cardinals of MLB, the Chiefs of the NFL, and the Blues of the NHL.

Professional major league teams

MLB: St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals and Kansas
Kansas
City Royals NFL: Kansas
Kansas
City Chiefs NHL: St. Louis
St. Louis
Blues MLS: Sporting Kansas
Kansas
City

Former professional major league teams

National Football League:

St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals (moved from Chicago
Chicago
in 1960; moved to Tempe, Arizona
Arizona
in 1988 and are now the Arizona
Arizona
Cardinals) St. Louis
St. Louis
All Stars (active in 1923 only) Kansas
Kansas
City Blues/Cowboys (active 1924–1926, folded) St. Louis
St. Louis
Gunners (independent team, joined the NFL for the last three weeks of the 1934 season and folded thereafter) St. Louis
St. Louis
Rams 1995–2015 moved from Los Angeles and then back to Los Angeles

Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(American League):

St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns (moved from Milwaukee
Milwaukee
in 1902; moved to Baltimore, Maryland
Maryland
after the 1953 season and are now the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles) Kansas
Kansas
City Athletics (moved from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1955; moved to Oakland, California
California
after the 1967 season and are now the Oakland Athletics)

National Basketball Association:

St. Louis
St. Louis
Bombers (charter BAA franchise in 1946, joined the NBA when it formed in 1949; ceased operations in 1950) St. Louis
St. Louis
Hawks (moved from Milwaukee
Milwaukee
in 1955; moved to Atlanta
Atlanta
in 1968 and are now the Atlanta
Atlanta
Hawks) Kansas
Kansas
City Kings (moved from Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1972; moved to Sacramento in 1985 and are now the Sacramento Kings; prior to locating in Kansas City, they were known as the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Royals)

National Hockey League:

Kansas
Kansas
City Scouts (1974 expansion team, moved to Denver, Colorado
Colorado
in 1976 and became the Colorado
Colorado
Rockies, and would move again to Newark, New Jersey; now called the New Jersey
New Jersey
Devils) St. Louis
St. Louis
Eagles (1934 relocation of the original Ottawa Senators, folded after the 1934–35 season)

Major League Soccer:

Kansas
Kansas
City Wiz/ Kansas
Kansas
City Wizards (founded in 1995, but moved from Kansas
Kansas
City, Missouri, to Kansas
Kansas
City, Kansas, in 2010 and became Sporting Kansas
Kansas
City)

See also

Missouri
Missouri
portal

Index of Missouri-related articles Outline of Missouri
Outline of Missouri
– organized list of topics about Missouri

References

^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2007.  ^ "Census Regions of the United States" (PDF). www.census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 9, 2017.  ^ " Pony Express
Pony Express
National Historic Trail".  ^ McCafferty, Michael. 2004. "Correction: Etymology of Missouri" (restricted access), American Speech, 79.1:32[dead link] ^ "Missouri" Archived March 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., American Heritage Dictionary ^ Nichols, John & Nyholm, Earl "Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe" 1994. ^ Buechel, Eugene & Manhart S.J., Paul "Lakota Dictionary: Lakota-English / English-Lakota, New Comprehensive Edition" 2002. ^ a b Wheaton, Sarah (October 13, 2012). "Missouree? Missouruh? To Be Politic, Say Both". The New York Times. pp. A1. Retrieved October 14, 2012.  ^ Missouri
Missouri
– Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-webster.com (August 31, 2012). Retrieved July 21, 2013. ^ a b Lance, Donald M. (Fall 2003). "The Pronunciation of Missouri: Variation and Change in American English". American Speech. 78 (3): 255–284. doi:10.1215/00031283-78-3-255.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary ^ Lance, Donald M. (September 17, 2003). "The Pronunciation of Missouri : Variation and Change in American English". American Speech. 78 (3): 255–284. doi:10.1215/00031283-78-3-255 – via Project MUSE.  ^ a b "Origin of "Show-Me" Slogan". State Archives Missouri
Missouri
History (FAQ). MO: Secretary of State. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "skepticism" – via The Free Dictionary.  ^ "I'm from Missouri
Missouri
– Show Me", Barry Popik  ^ Introduction to Missouri, Netstate  ^ House, Scott (May 14, 2005). "Fact Sheet on 6000 Caves". The Missouri
Missouri
Speleological Survey. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2008.  ^ The Great Seal of Missouri, MO: Secretary of State  ^ "Midwest Region Economy at a Glance". Bls.gov. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "UNC-CH surveys reveal where the 'real' South lies". Unc.edu. June 2, 1999. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ a b Almanac of the 50 States (Missouri). Information Publications (Woodside, California). 2008. p. 203.  ^ "Missouri's Karst Wonderland – Missouri
Missouri
State Parks and Historic Sites, DNR". Mostateparks.com. June 6, 2008. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "Income Inequality in Missouri". Ded.mo.gov. December 21, 2001. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070705032818/http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-missouri/. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Foley (1989), 26. ^ Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth, Kansas
Kansas
City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2. ^ "''MISSOURI V. IOWA'', 48 U.S. 660 (1849) – US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez". Supreme.justia.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05658-3; pg. 437 ^ Historical Census Browser, 1860 Federal Census, University of Virginia
Virginia
Library Archived December 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved March 21, 2008. ^ "Louisiana: The Levee
Levee
System of the State", New York Times, 10/8/1874; Retrieved 2007-11-15 ^ Steckmesser Kent L (1966). "Robin Hood and the American Outlaw: A Note on History and Folklore". Journal of American Folklore. 79 (312): 348–355. JSTOR 538043.  ^ Mary Hartman and Elmo Ingenthron. Bald Knobbers: Vigilantes on the Ozarks
Ozarks
Frontier (1988) ^ Steven L. Piott, Holy Joe: Joseph Folk
Joseph Folk
and the Missouri
Missouri
Idea (1997) ^ "First interstate project". Fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2014.  ^ Eliott C. McLaughlin, "What we know about Michael Brown's shooting", CNN, August 15, 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/11/us/missouri-ferguson-michael-brown-what-we-know/index.html. ^ David Carr, "View of #Ferguson Thrust Michael Brown Shooting to National Attention", New York Times, August 17, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/18/business/media/view-of-ferguson-thrust-michael-brown-shooting-to-national-attention.html. ^ Jamelle Bouiewhich, "Why the Fires in Ferguson Won’t End Soon", Slate (magazine), August 19, 2014, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2014/08/ferguson_protests_over_michael_brown_won_t_end_soon_the_black_community.html. ^ Davey, Monica; Eligon, John; Blinder, Alan (August 19, 2014). "National Guard Troops Fail to Quell Unrest in Ferguson". New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2014.  ^ Hartmann, Margaret. "National Guard Deployed After Chaotic, Violent Night in Ferguson". NY Magazine. Retrieved August 18, 2014.  ^ U.S. Department of Justice, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REPORT REGARDING THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE SHOOTING DEATH OF MICHAEL BROWN BY FERGUSON, MISSOURI POLICE OFFICER DARREN WILSON, March 4, 2015, https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachments/2015/03/04/doj_report_on_shooting_of_michael_brown_1.pdf. ^ Apuzzo, Matt (March 3, 2015). "Ferguson Police Routinely Violate Rights of Blacks, Justice Dept. Finds". New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2015.  ^ NBC News, "Ferguson Officials Suspended After DOJ Report Have Resigned, City Confirms", March 7, 2015, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/ferguson-officials-suspended-after-doj-report-have-resigned-city-confirms-n318836 ^ NBC News, "Report on Ferguson Exposes Broader Effort to Reform Municipal Courts", March 3, 2015, http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/report-ferguson-exposes-broader-effort-reform-municipal-courts-n316716. ^ Naskidashvili, Nana (October 1, 2015). "Students march through MU Student Center in protest of racial injustice". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved November 11, 2015.  ^ Plaster, Madison (October 1, 2015). "Second 'Racism Lives Here' event calls for administration to act on social injustices". The Maneater. Retrieved November 11, 2015.  ^ http://www.monaacp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/170605-NAACP-MO-Travel-Advisory.pdf, retrieved August 7, 2017. ^ Nancy Coleman, "NAACP issues its first statewide travel advisory, for Missouri", CNN, August 3, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/02/us/naacp-missouri-travel-advisory-trnd/index.html. ^ "Resident Population Data". Resident Population Data. Census. 2010. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2012.  ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 24, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.  ^ Quick facts, US: Census, archived from the original on August 14, 2005  ^ Population Division, Laura K. Yax. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.  ^ Population of Missouri: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[permanent dead link] ^ "2010 Census Data".  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2000. Archived from the original on December 12, 2001. Retrieved December 5, 2008.  ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.  ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf ^ "Latinos in Missouri" (PDF).  ^ Ammon, Ulrich (1989). Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 306–8. ISBN 0-89925-356-3. Retrieved September 3, 2010. ; International Sociological Association. ^ Carrière, J-M (1939). "Creole Dialect of Missouri". American Speech. Duke University Press. 14 (2): 109–19. doi:10.2307/451217. JSTOR 451217.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 22, 2013.  ^ Kellie Moore (February 25, 2013). "Fox apologizes for comments on Wiccans at University of Missouri". Religious News Service. Retrieved December 23, 2013.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
Partnership Economic Development Global Agtech Leader". www.missouripartnership.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ "FRB: Federal Reserve Districts and Banks". Federalreserve.gov. December 13, 2005. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "DED Releases April 2017 Jobs Report". Missouri
Missouri
Department of Economic Development. May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ "Governor Greitens Signs Right To Work into Missouri
Missouri
Law – Missouri
Missouri
Partnership". www.missouripartnership.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ a b "2017 State Business Tax Climate Index - Tax Foundation". Tax Foundation. September 28, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
Partnership Economic Development Location Low Business Costs". www.missouripartnership.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
Electricity Profile 2012". U.S. Energy Information Administration. May 1, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  ^ a b c d National Association for State Energy Officials and the Kentucky
Kentucky
Department for Energy Development and Independence. "Missouri Energy Profile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2013.  ^ U.S. Installed Wind Capacity Archived March 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Sherwood, Larry (July 2010). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2009" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2010.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
Partnership Economic Development Empowered Energy Solutions". www.missouripartnership.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017.  ^ Missouri
Missouri
Department of Natural Resources. "Geologicaly Survey Program – Oil and Gas in Missouri". Retrieved July 14, 2013.  ^ United States
United States
Energy Information Administration. "Petroleum and Other Liquids – Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries". Retrieved July 14, 2013.  ^ "Non-stop Destinations Springfield-Branson National Airport (SGF)". flyspringfield.com. Retrieved January 18, 2016.  ^ "Columbia Regional Airport". www.flycou.com. Retrieved January 18, 2016.  ^ "Fact Sheet: High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program: Chicago – St. Louis
St. Louis
Kansas
Kansas
City". Retrieved January 28, 2010.  ^ " KC Streetcar
KC Streetcar
– About KC Streetcar". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.  ^ "Megabus canceling service in Kansas
Kansas
City, Columbia". kansascity. Retrieved January 18, 2016.  ^ "Number of Persons Killed or Injured in Missouri
Missouri
Crashes by Year". Missouri
Missouri
State Highway Patrol. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Registered Voters in Missouri
Missouri
2012". Missouri
Missouri
Secretary of State. October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.  ^ "Voter Turnout Report: 2016 General Election" (PDF). Missouri Secretary of State. November 8, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2017.  ^ " Missouri Secretary of State – State Archives – Origin of "Show Me" slogan". Sos.mo.gov. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ a b Mercatus Center
Mercatus Center
(March 28, 2013). "Freedom in the 50 States-Missouri". Freedom in the 50 States. George Mason University. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 290.145". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 67.305". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.170". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on August 30, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.310". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.086". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "State Cigarette Excise Tax Rates" (PDF). Retrieved November 9, 2016.  ^ "A burning issue", St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, November 12, 2006 ^ Tim O'Neil, " Missouri
Missouri
keeps tobacco tax as the lowest in the nation", St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch (November 7, 2012) ^ "Best Cities for Smokers". Forbes. November 1, 2007. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
voters reject tobacco tax hikes". KY3-TV. Retrieved November 9, 2016.  ^ "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System – Adults who are current smokers", September 19, 2008". Apps.nccd.cdc.gov. May 15, 2009. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 407.931.3". Moga.mo.gov. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
Department of Health and Senior Services, ''County Level Survey 2007: Secondhand Smoke for Missouri
Missouri
Adults'', October 1, 2008". Dhss.mo.gov. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Mo. Rev. Stat. § 191.769". Moga.mo.gov. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on December 10, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ a b " Missouri
Missouri
(USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places". City Population. July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2017.  ^ Missouri
Missouri
Department Of Elementary And Secondary Education (September 2, 2009). "Home Schooling". Dese.mo.gov. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2010.  ^ "America's Best Colleges 2008: National Universities: Top Schools." USNews.com: . January 18, 2008. Archived July 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Don Colborn, PhD. "HLGU – About HLG". Hlg.edu. Retrieved December 10, 2011. 

External links

Find more aboutMissouriat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Missouri
Missouri
Government  Missouri
Missouri
Digital Heritage, Missouri
Missouri
Government  Missouri
Missouri
State Guide, from the Library of Congress Missouri
Missouri
State Tourism Office  Energy & Environmental Data for Missouri, US: DoE  Missouri
Missouri
State Facts, USDA  "American Library Association Government Documents Roundtable", List of searchable databases produced by Missouri
Missouri
state agencies  Missouri
Missouri
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Missouri
Missouri
History, Geology, Culture, UM system  Historic Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Missouri, UM system, archived from the original on April 10, 2011  1930 Platbooks of Missouri
Missouri
Counties, UM system 

Preceded by Maine List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Admitted on August 10, 1821 (24th) Succeeded by Arkansas

Topics related to Missouri Show Me State

v t e

 State of Missouri

Jefferson City
Jefferson City
(capital)

Topics

Government Delegations Geography Transportation History People Battles Tourist attractions

Seal of Missouri

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Boonslick Bootheel Crowley's Ridge Dissected Till Plains Four State Area Henry Shaw Ozark Corridor Honey Lands Lead Belt Lincoln Hills Little Dixie Loess Hills Mid-Missouri Mississippi
Mississippi
Embayment Missouri
Missouri
Rhineland Northern Plains Osage Plains Ozark Plateau Platte Purchase Pony Express St. Francois Mountains Westplex

Metro areas

Columbia Jefferson City Joplin Kansas
Kansas
City Springfield St. Joseph St. Louis

Largest cities

Kansas
Kansas
City St. Louis Springfield Columbia Independence Lee's Summit O'Fallon St. Joseph St. Charles St. Peters Blue Springs Joplin Florissant Chesterfield Jefferson City Cape Girardeau Wentzville Wildwood University City Liberty Ballwin Raytown Kirkwood Maryland
Maryland
Heights Gladstone Hazelwood Grandview

Counties and independent cities

Adair Andrew Atchison Audrain Barry Barton Bates Benton Bollinger Boone Buchanan Butler Caldwell Callaway Camden Cape Girardeau Carroll Carter Cass Cedar Chariton Christian Clark Clay Clinton Cole Cooper Crawford Dade Dallas Daviess DeKalb Dent Douglas Dunklin Franklin Gasconade Gentry Greene Grundy Harrison Henry Hickory Holt Howard Howell Iron Jackson Jasper Jefferson Johnson Knox Laclede Lafayette Lawrence Lewis Lincoln Linn Livingston Macon Madison Maries Marion McDonald Mercer Miller Mississippi Moniteau Monroe Montgomery Morgan New Madrid Newton Nodaway Oregon Osage Ozark Pemiscot Perry Pettis Phelps Pike Platte Polk Pulaski Putnam Ralls Randolph Ray Reynolds Ripley St. Charles St. Clair St. Francois St. Louis
St. Louis
(City) St. Louis
St. Louis
(County) Ste. Genevieve Saline Schuyler Scotland Scott Shannon Shelby Stoddard Stone Sullivan Taney Texas Vernon Warren Washington Wayne Webster Worth Wright

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Missouri

State capital: Carrie Tergin (Jefferson City)

Sly James ( Kansas
Kansas
City) Lyda Krewson (St. Louis) Bob Stephens (Springfield) Brian Treece (Columbia) Eileen Weir (Independence)

v t e

Protected areas of Missouri

Federal

National Parks:

Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
National Park

National Monuments:

George Washington Carver

National Historic Sites:

Harry S. Truman Ulysses S. Grant

National Battlefields:

Wilson's Creek

National Wildlife Refuges:

Big Muddy Clarence Cannon Great River Middle Mississippi
Mississippi
River Mingo Ozark Cavefish Pilot Knob Squaw Creek Swan Lake Two Rivers

National Forests:

Mark Twain

Wilderness
Wilderness
Areas:

Bell Mountain Devils Backbone Hercules Glades Irish Mingo Paddy Creek Piney Creek Rockpile Mountain

Other Protected Areas:

Ozark National Scenic Riverways

State

State Parks:

Babler Sam A. Baker Bennett Spring Big Lake Big Oak Tree Big Sugar Creek Bryant Creek Castlewood Crowder Cuivre River Current River Don Robinson Echo Bluff Elephant Rocks Eleven Point Finger Lakes Graham Cave Grand Gulf Ha Ha Tonka Harry S Truman Hawn Jay Nixon Johnson's Shut-Ins Jones-Confluence Point Katy Trail Knob Noster Lake of the Ozarks Lake Wappapello Lewis and Clark Long Branch Mark Twain Meramec Montauk Morris Onondaga Cave Ozark Mountain Pershing Pomme de Terre Prairie Roaring River Rock Island Trail Robertsville Rock Bridge Memorial Roger Pryor Pioneer Backcountry Route 66 St. Francois St. Joe Stockton Table Rock Taum Sauk Mountain Thousand Hills Trail of Tears Van Meter Wakonda Wallace Washington Watkins Woolen Mill Weston Bend

State Historic Sites:

Arrow Rock Battle of Athens Battle of Carthage Battle of Island Mound Battle of Lexington Thomas Hart Benton Home and Studio Bollinger Mill Nathan Boone Homestead Boone's Lick Bothwell Lodge Clark's Hill/Norton Confederate Memorial Deutschheim Dillard Mill Gov. Daniel Dunklin's Grave Felix Vallé House First Missouri
Missouri
State Capitol Fort Davidson Gen. John J. Pershing Boyhood Home Harry S Truman
Harry S Truman
Birthplace Hunter-Dawson Iliniwek Village Jefferson Landing Jewell Cemetery Locust Creek Covered Bridge Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Birthplace Mastodon Missouri
Missouri
Mines Missouri
Missouri
State Capitol Missouri
Missouri
State Museum Osage Village Sandy Creek Covered Bridge Sappington Cemetery Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
House Towosahgy Union Covered Bridge Watkins Woolen Mill

Conservation areas:

List of Missouri
Missouri
conservation areas

State Forests:

List of Missouri
Missouri
state forests

Missouri
Missouri
Department of Natural Resources

v t e

Midwestern
Midwestern
United States

Topics

Culture Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Ohio Kentucky Indiana Michigan Illinois Missouri Iowa Wisconsin Minnesota North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas

Major cities

Chicago Detroit Minneapolis St. Paul St. Louis Cleveland Columbus Dayton Cincinnati Louisville Grand Rapids Fort Wayne Indianapolis Milwaukee Green Bay Madison Des Moines Kansas
Kansas
City Wichita Omaha Sioux Falls Rapid City Fargo

State capitals

Columbus Frankfort Indianapolis Lansing Springfield Jefferson City Des Moines Madison St. Paul Bismarck Pierre Lincoln Topeka

v t e

  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Illinois) Fort St. Louis
St. Louis
(Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico
Mexico
City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 38°30′N 92°30′W / 38.5°N 92.5°W / 38.5; -92.5

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146566329 LCCN: n79029210 ISNI: 0000 0004 0382 5489 GND: 4039591-1 BNF:

.