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Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo (源 頼朝, May 9, 1147 – February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura
Kamakura
Shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199.[1] His Buddhist name was Ōgosho Atsushi Dai Zenmon (武皇嘯厚大禅門).

Contents

1 Early life 2 Family 3 Call to arms and the Genpei War
Genpei War
(1180–1185) 4 Legacy 5 Eras of Yoritomo's bakufu 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit]

Seigan-ji (his birthplace)

Yoritomo was the third son of Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitomo, heir of the Minamoto
Minamoto
(Seiwa Genji) clan, and his official wife, Urahime, a daughter of Fujiwara no Suenori, who was a member of the illustrious Fujiwara clan. Yoritomo was born in Atsuta in Owari Province[2][3][4] (present-day Atsuta-ku, Nagoya). At that time Yoritomo's grandfather Minamoto
Minamoto
no Tameyoshi was the head of the Minamoto. His childhood name was Oniwakamaru (鬼武丸). In 1156, factional divisions in the court erupted into open warfare within the capital. The cloistered Emperor Toba
Emperor Toba
and his son Emperor Go-Shirakawa sided with the son of Fujiwara regent Fujiwara no Tadazane, Fujiwara no Tadamichi as well as Taira no Kiyomori
Taira no Kiyomori
(a member of the Taira clan), while Cloistered Emperor Sutoku
Emperor Sutoku
sided with Tadazane's younger son, Fujiwara no Yorinaga. This is known as the Hōgen Rebellion.[5]:210–211, 255 The Seiwa Genji
Seiwa Genji
were split. The head of the clan, Tameyoshi, sided with Sutoku; his son, Yoshitomo, sided with Toba and Go-Shirakawa, as well as Kiyomori. In the end, the supporters of Go-Shirakawa won the civil war, thus ensuring victory for Yoshitomo and Kiyomori. Sutoku was placed under house arrest, and Yorinaga was fatally wounded in battle. Tameyoshi was executed, even after numerous pleas from Yoshitomo. Nonetheless, Go-Shirakawa and Kiyomori were ruthless, and Yoshitomo found himself as the head of the Minamoto
Minamoto
and the clan, while Yoritomo became the heir.[5] Yoritomo and the Minamoto
Minamoto
clan descended from the imperial family on his father's side. Nonetheless, in Kyoto, the Taira clan, now under the leadership of Kiyomori, and the Minamoto
Minamoto
clan, under the leadership of Yoshitomo, began to factionalize again.[5]:239–241, 256–257 Kiyomori was supported by Fujiwara no Michinori (also known as Shinzei), while Yoshitomo was supported by Fujiwara no Nobuyori. This was known as the Heiji Rebellion
Heiji Rebellion
(January–February 1160). The ex-Emperor's and Shinzei's mansions were burned, while Shinzei was captured and decapitated. Nonetheless, the Minamoto
Minamoto
were not well prepared, and the Taira took control of Kyoto. Yoshitomo fled the capital but was later betrayed and executed by a retainer.[5] In the aftermath, harsh terms were imposed on the Minamoto
Minamoto
and their allies. Only Yoshitomo's three young boys remained alive, so that Kiyomori and the Taira clan
Taira clan
were now the undisputed leaders of Japan.[5]:258–260 Yoritomo, the new head of the Minamoto, was exiled. Yoritomo was not executed by Kiyomori because of pleas from Kiyomori's stepmother. Yoritomo's brothers, Minamoto
Minamoto
no Noriyori and Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitsune were also allowed to live.[6] Yoritomo grew up in exile. He married into the Hōjō clan, led by Hōjō Tokimasa, marrying Tokimasa's daughter, Hōjō Masako.[6]:147[5]:371 Meanwhile, he was notified of events in Kyoto thanks to helpful friends. Soon enough, Yoritomo's passive exile was to be over.[7] Family[edit]

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Father: Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitomo Mother: Yura Gozen (d. 1159) Siblings:

Half-siblings:

Ano Zenjo (1153–1203) Gien (1155–1181) Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitsune Minamoto
Minamoto
no Noriyori Minamoto
Minamoto
no Tomonaga Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshihira

Natural siblings:

Bomon-hime (d. 1190) married Ichijō Yoshiyasu Minamoto
Minamoto
no Mareyoshi (1152–1180)

Wife: Hōjō Masako Concubines:

Daishin no Tsubone Kame no Mae

Children:

Sentsurumaru (1167–1169), son of Yoritomo with Yaehime, daughter of Itō Sukechika later was killed by Sukechika. Minamoto no Yoriie
Minamoto no Yoriie
by Masako Minamoto no Sanetomo
Minamoto no Sanetomo
by Masako O-hime (1178–1197) married to Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitaka by Masako Otohime (1186–1199) by Masako Jogyo (1186–1231) by Daishin no Tsubone

Call to arms and the Genpei War
Genpei War
(1180–1185)[edit]

Yoritomo's kaō (stylized signature)

In 1180, Prince Mochihito, a son of Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa, humiliated by the Taira because of the Taira-backed accession of the throne of his nephew, Emperor Antoku
Emperor Antoku
(who was half-Taira) made a national call to arms of the Minamoto
Minamoto
clan all over Japan
Japan
to rebel against the Taira. Yoritomo took part in this, especially after things escalated between the Taira and Minamoto
Minamoto
after the death of Minamoto no Yorimasa and Prince Mochihito
Prince Mochihito
himself.[5]:278–281, 291 Yoritomo set himself up as the rightful heir of the Minamoto
Minamoto
clan, and he set up a capital in Kamakura
Kamakura
to the east. Not all Minamoto
Minamoto
thought of Yoritomo as rightful heir. His uncle Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yukiie and his cousin Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshinaka conspired against him.[5]:296 In September 1180, Yoritomo was defeated at the Battle of Ishibashiyama, his first major battle, when Ōba Kagechika led a rapid night attack.[8] After losing a battle with the Heike clan at Mt. Ishibashiyama in 1180, Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo fled into the Hakone mountains, stayed in Yugawara, then escaped From Manazuru-Iwa to Awa (south of present-day Chiba). Yoritomo spent the next six months raising a new army.[5]:289–291 In 1181, Taira no Kiyomori
Taira no Kiyomori
died, and the Taira clan
Taira clan
was now led by Taira no Munemori.[5]:287 Munemori took a much more aggressive policy against the Minamoto, and attacked Minamoto
Minamoto
bases from Kyoto
Kyoto
in the Genpei War. Nonetheless, Yoritomo was well protected in Kamakura. His brothers Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshitsune and Minamoto
Minamoto
no Noriyori defeated the Taira in several key battles, but they could not stop Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoshinaka, Yoritomo's rival, from entering Kyoto
Kyoto
in 1183 and chasing the Taira south. The Taira took Emperor Antoku
Emperor Antoku
with them.[5]:289–305 In 1184, Antoku was displaced by the Minamoto
Minamoto
with Emperor Go-Toba
Emperor Go-Toba
as the new emperor.[5]:319 From 1181 to 1184, a de facto truce with the Taira dominated court allowed Yoritomo the time to build an administration of his own, centered on his military headquarters in Kamakura. In the end he triumphed over his rival cousins, who sought to steal from him control of the clan, and over the Taira, who suffered a terrible defeat at the Battle of Dan-no-ura
Battle of Dan-no-ura
in 1185. Yoritomo thus established the supremacy of the warrior samurai caste and the first bakufu (shogunate) at Kamakura, beginning the feudal age in Japan
Japan
which lasted until the mid-19th century. Yoritomo practiced shudō with Yoshinao, a member of the Imperial Guard.[9] Legacy[edit]

Presumed portrait of Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo, Kamakura
Kamakura
period, Tokyo National Museum.

In December 1185, Go-Hirakawa granted Yoritomo the authority to collect the commissariat tax (the hyoro-mai or levy contribution of rice) and to appoint stewards (jito) and constables (shugo). Thus the Throne "handed to the leader of the military class effective jurisdiction in matters of land tenure and the income derived from agriculture".[attribution needed] In the summer of 1189, Yoritomo invaded and subjugated Mutsu Province
Mutsu Province
and Dewa Province. In December 1190 Yoritomo took up residence in his Rokuhara mansion at the capital, the former headquarters of the Taira clan. Upon the death of Go-Shirakawa in the spring of 1192, Go-Toba commissioned Yoritomo Sei-i Tai Shōgun
Shōgun
(Generalissimo). Thus a feudal state was now organized in Kamakura
Kamakura
while Kyoto
Kyoto
was relegated to the role of "national ceremony and ritual".[5]:317–318, 327, 329, 331 In the words of George Bailey Sansom, "Yoritomo was a truly great man … his foresight was remarkable, but so was his practical good sense in setting up machinery to match his own expanding power."[5]:334–335 Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, took control after his death at Kamakura, maintaining power over the shogunate until 1333, under the title of shikken (regent to the shōgun). One of his brothers-in-law was Ashikaga Yoshikane.[10] The gorintō (stone pagoda) traditionally believed to be his grave (see article Tomb of Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo) is still maintained today, adjacent to Shirahata Shrine, a short distance from the spot believed to be the site of the so-called Ōkura Bakufu, his shogunate's administrative-governmental offices.

Grave of Yoritomo in Kamakura

Eras of Yoritomo's bakufu[edit] The years in which Yoritomo was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.

Kenkyū
Kenkyū
(1190–1199) Shōji (1199–1201)

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo.

Seiwa Genji Eiji Yoshikawa, historical fiction writer

Notes[edit]

^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). " Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 635, p. 635, at Google Books. ^ "系図纂要(Keizusanyo)" ^ "尾張名所図会(Owarimeishozue)" ^ "尾張志(owarishi)" ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan
Japan
to 1334. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–211, 255–258. ISBN 0804705232.  ^ a b Sato, Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. p. 30. ISBN 9781590207307.  ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 40, 50–51. ISBN 0026205408.  ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai
Samurai
Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 200. ISBN 1854095234.  ^ Homosexuality & Civilization by Louis Crompton. Published by the Belknap Press of Harvard University in 2003. Page 420. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshikane" at p. 56., p. 56, at Google Books

References[edit]

Mass, Jeffrey P. (1999). Yoritomo and the Founding of the First Bakufu: the Origins of Dual Government in Japan. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804735919; OCLC 41712279 Nagahara Keiji 永原慶二. Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo 源頼朝. Tokyo: Iwanami-shoten, 1995. Naramoto Tatsuya 奈良本辰也, et al. Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo 源頼朝. Tokyo: Shisakusha, 1972. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Yamaji Aizan 山路愛山. Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo: jidai daihyō Nihon eiyūden 源頼朝: 時代代表日本英雄伝. Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1987. Yoshikawa, Eiji. (1989) Yoshikawa Eiji
Yoshikawa Eiji
Rekishi Jidai Bunko (Eiji Yoshikawa's Historical Fiction), Vols. 41–42: Minamoto
Minamoto
Yoritomo (源頼朝). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-06-196577-5

External links[edit]

Ōmachi, by the Kamakura
Kamakura
Citizen's Net, accessed on September 30, 2008 Atsuta History Course, (include "Seigan-ji Temple" Birthplace of Minamoto-no Yoritomo)

Military offices

Shogunate established Shōgun: Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoritomo 1192–1199 Succeeded by Minamoto
Minamoto
no Yoriie

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 47650270 LCCN: n81061773 ISNI: 0000 0000 6682 5620 GND: 12269628X SUDOC: 07593

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