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Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China. It is spoken mainly in Fujian, Taiwan, as well as certain parts of Southeast Asia. The Quanzhang variety is often called simply "Minnan Proper" (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語). It is considered the mainstream form of Southern Min. In the wider scope, Southern Min
Southern Min
also includes other Min Chinese varieties that are linguistically related to Minnan proper (Quanzhang). Most variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
have significant differences from the Quanzhang variety, some having limited mutual intelligibility with it, others almost none. Teochew, Longyan, and Zhenan may be said to have limited mutual intelligibility with Minnan Proper, sharing similar phonology and vocabulary to a small extent. On the other hand, variants such as Datian, Zhongshan, and Qiong-Lei have historical linguistic roots with Minnan Proper, but are significantly divergent from it in terms of phonology and vocabulary, and thus have almost no mutual intelligibility with the Quanzhang variety. Linguists tend to classify them as separate Min languages. Southern Min
Southern Min
is not mutually intelligible with other branches of Min Chinese nor other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.

Contents

1 Geographic distribution

1.1 China 1.2 Southeast Asia

2 Classification 3 Varieties

3.1 Quanzhang 3.2 Teo-Swa 3.3 Qiong-Lei

4 Phonology 5 Writing systems 6 History 7 Comparisons with Sino-Xenic character pronunciations 8 See also

8.1 Related languages

9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Geographic distribution[edit] China[edit] Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects are spoken in Fujian, three southeastern counties of Zhejiang, the Zhoushan archipelago
Zhoushan archipelago
off Ningbo
Ningbo
in Zhejiang, and the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
(Teo-swa) region in Guangdong. The variant spoken in Leizhou, Guangdong
Guangdong
as well as Hainan
Hainan
is Hainanese
Hainanese
and is not mutually intelligible with mainstream Southern Min
Southern Min
or Teochew.[citation needed] Hainanese
Hainanese
is classified in some schemes as part of Southern Min
Southern Min
and in other schemes as separate.[example needed][citation needed] Puxian Min was originally based on the Quanzhou dialect, but over time became heavily influenced by Eastern Min, eventually losing intelligibility with Minnan.The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects spoken in Taiwan, collectively known as Taiwanese, Southern Min
Southern Min
is a first language for most of the Hoklo people, the main ethnicity of Taiwan. The correspondence between language and ethnicity is not absolute, as some Hoklo have very limited proficiency in Southern Min
Southern Min
while some non-Hoklo speak Southern Min
Southern Min
fluently.[citation needed] Southeast Asia[edit] There are many Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers among Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
in Southeast Asia. Many ethnic Chinese immigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian
Fujian
and brought the language to what is now Burma, Indonesia
Indonesia
(the former Dutch East Indies) and present-day Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
(formerly British Malaya
British Malaya
and the Straits Settlements). In general, Southern Min
Southern Min
from southern Fujian
Fujian
is known as Hokkien, Hokkienese, Fukien or Fookien in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and is mostly mutually intelligible with Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken elsewhere. Many Southeast Asian ethnic Chinese also originated in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of Guangdong
Guangdong
and speak Teochew language, the variant of Southern Min from that region. Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is reportedly the native language of up to 98.5% of the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
community in the Philippines, among whom it is also known as Lan-nang
Lan-nang
or Lán-lâng-oē ("our people’s language"), although Hoklo people
Hoklo people
consist of only around 60% of the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
population.[citation needed][dubious – discuss] Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers form the majority of Chinese in Singapore, with the largest group being Minnan Proper (Hokkien) and the second largest being Teochew. Despite the similarities, the two groups are rarely seen as part of the same "Minnan" Chinese subgroups. Classification[edit] The variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province are most akin to that spoken in Quanzhou. The variants spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
are similar to the three Fujian
Fujian
variants and are collectively known as Taiwanese. Those Southern Min
Southern Min
variants that are collectively known as "Hokkien" in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
also originate from these variants. The variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
province are collectively known as Teochew or Chaozhou. Teochew is of great importance in the Southeast Asian Chinese diaspora, particularly in Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra
Sumatra
and West Kalimantan. The Philippines
Philippines
variant is mostly from the Quanzhou area as most of their forefathers are from the aforementioned area. The Southern Min
Southern Min
language variant spoken around Shanwei
Shanwei
and Haifeng differs markedly from Teochew and may represent a later migration from Zhangzhou. Linguistically, it lies between Teochew and Amoy. In southwestern Fujian, the local variants in Longyan
Longyan
and Zhangping form a separate division of Minnan on their own. Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Medan, Indonesia, a distinct form based on the Zhangzhou dialect
Zhangzhou dialect
has developed. In Penang, it is called Penang
Penang
Hokkien
Hokkien
while across the Malacca Strait
Malacca Strait
in Medan, an almost identical variant[citation needed] is known as Medan
Medan
Hokkien. Varieties[edit] There are three major divisions of Southern Min :

Minnan Proper (Hokkien–Taiwanese) under the Quanzhang division (泉漳片) Teochew under the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
division (潮汕片) Leizhou
Leizhou
and Hainanese
Hainanese
dialects under the Qiong-Lei division (琼雷片).

Quanzhang[edit] Main article: Hokkien The group of mutually intelligible Quanzhang (泉漳片) dialects, spoken around the areas of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou in Southern Fujian
Fujian
are collectively called Minnan Proper (闽南语/闽南话) or Hokkien-Taiwanese, is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is also the widely spoken non-official regional language in Taiwan. There are two types of standard Minnan. They are classified as Traditional Standard Minnan and Modern Standard Minnan. The Traditional Standard Minnan is based on Quanzhou dialect
Quanzhou dialect
spoken in Quanzhou, it is the dialect used in Liyuan Opera (梨园戏) and Nanying music (南音). The Modern standard forms of Minnan Proper is based on Amoy dialect spoken in the city of Xiamen
Xiamen
and Taiwanese dialect spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan. Both Modern Standard forms of Minnan are a combination of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speeches. Nowadays, Modern Standard Minnan is the dialect of minnan that is popular in Minnan dialect television programming, radio programming and Minnan songs. Most Minnan language books and Minnan dictionaries are mostly based on the pronunciation of the Modern Standard Minnan. Taiwanese in northern Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on Quanzhou dialect, whereas the Taiwanese spoken in southern Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on Zhangzhou dialect. There are minor variations in pronunciation and vocabulary between Quanzhou and Zhangzhou speech. The grammar is basically the same. Additionally, in Taiwanese Minnan, extensive contact with the Japanese language has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords. Teo-Swa[edit] Main article: Teochew dialect Teochew, or Chaoshan
Chaoshan
speech (潮汕片), is a closely related variant of Minnan that includes Swatow dialect. It has limited mutual intelligibility with Quanzhang speech though they share some cognates with each other. Teochew speech is significantly different from Quanzhang speech in both pronunciation and vocabulary. It had its origins from Proto- Putian dialect
Putian dialect
(闽南语古莆田话), a sub-dialect of Proto Minnan - which is closely related to Quanzhou dialect. As the Proto- Putian dialect
Putian dialect
speaking Chinese emigrants from Putian perfecture settled on Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region, it later received influence from Zhangzhou dialect. It follows the same grammar pattern as Minnan Proper. It is marginally understood by Minnan Proper speakers to a small degree.[5] Qiong-Lei[edit] Main articles: Leizhou Min
Leizhou Min
and Hainanese Qiong-Lei speech (琼雷片), is a distantly related variant of Minnan which is spoken in the Leizhou
Leizhou
peninsula and the southern Chinese island province of Hainan. The Qiong-Lei variant of Minnan shares historical linguistic roots with Minnan Proper. However, it developed into a distinctive language of its own due to the fact that these variants are spoken in the geographic location that is relatively distant from the Southern Min
Southern Min
region. Over time, these dialects evolved into a distinct language of its own which featured drastic changes to initial consonants, including a series of implosive consonants, that have been attributed to contact with the aboriginal languages such as Tai-Kadai languages. As a result, it has lost much of its mutual intelligibility with mainstream Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese). It is not understood well by speakers of mainstream Minnan. Since the late 20th century, many linguists consider this Southern Min
Southern Min
variant as a separate Min language. Phonology[edit] Main articles: Hokkien
Hokkien
§ Phonology, and Teochew dialect § Phonetics and phonology Southern Min
Southern Min
has one of the most diverse phonologies of Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels, on the other hand, are more-or-less similar to those of Mandarin. In general, Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects have five to six tones, and tone sandhi is extensive. There are minor variations within Hokkien, and the Teochew system differs somewhat more. Southern Min's nasal finals consist m, n, ŋ, ~. Writing systems[edit] See also: Written Hokkien Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects lack a standardized written language. Southern Min speakers are taught how to read Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in school. As a result, there has not been an urgent need to develop a writing system.[improper synthesis?] In recent years, an increasing number of Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers have become interested in developing a standard writing system (either by using Chinese Characters, or using Romanized script).[citation needed] History[edit] The Min homeland of Fujian
Fujian
was opened to Chinese settlement by the defeat of the Minyue state by the armies of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in 110 BC.[6] The area features rugged mountainous terrain, with short rivers that flow into the South China
China
Sea. Most subsequent migration from north to south China
China
passed through the valleys of the Xiang and Gan rivers to the west, so that Min varieties have experienced less northern influence than other southern groups.[7] As a result, whereas most varieties of Chinese can be treated as derived from Middle Chinese, the language described by rhyme dictionaries such as the Qieyun
Qieyun
(601 AD), Min varieties contain traces of older distinctions.[8] Linguists estimate that the oldest layers of Min dialects diverged from the rest of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty.[9][10] However, significant waves of migration from the North China
China
Plain occurred:[11]

The Uprising of the Five Barbarians
Uprising of the Five Barbarians
during the Jin dynasty, particularly the Disaster of Yongjia
Disaster of Yongjia
in 311 AD, caused a tide of immigration to the south. In 669, Chen Zheng and his son Chen Yuanguang
Chen Yuanguang
from Gushi County
Gushi County
in Henan
Henan
set up a regional administration in Fujian
Fujian
to suppress an insurrection by the She people. Wang Chao was appointed governor of Fujian
Fujian
in 893, near the end of the Tang dynasty, and brought tens of thousands of troops from Henan. In 909, following the fall of the Tang dynasty, his son Wang Shenzhi founded the Min Kingdom, one of the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period.

Jerry Norman identifies four main layers in the vocabulary of modern Min varieties:

A non-Chinese substratum from the original languages of Minyue, which Norman and Mei Tsu-lin believe were Austroasiatic.[12][13] The earliest Chinese layer, brought to Fujian
Fujian
by settlers from Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north during the Han dynasty.[14] A layer from the Northern and Southern Dynasties
Northern and Southern Dynasties
period, which is largely consistent with the phonology of the Qieyun
Qieyun
dictionary.[15] A literary layer based on the koiné of Chang'an, the capital of the Tang dynasty.[16]

Comparisons with Sino-Xenic character pronunciations[edit]

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Minnan (or Hokkien) can trace its origins through the Tang Dynasty, and it also has roots from earlier periods. Minnan (Hokkien) people call themselves "Tang people", (唐人, pronounced as "唐儂" Thn̂g-lâng) which is synonymous to "Chinese people". Because of the widespread influence of the Tang culture during the great Tang dynasty, there are today still many Minnan pronunciations of words shared by the Sino-xenic pronunciations of Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese languages.

English Han characters Mandarin Chinese Taiwanese Minnan[17] Teochew Cantonese Korean Vietnamese Japanese

Book 冊 Cè Chhek/Chheh ze1 caak3 Chaek (책) Tập/Sách Saku/Satsu/Shaku

Bridge 橋 Qiáo Kiâu/Kiô giê5 kiu4 Gyo (교) Cầu/Kiều Kyō

Dangerous 危險 Wēixiǎn Guî-hiám guîn5/nguín5 hiem2 ngai4 him2 Wiheom (위험) Nguy hiểm Kiken

Embassy 大使館 Dàshǐguǎn Tāi-sài-koán dai6 sái2 guêng2 daai6 si3 gun2 Daesagwan (대사관) Đại Sứ Quán Taishikan

Flag 旗 Qí Kî kî5 kei4 Gi (기) Cờ/Kỳ Ki

Insurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Pó-hiám Bó2-hiém bou2 him2 Boheom (보험) Bảo hiểm Hoken

News 新聞 Xīnwén Sin-bûn sing1 bhung6 san1 man4 Shinmun (신문) Tân Văn Shinbun

Student 學生 Xuéshēng Ha̍k-seng Hak8 sêng1 hok6 saang1 Haksaeng (학생) Học sinh Gakusei

University 大學 Dàxué Tāi-ha̍k/Tōa-o̍h dai6 hag8/dua7 oh8 daai6 hok6 Daehak (대학) Đại học Daigaku

See also[edit]

Language portal China
China
portal

Chinese in Singapore Languages of China Languages of Taiwan Languages of Thailand Malaysian Chinese

Related languages[edit]

Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
(Min Dong branch) Lan-nang
Lan-nang
(Philippine dialect of Minnan) Medan
Medan
Hokkien
Hokkien
(North-Sumatra, Indonesia
Indonesia
dialect of Minnan) Penang
Penang
Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien Southern Malaysia
Malaysia
Hokkien Taiwanese Minnan

References[edit]

^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ 大眾運輸工具播音語言平等保障法 ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Minnan Chinese". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ CAI ZHU, HUANG GUO (1 October 2015). Chinese language. Xiamen: Fujian
Fujian
Education Publishing House. ISBN 7533469518.  ^ Minnan/ Southern Min
Southern Min
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Norman (1991), pp. 328. ^ Norman (1988), pp. 210, 228. ^ Norman (1988), pp. 228–229. ^ Ting (1983), pp. 9–10. ^ Baxter & Sagart (2014), pp. 33, 79. ^ Yan (2006), p. 120. ^ Norman & Mei (1976). ^ Norman (1991), pp. 331–332. ^ Norman (1991), pp. 334–336. ^ Norman (1991), p. 336. ^ Norman (1991), p. 337. ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. "Tâi-bûn/Hôa-bûn Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 [Taiwanese/Chinese Online Dictionary]. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Branner, David Prager (2000). Problems in Comparative Chinese Dialectology — the Classification of Miin and Hakka. Trends in Linguistics series, no. 123. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015831-0.  Chung, Raung-fu (1996). The segmental phonology of Southern Min
Southern Min
in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane Pub. Co. ISBN 957-9463-46-8.  DeBernardi, Jean (1991). "Linguistic nationalism: the case of Southern Min". Sino-Platonic Papers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. 25. OCLC 24810816.  Chappell, Hilary, ed. (2001). Sinitic Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829977-X.  "Part V: Southern Min Grammar" (3 articles).

External links[edit]

Min Nan
Min Nan
Chinese edition of, the free encyclopedia

Southern Min
Southern Min
test of Wikibooks
Wikibooks
at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikibooks
Wikibooks
has a book on the topic of: Minnan

Look up Minnan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Minnan phrasebook.

Amoy Minnan Swadesh list (Wiktionary) Appendix:Sino-Tibetan Swadesh lists (Wiktionary) 當代泉州音字彙, a dictionary of Quanzhou speech Iûⁿ, Ún-giân (2006). "Tai-gi Hôa-gí Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 [On-line Taiwanese/Mandarin Dictionary] (in Chinese and Min Nan). CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) . Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. 台語線頂字典 [Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
Online Character Dictionary] (in Taiwanese and Chinese). CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典, Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan by Ministry of Education, Republic of China
China
(Taiwan). 臺灣本土語言互譯及語音合成系統, Taiwanese-Hakka-Mandarin on-line conversion Voyager - Spacecraft - Golden Record - Greetings From Earth - Amoy The voyager clip says: Thài-khong pêng-iú, lín-hó. Lín chia̍h-pá--bē? Ū-êng, to̍h lâi gún chia chē--ô·! 太空朋友,恁好。恁食飽未?有閒著來阮遮坐哦! 台語詞典[dead link] Taiwanese-English-Mandarin Dictionary How to Forget Your Mother Tongue and Remember Your National Language by Victor H. Mair University of Pennsylvania ISO 639-3 change request 2008-083, requesting to replace code nan (Minnan Chinese) with dzu (Chaozhou) and xim (Xiamen), rejected because it did not include codes to cover the rest of the group.

v t e

Southern Min

Datian Min

Qianlu dialect Houlu dialect

Hokkien

East Asia

Quanzhou dialect

Anxi dialect Hui'an dialect Jinjiang dialect Nan'an dialect Tong'an dialect

Amoy dialect Zhangzhou dialect

Longhai dialect

Taiwanese Longyan
Longyan
Min

Zhangping dialect

Toubei dialect

Southeast Asia

Philippine Hokkien Northern Malaysian Hokkien

Penang
Penang
Hokkien Medan
Medan
Hokkien

Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien

Riau Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien

Teo-Swa (Chaoshan)

East Asia

Teochew

Raoping dialect

Shantou
Shantou
dialect (Swatow)

Chenghai dialect Nan'ao dialect

Jieyang dialect Chaoyang dialect

Puning dialect Huilai dialect

Haifeng
Haifeng
dialect

Southeast Asia

Bangkok Teochew Cambodia
Cambodia
Teochew Kalimantan Teochew

Zhenan Min

Cangnan dialect Pingyang dialect Dongtou dialect Yuhuan dialect

Zhongshan Min

Longdu dialect Nanlang dialect Sanxiang dialect Zhangjiabian dialect

Unclassified

Yixing dialect Zhoushan dialect

v t e

Min Chinese

Languages

Eastern Min

Southern subgroup

Fuzhou dialect Minhou dialect Lianjiang dialect Fuqing dialect Changle dialect Gutian dialect Pingtan dialect Luoyuan dialect Yongtai dialect Youxi dialect Ningde dialect Weili dialect Matsu dialect

Northern subgroup

Xiapu dialect Fu'an dialect Zherong dialect Fuding dialect Shouning dialect Zhouning dialect

Mango dialect

Taishun Manjiang Cangnan Manhua

Southern Min

Datian Min Hokkien Teochew Zhenan Min Zhongshan Min ... (Detail)

Pu-Xian Min (Hinghwa)

Putian dialect Xianyou dialect

Northern Min

Jian'ou dialect Jianyang dialect Chong'an dialect Songxi dialect Zhenghe dialect

Shao-Jiang Min

Shaowu dialect Jiangle dialect Guangze dialect Shunchang dialect

Central Min

Sanming dialect Shaxian dialect Yong'an dialect

Leizhou
Leizhou
Min

Leizhou
Leizhou
Min

Hainanese

Fucheng subgroup

Haikou dialect Ding'an dialect Chengmai dialect Tunchang dialect

Wenchang subgroup

Wenchang dialect Qionghai dialect

Wanning subgroup

Wanning dialect Lingshui dialect

Yaxian subgroup

Yaxian dialect

Changgan subgroup

Changjiang dialect

Writing system

Logographic

Chinese characters

Alphabetic

Pe̍h-ōe-jī Pêh-uē-jī Hainan
Hainan
Romanized Foochow Romanized Fu'an Romanized Hinghwa Romanized Kienning Colloquial Romanized Taiwanese Romanization
Romanization
System Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet Daighi tongiong pingim Bbánlám pìngyīm Teochew Transliteration Scheme Hainanese
Hainanese
Transliteration Scheme Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
Transliteration Scheme Jian'ou dialect
Jian'ou dialect
Transliteration Scheme

Mixed

Hàn-lô

Research

Proto-languages

Proto-Min

Rime dictionaries

Qi Lin Bayin Anqiang Bayin Qiyin Zihui Bayin Dingjue Paizhang Zhiyin Dujiangshu Shiwuyin Huiyin Miaowu Zengbu Huiyin Chaosheng Shiwuyin Jimu Zhiyin Chaoyu Shiwuyin Jianzhou Bayin

v t e

Languages of Taiwan

Austronesian

Formosan

Atayalic

Atayal Seediq Truku Kankei

Rukaic

Rukai

Northern

Luilang Kulon Saisiyat Pazeh Kaxabu Thao Hoanya Papora Babuza Favorlang Taokas

East

Basay Ketagalan Kavalan Qauqaut Sakizaya Amis Siraya Taivoan Makatao

Southern

Bunun Puyuma Paiwan

Tsouic

Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa

Malayo-Polynesian

Yami

Sino-Tibetan

Sinitic

Mandarin

Taiwanese Mandarin

Min

Southern

Taiwanese Hokkien Teochew dialect

Eastern

Fuzhounese

Matsu dialect

Pu-Xian

Putian dialect

Hakka

Taiwanese Hakka

Sixian Hailu Dabu Raoping Zhao'an

Auxiliary

Taiwanese Sign Language Taiwanese Braille

Other languages

English Cantonese Filipino Japanese Korean Malay

Malaysian Indonesian

Thai Vietnamese

v t e

Languages of China

Official

Standard Mandarin

Regional

Provinces / SARs

CantoneseHK/MC EnglishHK MongolianNM PortugueseMC TibetanXZ UyghurXJ ZhuangGX

Prefecture

Hmong Dong Bouyei Tujia Korean Qiang Yi Kyrgyz Kazakh Tai Nüa Tai Lü Zaiwa Lisu Bai Hani Zhuang

Counties/Banners

numerous

Indigenous

Sino-Tibetan languages

Lolo- Burmese

Mondzish

Kathu Maang Manga Mango Maza Mondzi Muangphe

Burmish

Achang Xiandao Pela Lashi Chashan Lhao Vo Zaiwa

Loloish

Hanoish

Akeu Akha Amu Angluo Asuo Baihong Bisu Budu Bukong Cosao Duoni Duota Enu Habei Hani Honi Jino Kabie Kaduo Lami Laomian Laopin Mpi Muda Nuobi Nuomei Phana’ Piyo Qidi Sadu Sangkong Suobi Tsukong Woni Yiche

Lisoish

Eka Hlersu Kua-nsi Kuamasi Laizisi Lalo Lamu Lavu Lawu Limi Lipo Lisu Lolopo Mangdi Micha Mili Sonaga Toloza Xuzhang Yangliu Zibusi

Nisoish

Alingpo Alugu Aluo Axi Azha Azhe Bokha Gepo Khlula Lope Moji Muji Muzi Nasu Nisu Nuosu Phala Phola Phowa Phukha Phuma Phupa Phupha Phuza Samei Sani Thopho Zokhuo

Other

Gokhy Katso Kucong Lahu Naruo Namuyi Naxi Nusu Samu Sanie Zauzou

Qiangic

Baima Choyo Ersu Guiqiong Horpa Japhug Khroskyabs Laze Lizu Na Muya Namuyi Naxi Pumi Northern Qiang Southern Qiang Shixing Situ Tshobdun Zbu Zhaba

Tibetic

Amdo Baima Basum Central Choni Dao Dongwang Drugchu Groma Gserpa Khalong Khams Ladakhi Tseku Zhongu Zitsadegu

Other

Bai Caijia Derung Jingpho Longjia Nung Tujia Waxianghua

Other languages

Austroasiatic

Bit Blang Bolyu Bugan Bumang Hu Kuan Mang Man Met Muak Sa-aak Palaung Riang U Va Wa

Hmong-Mien

Hmongic

A-Hmao Bu-Nao Gejia Guiyang Hm Nai Hmong Hmu Huishui Kiong Nai Luobohe Mashan Pa-Hng Pa Na Pingtang Qo Xiong Raojia She Small Flowery Xixiu Younuo

Mienic

Biao Min Dzao Min Iu Mien Kim Mun

Mongolic

Bonan Buryat Daur Eastern Yugur Kangjia Khamnigan Monguor Oirat Ordos Santa Torgut

Tai-Kadai

Zhuang

Bouyei Dai Min Ningming Nong Tai Dam Tai Dón Tai Hongjin Tai Lü Tai Nüa Tai Ya Yang Yei

Other

Ai-Cham Biao Buyang Cao Miao Chadong Cun Gelao Hlai Jiamao Kam Lakkja Mak Maonan Mulam Naxi Yao Ong Be Paha Qabiao Sui Then

Tungusic

Evenki Manchu Nanai Oroqen Xibe

Turkic

Äynu Fuyu Kyrgyz Ili Turki Lop Salar Western Yugur

Other

Sarikoli(Indo-European) Tsat(Austronesian) Languages with Taiwan
Taiwan
Origin(Austronesian)

Minority

Kazakh Korean Kyrgyz Russian Tatar Tuvan Uzbek Wakhi

Varieties of Chinese

Gan Hakka Huizhou Jin Min

varieties

Pinghua Wu Xiang Yue

Creole/Mixed

E Kinh (Việt) Hezhou Lingling Macanese Maojia Qoqmončaq Sanqiao Tangwang Wutun

Extinct

Ba-Shu Jie Khitan Ruan-ruan Saka Tangut Tocharian Tuoba Tuyuhun Xianbei Zhang-Zhung

Sign

Chinese Sign

Hong Kong SignHK/MC

Tibetan SignXZ

GX = Guangxi HK = Hong Kong MC = Macau NM = Inner Mongolia XJ = Xinjiang XZ = Tibet

v t e

Chinese language(s)

Major subdivisions

Mandarin

Northeastern

Harbin Shenyang

Beijing

Beijing

Ji–Lu

Tianjin Jinan

Jiao–Liao

Dalian Qingdao Weihai

Central Plains

Gangou Guanzhong Luoyang Xuzhou Dungan Dongping

Lan–Yin Southwestern

Sichuanese Kunming Minjiang Wuhan

Lower Yangtze

Nanjing

Wu

Taihu

Shanghainese Suzhou Wuxi Changzhou Hangzhou Shaoxing Ningbo Jinxiang Jiangyin Shadi

Taizhou Wu

Taizhou

Oujiang

Wenzhou

Wuzhou

Jinhua

Chu–Qu

Quzhou Jiangshan Qingtian

Xuanzhou

Gan

Chang–Du Yi–Liu Ying–Yi Da–Tong

Xiang

New

Changsha

Old

Shuangfeng

Ji–Xu Yong–Quan

Qiyang

Min

Eastern

Fuzhou Fuqing Fu'an Manjiang

Southern

Hokkien

Quanzhou Zhangzhou Amoy Taiwanese Philippine Hokkien Medan
Medan
Hokkien Penang
Penang
Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien

Zhenan Longyan Teochew

Shantou Haifeng

Zhongshan

Nanlang Sanxiang

other

Northern

Jian'ou Jianyang

Central Pu–Xian Shao–Jiang Leizhou

Zhanjiang

Hainan

Hakka

Meixian Wuhua Tingzhou

Changting

Taiwanese Hakka

Sixian dialect Raoping dialect

Yue

Yuehai

Cantonese Xiguan Jiujiang Shiqi Weitou Dapeng

Gao–Yang Siyi

Taishan

Goulou Wu–Hua Yong–Xun Luo–Guang Qin–Lian

Proposed

Huizhou Jin

Hohhot

Pinghua

Unclassified

Danzhou Mai Shaozhou Tuhua Waxiang Badong Yao Yeheni Shehua

Standardized forms

Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
(Mandarin)

Sichuanese Taiwanese Philippine Malaysian Singaporean

Cantonese Taiwanese Hokkien

Phonology

Historical

Old

Old National Cantonese Mandarin Literary and colloquial readings

Grammar

Chinese grammar Chinese classifier Chinese Idiom

History

Old Chinese Eastern Han Middle Chinese Old Mandarin Middle Mandarin Proto-Min Ba–Shu Gan

Literary forms

Official

Classical

Adoption in Vietnam

Vernacular

Other varieties

Written Cantonese Written Dungan Written Hokkien Written Sichuanese

Scripts

Standard

Simplified Traditional

Historical

Oracle bone Bronze Seal Clerical Semi-cursive Cursive

Braille

Cantonese
Cantonese
Braille Mainland Chinese Braille Taiwanese Braille Two-Cell Chinese Braille

Other

Romanization

Pinyin Wade–Giles

Bopomofo Xiao'erjing Nüshu Chinese punctuation Taiwanese kana Dungan Cyrillic

List of varieties of Chinese

Authority control

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