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Sir Michael Anthony Eardley Dummett, FBA (/ˈdʌmɪt/; 27 June 1925 – 27 December 2011) was a British philosopher, described as "among the most significant British philosophers of the last century and a leading campaigner for racial tolerance and equality."[5] He was, until 1992, Wykeham Professor of Logic at the University of Oxford. He wrote on the history of analytic philosophy, most notably as an interpreter of Frege, and has made original contributions to the subject, particularly in the philosophies of mathematics, logic, language and metaphysics. He was known for his work on truth and meaning and their implications for the debates between realism and anti-realism, a term he helped popularize. He devised the Quota Borda system of proportional voting, based on the Borda count. In mathematical logic, he developed an intermediate logic, already studied by Kurt Gödel: the so-called Gödel–Dummett logic.

Contents

1 Education and army service 2 Academic career 3 Philosophical work 4 Activism 5 Elections and voting 6 Card games
Card games
and tarot 7 Conversion to Roman Catholicism 8 Later years and family 9 Works 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Education and army service[edit] Dummett was the son of a merchant of silks. He studied at Sandroyd School and was a First Scholar at Winchester College, later winning a Major Scholarship to study History at Christ Church, Oxford
Oxford
in 1943. He was called up that year and served, initially as a private in the Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
before joining the Intelligence
Intelligence
Corps in India and Malaya. He was also awarded a fellowship to All Souls College, Oxford.[6] Academic career[edit] In 1979, Dummett became Wykeham Professor of Logic at Oxford, a post he held until retiring in 1992. During his term as Wykeham Professor, he held a Fellowship at New College, Oxford. He has also held teaching posts at Birmingham University, UC Berkeley, Stanford University, Princeton University, and Harvard University. He won the Rolf Schock prize in 1995,[7] and was knighted in 1999. He was the 2010 winner of the Lauener Prize for an Outstanding Oeuvre in Analytical Philosophy.[8] During his career at Oxford, he supervised many philosophers who have gone on to distinguished careers, including Peter Carruthers, Adrian Moore, Ian Rumfitt, and Crispin Wright. Philosophical work[edit] His work on the German philosopher Frege
Frege
has been acclaimed. His first book Frege: Philosophy of Language
Language
(1973), written over many years, is now regarded as a classic. The book was instrumental in the rediscovery of Frege's work, and influenced a generation of British philosophers. In his 1963 paper "Realism"[9] he popularised a controversial approach to understanding the historical dispute between realist and other non-realist schools of philosophy such as idealism, nominalism, Irrealism etc. He characterized all of these latter positions as anti-realist and argued that the fundamental disagreement between realist and anti-realist was over the nature of truth. For Dummett, realism is best understood as semantic realism, i.e., as the view accepting that every declarative sentence of one's language is bivalent (determinately true or false) and evidence-transcendent (independent of our means of coming to know which),[10][2] while anti-realism rejects this view in favor of a concept of knowable (or assertible) truth.[11] Historically, these debates had been understood as disagreements about whether a certain type of entity objectively exists or not. Thus, we may speak of (anti-)realism with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. The novelty of Dummett's approach consisted in seeing these disputes as, at base, analogous to the dispute between intuitionism and Platonism
Platonism
in the philosophy of mathematics. Franzane Abella commented that Dummett was really interested not in understanding problem via classical logic but via intutionistic logic, and Abella stated that "such mathematical entities are more likely to be an ontological myth for Dummett this is because truth cannot be unidentified via intuition, and of course it will fall on the notion of logical opaqueness which statements are not likely to be understood easily in the first place."[12] Franzane Abella further added that "Dummett has an astounding influence when he brought forward the deep-order justificationist semantics, this influenced the theory of meaning and the classification of understanding via practices, whether the statement can be refuted or not based on its meaning". Abella then summarized that Dummett refuted the theory brought forward by realism in terms of cognizance of meaning, that is for example the psychological change of our conceptions of meaning of any statements should be properly grasped because if not there exist an alteration and confusion of meaning, and of course the failure of grasping truth-values. Activism[edit] Dummett was politically active, through his work as a campaigner against racism. He let his philosophical career stall in order to influence civil rights for minorities during what he saw as a crucial period of reform in the late 1960s. He also has worked on the theory of voting, which led to his introduction of the Quota Borda system. Dummett drew heavily on his work in this area in writing his book On Immigration and Refugees, an account of what justice demands of states in relationship to movement between states. Dummett in that book argues that the vast majority of opposition to immigration has been founded in racism and says that this has especially been so in the UK. He has written of his shock on finding anti-Semitic and fascist opinions in the diaries of Frege, to whose work he had devoted such a high proportion of his professional career.[13] Elections and voting[edit] See also: Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem and Robin Farquharson Dummett and Robin Farquharson
Robin Farquharson
published influential articles on the theory of voting, in particular conjecturing that deterministic voting rules with more than three issues faced endemic strategic voting.[14] The Dummett–Farquharson conjecture was proved by Allan Gibbard,[15] a philosopher and former student of Kenneth J. Arrow and John Rawls, and by Mark A. Satterthwaite,[16] an economist. After the establishment of the Farquarson–Dummett conjecture by Gibbard and Sattherthwaite, Dummett contributed three proofs of the Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem in his monograph on voting. He also wrote a shorter overview of the theory of voting for the educated public. Card games
Card games
and tarot[edit] Dummett was also an established scholar in the field of card games history, with numerous books and articles to his credit. He is a founding member of the International Playing-Card Society, in whose journal The Playing-Card he regularly published opinions, research and reviews of current literature on the subject; he is also a founding member of the Accademia del Tarocchino Bolognese in Bologna. His historical work on the use of the tarot pack in card games — he has said "(t)he fortune telling and occult part of it has never been my principal interest..."[17] —, The Game of Tarot: From Ferrara to Salt Lake City, attempted to establish that the invention of Tarot could be set in 15th-century Italy. He laid the foundation for most of the subsequent research on the game of tarot, including exhaustive accounts of the rules of all hitherto known forms of the game.[citation needed] His analysis of the historical evidence suggested that fortune-telling and occult interpretations were unknown prior to the 18th century. During most of their recorded history, he wrote, Tarot cards were used to play an extremely popular trick-taking game which is still enjoyed in much of Europe. Dummett showed that the middle of the 18th century saw a great development in the game of Tarot, including a modernized deck with French suit-signs, and without the medieval allegories that interest occultists, along with a growth in Tarot's popularity. "The hundred years between about 1730 and 1830 were the heyday of the game of Tarot; it was played not only in northern Italy, eastern France, Switzerland, Germany and Austro-Hungary, but also in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and even Russia. Not only was it, in these areas, a famous game with many devotees: it was also, during that period, more truly an international game than it had ever been before or than it has ever been since...."[18] In 1987, Dummett collaborated with Giordano Berti and Andrea Vitali to the project of the great Tarot exhibition at Castello Estense in Ferrara; in that occasion he wrote some texts for the catalog of the exhibition."[19] Conversion to Roman Catholicism[edit] In 1944 he was received into the Roman Catholic Church, and remained a practising Catholic. Throughout his career, Dummett published a number of articles on various issues facing the contemporary Catholic Church, mainly in the English Dominican journal, New Blackfriars. Dummett published an essay in the bulletin of the Adoremus Society on the subject of liturgy, and a philosophical essay defending the intelligibility of the Catholic Church's teaching on the eucharist ("The Intelligibility of Eucharistic Doctrine" in William J. Abraham and Steven W. Holzer, eds., The Rationality of Religious Belief: Essays in Honour of Basil Mitchell, Clarendon Press, 1987.) In October 1987, one of his contributions to New Blackfriars sparked considerable controversy, when he seemingly attacked currents of Catholic theology which appeared to him to diverge from orthodox Catholicism and to "imply that, from the very earliest times, the Catholic Church, claiming to have a mission from God to safeguard divinely revealed truth, has taught and insisted on the acceptance of falsehoods." Dummett argued that "the divergence which now obtains between what the Catholic Church purports to believe and what large or important sections of it in fact believe ought, in my view, to be tolerated no longer: not if there is to be a rationale for belonging to that Church; not if there is to be any hope of reunion with the other half of Christendom; not if the Catholic Church is not to be a laughing-stock in the eyes of the world." A debate in the journal over these remarks continued for months, attracting contributions from the theologian Nicholas Lash and the historian Eamon Duffy, among others.[20] Later years and family[edit] Dummett retired in 1992 and was knighted in 1999 for "services to philosophy and to racial justice". He received the Lakatos Award in the philosophy of science in 1994. Dummett died in 2011, aged 86. He was survived by his wife Ann, whom he married in 1951 (and who died in 2012), and by three sons and two daughters. A son and daughter predeceased their parents.[21] Works[edit]

On analytical philosophy and logic:

Frege: Philosophy of Language
Language
( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1973/1981) The Interpretation of Frege's Philosophy, Duckworth, 1981; Harvard University Press[22] Elements of Intuitionism (Oxford, 1977, 2000)[23] Truth
Truth
and Other Enigmas ( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1978)[24] Frege: Philosophy of Mathematics ( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1991) The Logical Basis of Metaphysics
Metaphysics
( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1991) Origins of Analytical Philosophy ( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1993) The Seas of Language
Language
(Oxford, 1993) Frege
Frege
and Other Philosophers (Oxford, 1991) Truth
Truth
and the Past (Oxford, 2005)[25] Thought
Thought
and Reality
Reality
(Oxford, 2006)

On voting theory and election systems:

Voting Procedures (Oxford, 1984) Principles of Electoral Reform (New York, 1997) ISBN 0-19-829246-5 Robin Farquharson
Robin Farquharson
and Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
(January 1961). "Stability in Voting". Econometrica. 29 (1): 33–43. doi:10.2307/1907685. JSTOR 1907685.  Dummett, Michael (2005). "The work and life of Robin Farquharson". Social Choice
Choice
and Welfare. 25 (2): 475–83. doi:10.1007/s00355-005-0014-x.  Rudolf Farra and Maurice Salles (October 2006). "An Interview with Michael Dummett: From analytical philosophy to voting analysis and beyond". Social Choice
Choice
and Welfare. 27 (2): 347–364. doi:10.1007/s00355-006-0128-9. 

On politics:

On Immigration and Refugees (London, 2001)

Tarot works:

The Game of Tarot: from Ferrara to Salt Lake City (Duckworth, 1980); Twelve Tarot Games (Duckworth, 1980); The Visconti-Sforza Tarot Cards (G. Braziller, 1986); Il mondo e l'angelo: i tarocchi e la loro storia (Bibliopolis, 1993) I tarocchi siciliani (La Zisa, 1995); A Wicked Pack of Cards: The Origins of the Occult Tarot (with Ronald Decker and Thierry Depaulis, St. Martin's Press, 1996); A History of the Occult Tarot, 1870-1970 (with Ronald Decker, Duckworth, 2002); A History of Games Played with the Tarot Pack (with John McLeod, E. Mellen Press, 2004).

Notable articles and exhibition catalogs include "Tarot Triumphant: Tracing the Tarot" in FMR, (Franco Maria Ricci International), January/February 1985; Pattern
Pattern
Sheets published by the International Playing Card Society; with Giordano Berti and Andrea Vitali, the catalogue Tarocchi: Gioco e magia alla Corte degli Estensi (Bologna, Nuova Alfa Editorale, 1987).

On the written word:

Grammar and Style (Duckworth, 1993)

See also[edit]

"Is Logic Empirical?", which discusses an article by Dummett on an argument of Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam
for the correctness of quantum logic Truth-value link realism, which Dummett criticized in early works

References[edit]

^ Stuart Brown (ed.), Dictionary of Twentieth-Century British Philosophers, Vol. 1, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005, p. 237. ^ a b c Dummett, Michael – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ a b c Michael Dummett, The Interpretation of Frege's Philosophy, Duckworth, 1981, p. xv. ^ Michael Dummett, Origins of Analytical Philosophy, Bloombury, 2014, p. xiii; Anat Biletzki, Anat Matarp (eds.), The Story of Analytic Philosophy: Plot and Heroes, Routledge, 2002, p. 57: "It was Gilbert Ryle who, [Dummett] says, opened his eyes to this fact in his lectures on Bolzano, Brentano, Meinong, and Husserl." ^ "Obituary for Professor Sir Michael Dummett". London: Telegraph. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ Daniel Isaacson. "In Memoriam: Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
(1925-2011)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford
Oxford
University Press.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ philosophy.su.se ^ Lauener Prize for an Outstanding Oeuvre in Analytical Philosophy ^ Originally a lecture to the Philosophical Society at Oxford
Oxford
in 1963, the paper was first published in 1978 in his book Truth
Truth
and Other Enigmas. See Truth
Truth
and Other Enigmas, p. ix. ^ Logicism and Neologicism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) ^ Truth
Truth
(Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) ^ "Dummettian Truth" (PDF).  ^ Dummett, Michael, "Preface to the first edition" in Frege: Philosophy of Language, Second Edition ( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1981), p. xii. ^ Dummett, Michael (2005). "The work and life of Robin Farquharson". Social Choice
Choice
and Welfare. 25 (2): 475–483. doi:10.1007/s00355-005-0014-x.  ^ Gibbard, Allan (1973). "Manipulation of Voting Schemes: A General Result". Econometrica. 41 (4): 587–601. doi:10.2307/1914083. JSTOR 1914083.  ^ Satterthwaite, Mark A. (1975). "Strategy-proofness and Arrow's Conditions: Existence and Correspondence Theorems for Voting Procedures and Social Welfare Functions". Journal of Economic Theory. 10 (2): 187–217. doi:10.1016/0022-0531(75)90050-2.  ^ Rudolf Farra and Maurice Salles (October 2006). "An Interview with Michael Dummett: From analytical philosophy to voting analysis and beyond". Social Choice
Choice
and Welfare. 27 (2): 347–364. doi:10.1007/s00355-006-0128-9.  ^ Dummett, Michael (2004). A History of Games Played With the Tarot Pack: The Game of Triumphs, Vol. 1.  ^ Dummett, Michael (1987). "Sulle origini dei Tarocchi popolari" and "Tarocchi popolari e Tarocchi fantastici", in Le carte di Corte. I Tarocchi. Gioco e magia alla Corte degli Estensi, Nuova Alfa editoriale, Bologna
Bologna
1987, pp.78-88.  ^ 1987 New Blackfriars 68(809, 811). ^ Sir Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
obituary in The Scotsman Online. ^ Burge, Tyler (July 1984). "Review: The Interpretation of Frege's Philosophy by Michael Dummett". The Philosophical Review. 93 (3): 454–458. doi:10.2307/2184550. JSTOR 2184550.  ^ Eggenberger, Peter (September 1980). "Review: Elements of Intuitionism by Michael Dummett". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 31 (3): 299–301. doi:10.1093/bjps/31.3.299. JSTOR 686924.  ^ Schirn, Matthias (December 1981). "Review: Truth
Truth
and Other Enigmas by Michael Dummett". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 32 (4): 419–425. doi:10.1093/bjps/32.4.419. JSTOR 687314.  ^ Shieh, Sanford (May 2008). "Review: Truth
Truth
and the Past by Michael Dummett". History and Theory. 47 (2): 270–278. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2303.2008.00451.x. JSTOR 25478749. 

Further reading[edit]

Johannes L Brandl, Peter Sullivan (eds.) New Essays on the Philosophy of Michael Dummett. Rodopi, 1999. ISBN 90-420-0466-5 Richard Kirkham. Theories of Truth. MIT Press, 1992. Chapter 8 is a discussion of Dummett's views on meaning. Karen Green. Dummett: Philosophy of Language. Polity, 2001. ISBN 0-7456-2295-X Richard G. Heck (ed.) Language, Thought, and Logic: Essays in Honour of Michael Dummett. Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-823920-3 Bernhard Weiss. Michael Dummett. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press, 2002.ISBN 0-691-11330-0 Anat Matar. From Dummett's Philosophical Perspective, Walter de Gruyter, 1997.ISBN 3110149869 R. E. Auxier and L. E. Hahn (eds.) The Philosophy of Michael Dummett, The Library of Living Philosophers, vol XXXI Open Court, Chicago, 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Michael Dummett

Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Biographical notes at Trionfi Philosophy Bites interview with Dummett on Frege "Remembering Michael Dummett", at The Stone, New York Times blogs, 4 January 2012.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 22156399 LCCN: n80045144 ISNI: 0000 0001 0877 8069 GND: 118956477 SELIBR: 219419 SUDOC: 028445449 BNF: cb120279241 (data) BIBSYS: 90099909 MGP: 91399 NLA: 36528787 NDL: 00438374 NKC: mzk2002148

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