ETHANE (US : /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK : /ˈmiːθeɪn/ ) is a chemical
compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four
atoms of hydrogen ). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane
, and is the main constituent of natural gas . The relative abundance
of methane on
Earth makes it an attractive fuel , though capturing and
storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state under normal
conditions for temperature and pressure .
Natural methane is found both below ground and under the sea floor .
When it reaches the surface and the atmosphere , it is known as
atmospheric methane . The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration
has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the
total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed
greenhouse gases (these gases don't include water vapor, which is by
far the largest component of the greenhouse effect ).
* 1 History
* 2 Properties and bonding
* 3 Chemical reactions
* 3.1 Acid-base reactions
* 3.3 Reactions with halogens
* 4 Uses
Liquefied natural gas
* 4.1.3 Liquid methane rocket fuel
* 4.2 Chemical feedstock
* 5 Generation
* 5.1 Geological routes
* 5.2 Biological routes
* 5.3 Industrial routes
* 5.3.1 Power to methane
* 5.3.2 Laboratory synthesis
* 5.3.3 On
* 6 Occurrence
* 6.1 Alternative sources
* 6.3 Clathrates
Anaerobic oxidation of methane
* 8 Safety
* 9 Extraterrestrial methane
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 External links
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In November 1776, methane was first scientifically identified by
Alessandro Volta in the marshes of Lake Maggiore
Switzerland . Volta was inspired to search for
the substance after reading a paper written by
Benjamin Franklin about
"flammable air". Volta collected the gas rising from the marsh, and
by 1778 had isolated the pure gas. He also demonstrated that the gas
could be ignited with an electric spark.
The name "methane" was coined in 1866 by the German chemist August
Wilhelm von Hofmann . The name was derived from methanol .
PROPERTIES AND BONDING
Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C–H bonds .
Its electronic structure is described by four bonding molecular
orbitals (MOs) resulting from the overlap of the valence orbitals on C
and H . The lowest energy MO is the result of the overlap of the 2s
orbital on carbon with the in-phase combination of the 1s orbitals on
the four hydrogen atoms. Above this energy level is a triply
degenerate set of MOs that involve overlap of the 2p orbitals on
carbon with various linear combinations of the 1s orbitals on
hydrogen. The resulting "three-over-one" bonding scheme is consistent
with photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.
At room temperature and standard pressure , methane is a colorless,
odorless gas. The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is
achieved by the addition of an odorant , usually blends containing
tert-butylthiol , as a safety measure.
Methane has a boiling point of
−161 °C (−257.8 °F ) at a pressure of one atmosphere . As a gas
it is flammable over a range of concentrations (5.4–17%) in air at
standard pressure .
Solid methane exists in several modifications . Presently nine are
known. Cooling methane at normal pressure results in the formation of
methane I. This substance crystallizes in the cubic system (space
group Fm3m). The positions of the hydrogen atoms are not fixed in
methane I, i.e. methane molecules may rotate freely. Therefore, it is
a plastic crystal .
The primary chemical reactions of methane are combustion , steam
reforming to syngas , and halogenation . In general, methane reactions
are difficult to control. Partial oxidation to methanol , for example,
is challenging because the reaction typically progresses all the way
to carbon dioxide and water even with an insufficient supply of
oxygen. The enzyme methane monooxygenase produces methanol from
methane, but cannot be used for industrial-scale reactions.
Like other hydrocarbons , methane is a very weak acid. Its pKa in
DMSO is estimated to be 56. It cannot be deprotonated in solution,
but the conjugate base with methyllithium is known.
A variety of positive ions derived from methane have been observed,
mostly as unstable species in low-pressure gas mixtures. These include
methenium or methyl cation CH+
3, methane cation CH+
4, and methanium or protonated methane CH+
5. Some of these have been detected in outer space .
also be produced as diluted solutions from methane with superacids .
Cations with higher charge, such as CH2+
6 and CH3+
7, have been studied theoretically and conjectured to be stable.
Despite the strength of its C–H bonds, there is intense interest in
catalysts that facilitate
C–H bond activation in methane (and other
lower numbered alkanes ).
Methane's heat of combustion is 55.5 MJ/kg.
Combustion of methane is
a multiple step reaction. The following equations are part of the
process, with the net result being CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O (ΔH =
−891 k J /mol (at standard conditions))
* CH4+ M* → CH3 + H + M
* CH4 + O2 → CH3 + HO2
* CH4 + HO2 → CH3 + 2 OH
* CH4 + OH → CH3 + H2O
* O2 + H → O + OH
* CH4 + O → CH3 + OH
* CH3 + O2 → CH2O + OH
* CH2O + O → CHO + OH
* CH2O + OH → CHO + H2O
* CH2O + H → CHO + H2
* CHO + O → CO + OH
* CHO + OH → CO + H2O
* CHO + H → CO + H2
* H2 + O → H + OH
* H2 + OH → H + H2O
* CO + OH → CO2 + H
* H + OH + M → H2O + M*
* H + H + M → H2 + M*
* H + O2 + M → HO2 + M*
The species M* signifies an energetic third body, from which energy
is transferred during a molecular collision .
Formaldehyde (HCHO, or H
2CO) is an early intermediate (reaction 7). Oxidation of formaldehyde
gives the formyl radical (HCO; reactions 8–10), which then give
carbon monoxide (CO) (reactions 11, 12 ">
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas
(CNG) so that the energy density of
LNG is 2.4 times greater than that
of CNG or 60% that of diesel fuel . This makes
LNG cost efficient to
transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially
designed cryogenic sea vessels (
LNG carriers ) or cryogenic road
tankers are used for its transport.
LNG, when it is not highly refined for special uses, is principally
used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified
and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It is also beginning to be
used in LNG-fueled road vehicles . For example, trucks in commercial
operation have been achieving payback periods of approximately four
years on the higher initial investment required in
LNG equipment on
the trucks and
LNG infrastructure to support fueling. However, it
remains more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas .
As of 2002 , the relatively higher cost of
LNG production and the need
LNG in more expensive cryogenic tanks had slowed widespread
Methane Rocket Fuel
In a highly refined form, liquid methane is used as a rocket fuel .
Though methane has been investigated for decades, no production
methane engines have yet been used on orbital spaceflights. Methane
is reported to offer the advantage over Kerosene of depositing less
carbon on the internal parts of rocket motors, reducing the difficulty
of re-use of boosters.
Since the 1990s, a number of Russian rockets using liquid methane
have been proposed. One 1990s Russian engine proposal was the RD-192
, a methane/
LOX variant of the
In 2005, US companies, ORBITEC (Orbital Technologies Corporation, now
part of Sierra Nevada Corporation as of 2014) and
XCOR Aerospace ,
developed a demonstration liquid oxygen /liquid methane rocket engine
and a larger 7,500 pounds-force (33 kN)-thrust engine in 2007 for
potential use as the CEV lunar return engine, before the CEV program
was later cancelled.
More recently the American private space company
SpaceX announced in
2012 an initiative to develop liquid methane rocket engines ,
including initially, the very large Raptor rocket engine . Raptor is
being designed to produce 4.4 meganewtons (1,000,000 lbf) of thrust
with a vacuum specific impulse (Isp) of 363 seconds and a sea-level
Isp of 321 seconds, and began component-level testing in 2014. In
February 2014, the Raptor engine design was shown to be of the highly
efficient and theoretically more reliable full-flow staged combustion
cycle type, where both propellant streams—oxidizer and fuel—are
completely in the gas phase before they enter the combustion chamber .
Prior to 2014, only two full-flow rocket engines had ever progressed
sufficiently to be tested on test stands, but neither engine completed
development or flew on a flight vehicle. In 2016, a development
Raptor engine was tested.
In October 2013, the China Aerospace Science and Technology
Corporation , a state-owned contractor for the Chinese space program ,
announced that it had completed a first ignition test on a new LOX
methane rocket engine. No engine size was provided.
In September 2014, another American private space company—Blue
Origin — publicly announced that they were into their third year of
development work on a large methane rocket engine. The new engine, the
Blue Engine 4, or
BE-4 , has been designed to produce 2,400
kilonewtons (550,000 lbf ) of thrust. While initially planned to be
used exclusively on a
Blue Origin proprietary launch vehicle, it will
now be used on a new
United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance (ULA) engine on a new
launch vehicle that is a successor to the
Atlas V . ULA indicated in
2014 that they will make the maiden flight of the new launch vehicle
no earlier than 2019.
One advantage of methane is that it is abundant in many parts of the
solar system and it could potentially be harvested on the surface of
another solar-system body (in particular, using methane production
from local materials found on
Mars or Titan ), providing fuel for a
By 2013, NASA's
Project Morpheus had developed a small restartable
LOX methane rocket engine with 5,000 pounds-force (22 kN) thrust and a
specific impulse of 321 seconds suitable for inspace applications
including landers. Small
LOX methane thrusters 5–15 pounds-force
(22–67 N) were also developed suitable for use in a Reaction Control
SpaceNews is reporting in early 2015 that the French space agency
CNES is working with
Germany and a few other governments and will
propose a LOX/methane engine on a reusable launch vehicle by mid-2015,
with flight testing unlikely before approximately 2026.
Although there is great interest in converting methane into useful or
more easily liquefied compounds, the only practical processes are
relatively unselective. In the chemical industry, methane is converted
to synthesis gas , a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by steam
reforming . This endergonic process (requiring energy) utilizes nickel
catalysts and requires high temperatures, around 700–1100 °C: CH4
+ H2O → CO + 3 H2
Related chemistries are exploited in the Haber-Bosch Synthesis of
ammonia from air, which is reduced with natural gas to a mixture of
carbon dioxide , water , and ammonia .
Methane is also subjected to free-radical chlorination in the
production of chloromethanes, although methanol is a more typical
Other commercially viable processes that use methane as a chemical
feedstock include, the catalytic oxidation of methane into methanol
based on the oxidative coupling of methane , and the direct reaction
of methane with sulfur trioxide to produce methanesulfonic acid .
There are two main routes for geological methane generation, organic
(thermogenic), and inorganic (abiotic , meaning non-living). Thermally
generated methane, is referred to as thermogenic, originating from
deeper sedimentary strata . Thermogenic methane (CH4) formation occurs
due to the break-up of organic matter, forced by elevated temperatures
and pressures. This type of methane is considered to be the primary
methane type in sedimentary basins, and from an economical perspective
the most important source of natural gas. Thermogenic methane
components are generally considered to be relic (from an earlier
time). Generally, formation of thermogenic methane (at depth), can
occur through organic matter break-up, or organic synthesis, both ways
can involve microorganisms (methanogenesis) but may also occur
inorganically. The involved anaerobic and aerobic processes can also
consume methane, with and without microorganisms.The more important
source of methane at depth (crystalline bedrock) is abiotic. Abiotic
means that the methane formation took place involving inorganic
compounds, without biological activity, magmatic or created at low
temperatures and pressures through water-rock reactions.
Main article: methanogenesis
Naturally occurring methane is mainly produced by microbial
methanogenesis . This multistep process is used by microorganisms as
an energy source. The net reaction is CO2 + 8 H+ + 8 e− → CH4
+ 2 H2O
The final step in the process is catalyzed by the enzyme Coenzyme-B
Methanogenesis is a form of anaerobic
respiration used by organisms that occupy landfill , ruminants (e.g.,
cattle), and the guts of termites.
It is uncertain whether plants are a source of methane emissions.
There are many technological methane production methods. Methane
created from biomass in industrial plants via biological route is
called biogas . A more synthetic method to produce methane is
hydrogenating carbon dioxide through the
Sabatier process .
also a side product of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide in the
Fischer–Tropsch process , which is practiced on a large scale to
produce longer-chain molecules than methane. Example of large-scale
coal-to-methane gasification is the
Great Plains Synfuels plant,
started in 1984 in Beulah, North Dakota as a way to develop abundant
local resources of low-grade lignite , a resource that is otherwise
very hard to transport for its weight, ash content, low calorific
value and propensity to spontaneous combustion during storage and
Methane as natural gas has been so abundant that synthetic production
of it has been limited to special cases and as of 2016 covers only
minor fraction of the methane used.
Power To Methane
Main article: Power to gas § Power to methane
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Power to methane is a technology that uses electrical power to
produce hydrogen from water by electrolysis and uses the Sabatier
reaction to combine hydrogen with carbon dioxide to produce methane.
As of 2016, this is mostly under development and not in large-scale
use. Theoretically, the process could be used as a buffer for excess
and off-peak power generated by highly fluctuating wind generators and
solar arrays . The conversion efficiency of power to methane is
49–65%, and full power–methane–power cycle is 30–38%.
Methane can be produced by the destructive distillation of acetic
acid in the presence of soda lime or similar.
Acetic acid is
decarboxylated in this process.
Methane can be prepared from aluminium
carbide by reaction with water or strong acids . It is also made by
reducing a solution of methanol and concentrated hydrochloric acid
with iron powder, giving water and ferrous chloride as byproducts.
Methane has been proposed as a possible rocket propellant on future
Mars missions due in part to the possibility of synthesizing it on the
planet by in situ resource utilization . An adaptation of the
Sabatier methanation reaction may be used with a mixed catalyst bed
and a reverse water-gas shift in a single reactor to produce methane
from the raw materials available on Mars, utilizing water from the
Martian subsoil and carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere.
Methane could also be produced by a non-biological process called
serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral
olivine , which is known to be common on Mars.
Methane was discovered and isolated by
Alessandro Volta between 1776
and 1778 when studying marsh gas from
Lake Maggiore . It is the major
component of natural gas, about 87% by volume. The major source of
methane is extraction from geological deposits known as natural gas
fields , with coal seam gas extraction becoming a major source (see
Coal bed methane extraction , a method for extracting methane from a
coal deposit, while enhanced coal bed methane recovery is a method of
recovering methane from non-mineable coal seams). It is associated
with other hydrocarbon fuels, and sometimes accompanied by helium and
Methane is produced at shallow levels (low pressure) by
anaerobic decay of organic matter and reworked methane from deep under
the Earth's surface. In general, the sediments that generate natural
gas are buried deeper and at higher temperatures than those that
contain oil .
Methane is generally transported in bulk by pipeline in its natural
gas form, or
LNG carriers in its liquefied form; few countries
transport it by truck.
Testing Australian sheep for exhaled methane production (2001),
Apart from gas fields, an alternative method of obtaining methane is
via biogas generated by the fermentation of organic matter including
manure , wastewater sludge, municipal solid waste (including
landfills), or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic
Rice fields also generate large amounts of methane during
Methane hydrates/clathrates (ice-like combinations of
methane and water on the sea floor, found in vast quantities) are a
potential future source of methane. Cattle belch methane accounts for
16% of the world's annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. One
study reported that the livestock sector in general (primarily cattle,
chickens, and pigs) produces 37% of all human-induced methane. Early
research has found a number of medical treatments and dietary
adjustments that help slightly limit the production of methane in
ruminants . A 2009 study found that at a conservative estimate, at
least 51% of global greenhouse gas emissions were attributable to the
life cycle and supply chain of livestock products, meaning all meat,
dairy, and by-products, and their transportation. More recently, a
2013 study estimated that livestock accounted for 44 percent of
human-induced methane and 14.5 percent of human-induced greenhouse gas
emissions. Many efforts are underway to reduce livestock methane
production and trap the gas to use as energy.
Paleoclimatology research published in
Current Biology suggests that
flatulence from dinosaurs may have warmed the
Methane concentrations up to
June 2017 (Mauna Loa)
Methane is created near the Earth's surface, primarily by
microorganisms by the process of methanogenesis . It is carried into
the stratosphere by rising air in the tropics . Uncontrolled build-up
of methane in the atmosphere is naturally checked – although human
influence can upset this natural regulation – by methane's reaction
with hydroxyl radicals formed from singlet oxygen atoms and with water
vapor. It has a net lifetime of about 10 years, and is primarily
removed by conversion to carbon dioxide and water.
In addition, there is a large (but unknown) amount of methane in
methane clathrates in the ocean floors as well as the Earth's crust .
In 2010, methane levels in the Arctic were measured at 1850 nmol/mol,
a level over twice as high as at any time in the 400,000 years prior
to the industrial revolution . Historically, methane concentrations in
the world's atmosphere have ranged between 300 and 400 nmol/mol during
glacial periods commonly known as ice ages , and between 600 and 700
nmol/mol during the warm interglacial periods. Recent research
suggests that the Earth's oceans are a potentially important new
source of Arctic methane.
Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming
potential of 34 compared to CO2 over a 100-year period, and 72 over a
The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about
150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative
forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases
(these gases don't include water vapor which is by far the largest
component of the greenhouse effect).
Methane is essentially insoluble in water, but it can be trapped in
ice forming a similar solid. Significant deposits of methane clathrate
have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of
Earth at large
Estimates consider up to 15,000 gigatonnes of carbon may be stored in
the form of clathrates (hydrates) in the ocean floor, not accounting
for abiotic methane, a relatively newly discovered source of methane,
formed below the ocean floor, in the earth crust. It has been
suggested, that today's methane emission regime from the ocean floor,
is potentially similar to that during the
Arctic methane release
Arctic methane release from permafrost and methane clathrates is an
expected consequence and further cause of global warming .
ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF METHANE
There is a group of bacteria that drive methane oxidation with
nitrite as the oxidant, the anaerobic oxidation of methane .
Methane is nontoxic , yet it is extremely flammable and may form
explosive mixtures with air.
Methane is violently reactive with
oxidizers , halogen , and some halogen-containing compounds. Methane
is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space.
Asphyxia may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below
about 16% by displacement, as most people can tolerate a reduction
from 21% to 16% without ill effects . The concentration of methane at
which asphyxiation risk becomes significant is much higher than the
5–15% concentration in a flammable or explosive mixture. Methane
off-gas can penetrate the interiors of buildings near landfills and
expose occupants to significant levels of methane. Some buildings have
specially engineered recovery systems below their basements to
actively capture this gas and vent it away from the building.
Methane gas explosions are responsible for many deadly mining
disasters. A methane gas explosion was the cause of the Upper Big
Branch coal mine disaster in
West Virginia on April 5, 2010, killing
Methane has been detected or is believed to exist on all planets of
the solar system and most of the larger moons. With the possible
Mars , it is believed to have come from abiotic
* Mercury – the tenuous atmosphere contains trace amounts of
Venus – the atmosphere contains a large amount of methane from
60 km (37 mi) to the surface according to data collected by the
Venus Large Probe Neutral
Moon – traces are outgassed from the surface
Methane (CH4) on
Mars – potential sources and sinks.
Mars – the Martian atmosphere contains 10 nmol/mol methane. The
source of methane on
Mars has not been determined. Recent research
suggests that methane may come from volcanoes , fault lines , or
methanogens , that it may be a byproduct of electrical discharges
from dust devils and dust storms , or that it may be the result of UV
radiation . In January 2009,
NASA scientists announced that they had
discovered that the planet often vents methane into the atmosphere in
specific areas, leading some to speculate this may be a sign of
biological activity below the surface. Studies of a Weather Research
and Forecasting model for
Mars (MarsWRF) and related
circulation model (MGCM) suggests that methane plume source s may be
located within tens of kilometers, which is within the roving
capabilities of future
Mars rovers . The
Curiosity rover , which
Mars in August 2012, can distinguish between different
isotopologues of methane; but even if the mission determines that
microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, it probably
resides far below the surface, beyond the rover's reach. Curiosity's
Sample Analysis at
Mars (SAM) instrument is capable of tracking the
presence of methane over time to determine if it is constant,
variable, seasonal, or random, providing further clues about its
source. The first measurements with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer
(TLS) indicated that there is less than 5 ppb of methane at the
Methane measurements in the atmosphere of Mars
Curiosity rover . The
Gas Mission orbiter planned
for launch in 2016 would further study Mars' methane and its
decomposition products such as formaldehyde and methanol .
Alternatively, these compounds may instead be replenished by volcanic
or other geological means, such as serpentinization. On July 19,
NASA scientists reported finding "not much methane" (i.e., "an
upper limit of 2.7 parts per billion of methane") around the Gale
Crater where the
Curiosity rover landed in August 2012. On
September 19, 2013, from further measurements by Curiosity, NASA
scientists reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a value
of 6999180000000000000♠0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper
limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit), and as a result,
concluded that the probability of current methanogenic microbial
Mars is reduced. On 16 December 2014,
NASA reported the
Curiosity rover detected a "tenfold spike", likely localized, in the
amount of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Sample measurements taken
"a dozen times over 20 months" showed increases in late 2013 and early
2014, averaging "7 parts of methane per billion in the atmosphere."
Before and after that, readings averaged around one-tenth that level.
Saturn – the atmosphere contains 4500 ± 2000 ppm methane
* Enceladus – the atmosphere contains 1.7% methane
* Titan – the atmosphere contains 1.6% methane and thousands of
methane lakes have been detected on the surface. In the upper
atmosphere, methane is converted into more complex molecules including
acetylene , a process that also produces molecular hydrogen . There is
evidence that acetylene and hydrogen are recycled into methane near
the surface. This suggests the presence either of an exotic catalyst,
possibly an unknown form of methanogenic life.
probably prompted by changing seasons, have also been observed. On
October 24, 2014, methane was found in polar clouds on Titan.
Polar clouds, made of methane, on Titan (left) compared with
polar clouds on
Uranus – the atmosphere contains 2.3% methane
* Ariel – methane is believed to be a constituent of Ariel's
* Oberon – about 20% of Oberon's surface ice is composed of
methane-related carbon/nitrogen compounds
* Titania – about 20% of Titania's surface ice is composed of
methane-related organic compounds
* Umbriel – methane is a constituent of Umbriel's surface ice
Neptune – the atmosphere contains 1.5 ± 0.5% methane
* Triton – Triton has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere with small
amounts of methane near the surface.
Pluto – spectroscopic analysis of Pluto's surface reveals it to
contain traces of methane
* Charon – methane is believed present on Charon, but it is not
* Eris – infrared light from the object revealed the presence of
* Halley\'s Comet
Comet Hyakutake – terrestrial observations found ethane and
methane in the comet
* Extrasolar planets – methane was detected on extrasolar planet
HD 189733b ; this is the first detection of an organic compound on a
planet outside the solar system. Its origin is unknown, since the
planet's high temperature (700 °C) would normally favor the formation
of carbon monoxide instead. Research indicates that meteoroids
slamming against exoplanet atmospheres could add hydrocarbon gases
such as methane, making the exoplanets look as though they are
inhabited by life, even if they are not.
* Interstellar clouds
* The atmospheres of M-type stars .
* Sustainable development portal
2007 Zasyadko mine disaster
Abiogenic petroleum origin
Aerobic methane production
Arctic methane emissions
Coal Oil Point seep field
Global Methane Initiative
Halomethane , halogenated methane derivatives.
Lake Kivu (more general: limnic eruption )
List of straight-chain alkanes
Methane clathrate , ice that contains methane.
Methane (data page)
Mars : atmosphere
Mars : climate
Methanogen , archaea that produce methane.
Methanogenesis , microbes that produce methane.
Methanotroph , bacteria that grow with methane.
Methyl group , a functional group related to methane.
* ^ There are many serpentinization reactions.
Olivine is a solid
solution between forsterite and fayalite whose general formula is
(Fe,Mg)2SiO4. The reaction producing methane from olivine can be
Water + Carbonic acid →
Serpentine + Magnetite +
Methane , or (in balanced form): 18 Mg2SiO4 +
6 Fe2SiO4 + 26 H2O + CO2 → 12 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 4 Fe3O4 + CH4
* ^ A B Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations
and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of
Chemistry . 2014. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4 . doi
Methane is a retained name (see P-12.3)
that is preferred to the systematic name ‘carbane’, a name never
recommended to replace methane, but used to derive the names
‘carbene’ and ‘carbyne’ for the radicals H2C2• and HC3•,
* ^ "
Gas Encyclopedia". Retrieved November 7, 2013.
* ^ "Safety Datasheet, Material Name: Methane" (PDF). USA: Metheson
Gas Incorporated. December 4, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
* ^ NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, US GOV. "METHANE".
* ^ Khalil, M. A. K. (1999). "Non-Co2 Greenhouse Gases in the
Atmosphere". Annual Review of
Energy and the Environment. 24:
645–661. doi :10.1146/annurev.energy.24.1.645 .
* ^ A B "Technical summary". Climate Change 2001. United Nations
* ^ Volta, Alessandro (1777) Lettere del Signor Don Alessandro
Volta ... Sull\' Aria Inflammabile Nativa delle Paludi , Milan, Italy:
* ^ A B "Methane". BookRags. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
* ^ See:
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on the salts of the aromatic monamines," Proceedings of the Royal
Society of London, 15 : 55-62 ; see footnote on pp. 57-58.
* James Michael McBride (1999) "Development of systematic names for
the simple alkanes". Available on-line at: Chemistry Department, Yale
University (New Haven, Connecticut).
* ^ Hensher, David A. & Button, Kenneth J. (2003). Handbook of
transport and the environment. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 168. ISBN
Methane Phase change data. NIST Chemistry Webbook.
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* ^ Wendelin Himmelheber. "Crystal structures". Retrieved
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Stephen J. (2003). "Mechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of
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* ^ Rasul, G.; Surya Prakash, G. K.; Olah, G. A. (2011).
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