HOME
The Info List - Melanesia


--- Advertisement ---



Melanesia
Melanesia
(UK: /ˌmɛləˈniːziə/; US: /ˌmɛləˈniːʒə/) is a subregion of Oceania
Oceania
extending from New Guinea
New Guinea
island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea
New Guinea
in the Northern Hemisphere. The name Melanesia
Melanesia
(in French Mélanésie) was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia
Micronesia
and Polynesia.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Languages 4 Geography 5 Political geography 6 Genetic studies 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit]

Distribution of Melanesians
Melanesians
according to Meyers Konversations-Lexikon

The name Melanesia, from Greek μέλας, black, and νῆσος, islands, etymologically means "islands of black [people]", in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The concept among Europeans of Melanesia
Melanesia
as a distinct region evolved gradually over time as their expeditions mapped and explored the Pacific. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders. In 1756 Charles de Brosses
Charles de Brosses
theorized that there was an "old black race" in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin.[1]:189–190 In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville
Jules Dumont d'Urville
identified Melanesians
Melanesians
as a distinct racial group.[2][3] :165 Over time, however, Europeans increasingly viewed Melanesia
Melanesia
as a distinct cultural, rather than racial, area. Scholars and other commentators disagreed on its boundaries, which were fluid. In the nineteenth century Robert Codrington, a British missionary, produced a series of monographs on "the Melanesians" based on his long-time residence in the region. In works including The Melanesian
Melanesian
Languages (1885) and The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folk-lore (1891), Codrington defined Melanesia
Melanesia
as including Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, and Fiji. He did not include the islands of New Guinea
New Guinea
because only some of its people were Melanesians. Like Bory de Saint-Vincent, he excluded Australia
Australia
from Melanesia.[4]:528 It was in these works that Codrington introduced the cultural concept of mana to the West.

A pan flute from the Solomon Islands, 19th century

Uncertainty about the delineation and definition of the region continues. The scholarly consensus now includes New Guinea
New Guinea
within Melanesia. Ann Chowning wrote in her 1977 textbook on Melanesia
Melanesia
that there is

no general agreement even among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia. Many apply the term only to the smaller islands, excluding New Guinea; Fiji
Fiji
has frequently been treated as an anomalous border region or even assigned wholly to Polynesia; and the people of the Torres Straits Islands are often simply classified as Australian aborigines.[5]:1

In 1998 Paul Sillitoe wrote of Melanesia: "it is not easy to define precisely, on geographical, cultural, biological, or any other grounds, where Melanesia
Melanesia
ends and the neighbouring regions ... begins".[6]:1 He ultimately concludes that the region is

a historical category which evolved in the nineteenth century from the discoveries made in the Pacific and has been legitimated by use and further research in the region. It covers populations that have a certain linguistic, biological and cultural affinity – a certain ill-defined sameness, which shades off at its margins into difference.[6]:1

Both Sillitoe and Chowning include the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
in the definition of Melanesia, and both exclude Australia. Most of the peoples in Melanesia
Melanesia
have established independent countries, are admistered by France
France
or have active independence movements (in the case of West Papua). Many have recently taken up the term 'Melanesia' as a source of identity and "empowerment". Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation".[7]:14 For instance, the author Bernard Narokobi
Bernard Narokobi
wrote about the " Melanesian
Melanesian
Way" as a distinct form of culture that could empower the people of this region. The concept is also used in geopolitics. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. History[edit]

Sailors of Melanesia
Melanesia
in the Pacific Ocean, 1846

Main article: Melanesians The people of Melanesia
Melanesia
have a distinctive ancestry. Along with the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, they are believed to derive from the Proto-Australoids who emigrated from Africa
Africa
between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago and dispersed along the southern edge of Asia, giving rise to Australoid populations in various places, including South India, Sri Lanka, the Andaman Islands, the Philippines, and others. The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia
Australia
and New Guinea
New Guinea
were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels. The first migration into Sahul came over 40,000 years ago. A further expansion into the eastern islands of Melanesia
Melanesia
came much later, probably between 4000 B.C. and 3000 B.C.

A Melanesian
Melanesian
child from Vanuatu

Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian
Austronesian
people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago,[8] came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples.[9] This Polynesian theory, however, is contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University
Temple University
in 2008. It found that neither Polynesians
Polynesians
nor Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians. It appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians
Polynesians
migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian
Melanesian
area quickly on their way, and kept going to eastern areas, where they settled. They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia.[8] Languages[edit] Further information: Melanesian
Melanesian
languages Most of the languages of Melanesia
Melanesia
are members of the Austronesian
Austronesian
or Papuan language families. By one count, there are 1,319 languages in Melanesia, scattered across a small amount of land. The proportion of 716 square kilometers per language is by far the most dense rate of languages in relation to land mass in the Earth, almost three times as dense as in Nigeria, a country famous for its high number of languages in a compact area.[10] In addition to the many indigenous languages, pidgins and creole languages have developed, often from trade and cultural interaction centuries before European encounter. Most notable among these are Tok Pisin and Hiri Motu in Papua New Guinea. They are now both considered distinct creole languages. Use of Tok Pisin
Tok Pisin
is growing. It is sometimes learned as a first language, above all by multi-cultural families. Other creoles include Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Pijin, Bislama, Papuan Malay and other related languages. Geography[edit]

Mount Tavurvur
Mount Tavurvur
in Papua New Guinea

Aerial view of the Solomon Islands.

Cinder plain of Mount Yasur
Mount Yasur
in Vanuatu

New Caledonia

A distinction is often made between the islands of New Guinea
New Guinea
and what is known as Island Melanesia, which consists of "the chain of archipelagos, islands, atolls, and reefs forming the outer bounds of the sheltered oval-shaped coral sea".[11]:5 This includes the Louisiade archipelago
Louisiade archipelago
(part of Papua New Guinea), the Bismarck Archipelago (part of Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
and Solomon Islands), and the Santa Cruz Islands
Santa Cruz Islands
(part of the country called Solomon Islands). The country of Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is composed of the New Hebrides island chain (and in the past 'New Hebrides' has also been the name of the political unit located on the islands). New Caledonia
New Caledonia
is composed of one large island and several smaller chains, including the Loyalty Islands. The nation of Fiji
Fiji
is composed of two main islands, Viti Levu
Viti Levu
and Vanua Levu, and smaller islands, including the Lau Islands. The names of islands in Melanesia
Melanesia
can be confusing: they have both indigenous and European names. National boundaries sometimes cut across archipelagos. The names of the political units in the region have changed over time, and sometimes have included geographical terms. For example, the island of Makira
Makira
was once known as San Cristobal, the name given to it by Spanish explorers. It is in the country Solomon Islands, which is a nation-state and not a contiguous archipelago. The border of Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
and Solomon Islands separates the island of Bougainville from nearby islands like Choiseul, although Bougainville is geographically part of the chain of islands that includes Choiseul and much of the Solomons. In addition to the islands mentioned here, there are many smaller islands and atolls in Melanesia. These include

Amphlett Islands, Papua New Guinea d'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea Norfolk Island, Australia
Australia
(geographically only) Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua Aru Islands, Maluku Rotuma, Fiji Schouten Islands Torres Strait Islands, politically divided between Australia
Australia
and Papua New Guinea Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea Woodlark Island, Papua New Guinea

Norfolk Island, listed above, has archaeological evidence of East Polynesian rather than Melanesian
Melanesian
settlement. Rotuma
Rotuma
in Fiji
Fiji
has strong affinities culturally and ethnologically to Polynesia. Based on ethnological factors, some of the islands to the west of the Moluccas, such as Nusa Tenggara, Celebes, Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, Borneo, Palawan Island, Malaka, Java, Sumatra, and Pantar, can also be considered to be part of Melanesia. Most people in this area do not identify with this term or use it in daily talk. Political geography[edit] The following countries are considered part of Melanesia:

 Fiji  Papua New Guinea  Solomon Islands  Vanuatu

Melanesia
Melanesia
also includes:

  New Caledonia
New Caledonia
– a dependency of France.  West Papua and  Papua – The western half of the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
( West Papua (region)
West Papua (region)
is politically part of the nation state of Indonesia. Europeans have always recognized it as geographically part of Melanesia. An independence movement, the Free Papua Movement, is active in this area.

Several Melanesian
Melanesian
states are members of intergovernmental organizations. Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
are also members of the Melanesian Spearhead Group. Genetic studies[edit] Melanesians
Melanesians
were found to have a mysterious third archaic Homo
Homo
species along with their Denisovan
Denisovan
(3–4%) and Neanderthal
Neanderthal
(2%) ancestors in a genetic admixture with their otherwise modern Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens genomes.[citation needed] Their most common Y-chromosome haplogroup is M-P256. The high occurrence of blond hair is due to a specific random mutation, so DNA and phenotype for blonds appeared at least twice in human history.[12] See also[edit]

Geography portal Oceania
Oceania
portal

Denisova hominin Melanesian
Melanesian
Brotherhood Negrito
Negrito
(of Leyte, Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
and Surigao) Papuan peoples Wallacea

References[edit]

^ Tcherkezoff, Serge (2003). "A Long and Unfortunate Voyage Toward the Invention of the Melanesia- Polynesia
Polynesia
Distinction 1595–1832". Journal of Pacific History. 38 (2): 175–196. doi:10.1080/0022334032000120521.  ^ "MAPS AND NOTES to illustrate the history of the European 'invention' of the Melanesia
Melanesia
/ Polynesia
Polynesia
distinction". Retrieved 7 March 2013.  ^ Durmont D'Urville, Jules-Sebastian-Cesar (2003). "On The Islands of The Great Ocean". Journal of Pacific History. 38 (2): 163–174. doi:10.1080/0022334032000120512.  ^ Codrington, Robert (1915). "Melanesians". Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. pp. 528–535.  ^ Chowning, Ann (1977). An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Menlo Park: Cummings Publishing Company.  ^ a b Sillitoe, Paul (1998). An Introduction to the Anthropology of Melanesia. New York: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Lawson, Stephanie (2013). "'Melanesia': The History and Politics of an Idea". Journal of Pacific History. 48 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1080/00223344.2012.760839.  ^ a b "Genome Scans Show Polynesians
Polynesians
Have Little Genetic Relationship to Melanesians", Press Release, Temple University, 17 January 2008, accessed 19 July 2015 ^ Spriggs, Matthew (1997). The Island Melanesians. Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16727-7.  ^ Landweer, M. Lynn; Unseth, Peter (2012). "An introduction to language use in Melanesia". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 214: 1–3. doi:10.1515/ijsl-2012-0017.  ^ Moore, Clive (2003). New Guinea: Crossing Boundaries and History. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press.  ^ The Origin of Blond Afros in Melanesia http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2012/05/origin-blond-afros-melanesia

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Melanesia.

Polynesian origins: Insights from the Y chromosome Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia
Melanesia
and Australia A site about West Melanesia Bird checklists for Melanesian
Melanesian
islands New Guinea: Crossing Boundaries and History – a general history of New Guinea Anglican historical texts related to Melanesia Ancient humans, dubbed 'Denisovans', interbred with us BBC News online (2010-12-22) report (with video) on study that shows that Denisovans interbred with the ancestors of the present day people of the Melanesian
Melanesian
region north and north-east of Australia. Melanesian
Melanesian
DNA comprises between 4% and 6% Denisovan
Denisovan
DNA.

Coordinates: 9°S 160°E / 9°S 160°E / -9; 160

v t e

Melanesia

Sovereign states

Fiji Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanuatu

Other political units

West Papua (region)

Papua (province) West Papua (province)

New Caledonia

Culture

People Languages Music Mythology Universities

Geography

Region Island Melanesia New Guinea Louisiade archipelago Bismarck Archipelago Santa Cruz Islands Loyalty Islands Lau Islands d'Entrecasteaux Islands Raja Ampat Islands Schouten Islands Torres Strait Islands Trobriand Islands Woodlark Island

Organizations

Melanesian
Melanesian
Spearhead Group Melanesia
Melanesia
2000

Sports

Melanesia
Melanesia
Cup Melanesian
Melanesian
Super Cup

Politics

Political parties United Liberation Movement for West Papua

Commons Category

v t e

Culture of indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania

Art

Ahu Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Hawaiʻi kapa (Hawaiʻi) Lei magimagi moai New Zealand

Māori

nguzu nguzu Oceania Papua New Guinea reimiro tā moko tabua ta'ovala tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)] tattoo tēfui tivaevae

Broad culture

areca nut kava, " ʻawa" (Hawaii), "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei) Kava
Kava
culture Lapita Māori Polynesia Polynesian navigation Sāmoa 'ava ceremony wood carving

Geo-specific, general

Australia

Australian Aboriginal astronomy)

Austronesia Caroline Islands, -Pwo Chatham Islands Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji

Lau Islands traditions and ceremonies

Guam Hawaiʻi

Lomilomi massage

Kiribati French Polynesia's Marquesas Islands Marshall Islands

Stick charts of

Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Sāmoa Solomon Islands Tonga Torres Strait Islands Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yap

navigation Weriyeng navigation school

Canoes

Aboriginal Dugout Alingano Maisu Bangka Drua Dugout (boat) Hawaiʻiloa Hōkūleʻa Kaep Karakoa Malia (Hawaiian) Māori migration Outrigger Paraw Polynesian sailing Proa Vinta Waka

list

Walap

Dance

'Aparima cibi fara fire dancing firewalking haka hivinau hula kailao kapa haka Kiribati meke 'ote'a pa'o'a poi Rotuma siva Tahiti tāmūrē tautoga Tonga 'upa'upa

Festivals

Australia

Garma Festival

Hawaiʻi

Aloha Festivals Merrie Monarch Festival World Invitational Hula
Hula
Festival

Fiji New Zealand

Pasifika Festival

The Pacific Community

Festival of Pacific Arts

Papua New Guinea

Languages

by area

v t e

Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

by category

Languages of Oceania

Literature

v t e

Literature of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Music

Austral Islands
Austral Islands
(French Polynesia) Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji Guam Hawaiʻi Kiribati Lali Melanesia Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand

Māori

Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Polynesia Sāmoa Slit drum Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

Mythology

Australian Aboriginal Fijian Hawaiian Mangarevan Maohi Māori Melanesian Menehune Micronesian Oceanian legendary creatures Polynesian Rapa Nui Samoan Tuvaluan Vanuatuan

Research

Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

People

Indigneous Australian Austronesian Bajau Chamorro Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu) Fijian (iTaukei) Igorot Hawaiian (kānaka maoli) Māori Marshallese Melanesian Micronesian Negrito Norfolk Islander Papuan Polynesian Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi) Rapa Nui Rotuman Ryukyuan Samoan (Tagata Māo‘i) Tahitian Taiwanese aborigines Tongan Torres Strait Islander Yami

Religion

v t e

Religion in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Not included: Oceanian: cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Category:Oceanian culture.

v t e

Countries and territories of Oceania

Sovereign states

Entire

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

In part

Chile

Easter Island Juan Fernández Islands

Indonesia

West Papua Papua

Japan

Bonin Islands Minami-Tori-Shima

United States

Hawaii Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand

Niue Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coral Sea
Coral Sea
Islands Norfolk Island

United States

American Samoa Baker Island Guam Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

New Zealand

Tokelau

France

French Polynesia New Caledonia Wallis and Futuna

United Kingdom

Pitcairn Islands

v t e

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the world by continent

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

South America

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
by geographic regions

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula
Hula
Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte
Leyte
Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java
Java
Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes
Celebes
Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236350358 GND: 40385

.