The Info List - Mehmed Köprülü

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Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: كپرولی محمد پاشا‎, Turkish: Köprülü Mehmet Paşa; Albanian: Mehmed Pashë Kypriljoti or Qyprilliu, also called Mehmed Pashá Rojniku; c. 1575, Roshnik,– 31 October 1661, Edirne) was the founder of the Köprülü political dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, a family of viziers, warriors, and statesmen who dominated the administration of the Ottoman Empire during the last half of the 17th century, an era known as the Köprülü era.[1] He helped rebuild the power of the empire by rooting out corruption and reorganizing the Ottoman army. As he introduced these changes, Köprülü also expanded the borders of the empire, defeating the Cossacks, the Hungarians, and most impressively, the Venetians. Köprülü's effectiveness was matched by his reputation.[2] He founded the city of Köprülü (now Veles, Macedonia) in Rumelia, where his eldest son, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed, was born.[3]


1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Rise through the imperial service 1.3 Grand Vizier 1.4 War with Venice 1.5 War with Transylvania and the Habsburgs 1.6 Revolt of Abaza Hasan Pasha 1.7 Ayazmakapi Fire 1.8 Death and legacy

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] He was born in the village of Rudnik in the Sanjak of Berat (now Albania).[4] He entered the sultan's service as a devşirme youth and was trained in the palace school.[5] Köprülü began as a kitchen boy in the imperial kitchen before transferring to the imperial treasury and then the offices of the palace chamberlain. Other officials reportedly found it difficult to work with Köprülü, and he was transferred to the sipahi (cavalry) corps in the provinces.[2] Rise through the imperial service[edit] He was first stationed in the town of Köprü in northern Turkey, which was later named Vezirköprü in his honour. He quickly rose in rank, keeping the name Köprülü, meaning from Köprü. Köprülü's former mentor, Hüsrev Pasha, rose in the imperial service and promoted Köprülü to increasingly important offices.[5] When Hüsrev was assassinated, however, Köprülü built up his own following. He eventually held important offices as head of the market police in Constantinople, supervisor of the Imperial Arsenal, chief of the Sipahi corps, and head of the corps armorers. Köprülü managed to attach himself to powerful men and somehow survived their falls without being destroyed himself. Köprülü continued to hold important offices. He eventually rose to the rank of pasha and was appointed the beylerbey (provincial governor) of the Trebizond Eyalet in 1644.[2] Later he was to rule the provinces of Eğri in 1647, of Karaman in 1648, and of Anatolia in 1650. He served as vizier of the divan for one week in 1652 before being dismissed due to the constant power struggle within the palace.[5] Over the years, Köprülü had cultivated many friendships at the sultan's court, especially with the Queen Mother Turhan Hatice Sultan , mother of the minor sultan Mehmed IV.[2] In 1656, the political situation in Ottoman Empire was critical. The war in Crete against the Venetians was still continuing. The Ottoman Navy under Kapudan Pasha (grand admiral) Kenan Pasha, in May 1656, was defeated by the Venetian and Maltese navy at the Battle of Dardanelles (1656) and the Venetian navy continued the blockade of the Canakkale Straits cutting the Ottoman army in Crete from Constantinople, the state capital. There was a political plot to unseat the reigning Sultan Mehmed IV led by important viziers including the Grand Mufti (Şeyhülislam) Hocazade Mesut Efendi. This plot was discovered, and the plotters were executed or exiled. The Mother Sultana Turhan Hatice conducted consultations and the most favored candidate for the post of Grand Vizier came out as the old and retired but experienced Köprülü Mehmed Pasha. Mehmed Efendi, the chief of scribes, and the chief architect convinced the sultan that only Köprülü Mehmed Pasha could avert disaster.[2] Grand Vizier[edit]

The Ottoman Empire reached the peak of its expansion during the administration of the Köprülü household.[6]

Köprülü was called to Istanbul, where he accepted the position of Grand Vizier on 14 September 1656.[5] As a condition of his acceptance, Köprülü demanded that the sultan decree only what Köprülü approved, allow him to make all the appointments and dismissals, and refuse to hear or accept any malicious stories that might be spread about him. He was given extraordinary powers and political rule without interference, even from the highest authority of the Sultan.[2] Köprülü had acquired the reputation of being an honest and able administrator, but he was 80 years old when he assumed office. As the Grand Vizier, his first task was to advise Sultan Mehmed IV to conduct a life of hunts and traveling around the Balkans and to reside in the old capital of Edirne, thus stopping his direct political involvement in the management of the state. On 4 January 1657, the household cavalry Sipahi troops in Constantinople started a rebellion and this was cruelly suppressed by Köprülü Mehmed Pasha with the help of Janissary troops. The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople was proven to be in treasonous contacts with the enemies of Ottoman state and Köprülü Mehmed Pasha approved of his execution. Rivals and unfriendly religious leaders were banished or executed. The support of the Janissaries was obtained once he was secure in his office. Köprülü centralized power in the empire, reviving traditional Ottoman methods of governing.[2] He ordered those who were suspected of abusing their positions or who proved to be corrupt to be removed or executed.[2] Those who failed at their tasks were punished severely, and unsuccessful military commanders often paid the supreme price. When Grand Admiral Topal Mehmed Pasha failed to break the Venetian blockade of the Dardanelles on 17 July 1657, Köprülü executed him and his principal officers on the spot. When rivals complained to Mehmed IV about the Grand Vizier's methods, Köprülü resigned, complaining that the Sultan had violated their agreement. Mehmed immediately asked Köprülü to return as Grand Vizier, because his methods showed such success at restoring Ottoman power.[2] War with Venice[edit]

Battle of the Dardanelles on 19 July 1657.

Since the resurgence of the Republic of Venice was the immediate crisis that had prompted Köprülü's appointment as grand vizier, it was important that he demonstrate his effectiveness as a leader against the Venetians. He started on a military expeditions against the Venetian blockade of Dardanelles Straits. The Ottoman navy had a victory against Venice in the Battle of the Dardanelles on 19 July 1657. This allowed Ottomans to regain some of the Aegean islands, including Bozcaada and Limni (15 November) and to open the sea-supply routes to the Ottoman Army still conducting the sieges of Crete.[2] War with Transylvania and the Habsburgs[edit] In 1658 he conducted a successful campaign in Transylvania. In Transylvania, Prince George II Rákóczi renounced his erstwhile allegiance to the sultan. He attempted to make his state into a major power, allying himself with other Protestant princes in an attempt to conquer Hungary and Poland. While Rákóczi invaded Poland in 1657, however, Köprülü sent the Crimean Tatars to attack Transylvania. They forced Rákóczi to retreat from Poland, but he refused to resume his obedience to the sultan. In response, in 1658, Köprülü himself led a large Ottoman army into Transylvania. This force defeated Rákóczi and forced him to flee to Habsburg lands.[2] War with Habsburgs continued, but Ottoman control over Transylvania was confirmed in a temporary peace. He also annexed Yanova (Jenö) on 1 August 1660 and Várad on 27 August. Revolt of Abaza Hasan Pasha[edit] Main article: Abaza Hasan Pasha Köprülü Mehmed Pasha's campaign against Transylvania was cut short by the large-scale revolt of several eastern provincial governors under the leadership of Abaza Hasan Pasha, then the governor of Aleppo. The rebels opposed Köprülü Mehmed's violent purges of the military and demanded that he be killed. However, Sultan Mehmed IV remained steadfast in his support for Köprülü and dispatched an army against the rebels under the command of Murtaza Pasha, who was then guarding the Safavid frontier. Despite assembling a force of 30,000 men and defeating Murtaza Pasha in battle, the harsh winter and fading morale eventually forced the rebels to capitulate. Abaza Hasan's revolt was finally brought to an end in February 1659 with the assassination of all the rebel commanders in Aleppo, despite promises that they would be spared.[7] Ayazmakapi Fire[edit] In July 1660 there was a big fire in Istanbul (the Ayazmakapi Fire) causing great damage to persons and buildings, leading later to a food scarcity and plague. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha became personally involved in the reconstruction affairs. The honesty and integrity in conducting state affairs by Köprülü Mehmed Pasha is shown by an episode in this task.[8] The burnt-out Jewish quarters from the Ayazmakapi Fire were decided to be compulsorily purchased by the state. Death and legacy[edit] Despite Köprülü's advanced age, he continued to display energy until the end of his life. When he fell mortally ill in 1661, the sultan came to his bedside. Köprülü convinced him to appoint his son, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, as the next grand vizier. He also allegedly advised the sultan never to take advice from a woman, never to appoint a minister who was too wealthy, to always keep the treasury full, and to always keep the army on the move.[2] Köprülü died on 31 October 1661. He left behind a well-tuned administrative machine, having restored to the Ottoman Empire its reputation for military aggressiveness and its former prestige and power internally and externally.[2] Köprülü Mehmed's victories in Transylvania would push the Ottoman border closer to Austria.[2] See also[edit]

Köprülü era Köprülü family List of Ottoman Grand Viziers


N. Sakaoğlu (1999), Bu Mülkün Sultanları, İstanbul: Oğlak.

^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300-1923. Basic Books. pp. 253–4. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Alexander Mikaberidze. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World. Retrieved 22 September 2012.  ^ Rahmi Tekin, Osmanli Atlasi, Istanbul 2003 ^ Server Rifat İskit (1960). Resemli-haritalı mufassal Osmanlı tarihi. İskit Yayını. p. 2067.  ^ a b c d Gabor Agoston, Bruce Alan Masters. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Retrieved 22 September 2012.  ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (22 July 2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 487–. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8.  ^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300-1923. Basic Books. pp. 257–62. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7.  ^ Sakaoglu, 281

External links[edit]

 "Kuprili". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Political offices

Preceded by Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire 15 September 1656 – 31 October 1661 Succeeded by Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Rise (1299–1453)

Hacıkemaleddinoğlu Alaeddin Pasha (1320–1331) Mahmudoğlu Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha (1331–1348) Hacı Pasha (1348–1349) Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha (1349–1364) Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder (1364–1387) Çandarlı Ali Pasha (1387–1406) Osmancıklı Imamzade Halil Pasha (1406–1413) Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha (1413–1421) Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder (1421–1429) Osmancıklı Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha (1429–1439) Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger (1439–1453)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Classical Age (1453–1550)

Zagan Pasha (1453–1456) Veli Mahmud Pasha (1456–1466) Rum Mehmed Pasha (1466–1469) Ishak Pasha (1469–1472) Veli Mahmud Pasha (1472–1474) Gedik Ahmed Pasha (1474–1477) Karamani Mehmed Pasha (1477–1481) Ishak Pasha (1481–1482) Koca Davud Pasha (1482–1497) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1497–1498) Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger (1498–1499) Yakub Pasha (1499–1501) Mesih Pasha (1501) Hadim Ali Pasha (1501–1503) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1503–1506) Hadim Ali Pasha (1509–1511) Koca Mustafa Pasha (1511–1512) Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha (1512–1515) Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1515–1516) Hadım Sinan Pasha (1516–1517) Yunus Pasha (1517) Piri Mehmed Pasha (1517–1523) Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha (1523–1536) Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1536–1539) Lütfi Pasha (1539–1541) Hadım Suleiman Pasha (1541–1544) Rüstem Pasha (1544–1553)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Transformation (1550–1700)

Kara Ahmed Pasha (1553–1555) Rüstem Pasha (1555–1561) Semiz Ali Pasha (1561–1565) Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (1565–1579) Şemsi Pasha (1579–1580) Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha (1580) Koca Sinan Pasha (1580–1582) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1582–1584) Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha (1584–1585) Hadim Mesih Pasha (1585–1586) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1586–1589) Koca Sinan Pasha (1589–1591) Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1591–1592) Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1592–1593) Koca Sinan Pasha (1593–1595) Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1595) Lala Mehmed Pasha (1595) Koca Sinan Pasha (1595–1596) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha (1596) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596–1597) Hadım Hasan Pasha (1597–1598) Cerrah Mehmed Pasha (1598–1599) Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1599–1601) Yemişçi Hasan Pasha (1601–1603) Yavuz Ali Pasha (1603–1604) Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha (1604–1606) Boşnak Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1606) Kuyucu Murad Pasha (1606–1611) Nasuh Pasha (1611–1614) Öküz Mehmed Pasha (1614–1616) Damat Halil Pasha (1616–1619) Öküz Mehmed Pasha (1619–1619) Güzelce Ali Pasha (1619–1621) Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha (1621) Dilaver Pasha (1621–1622) Kara Davud Pasha (1622) Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1622) Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha (1622) Gürcü Hadım Mehmed Pasha (1622–1623) Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1623) Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha (1623–1624) Çerkes Mehmed Pasha (1624–1625) Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1625–1626) Damat Halil Pasha (1626–1628) Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha (1628–1631) Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1631–1632) Topal Recep Pasha (1632) Tabanıyassı Mehmed Pasha (1632–1637) Bayram Pasha (1637–1638) Tayyar Mehmed Pasha (1638) Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha (1638–1644) Civankapıcıbaşı Sultanzade Semiz Mehmed Pasha (1644–1645) Nevesinli Salih Pasha (1645–1647) Kara Musa Pasha (1647) Hezarpare Ahmed Pasha (1647–1648) Sofu Mehmed Pasha (1648–1649) Kara Murat Pasha (1649–1650) Melek Ahmed Pasha (1650–1651) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1651) Gürcü Mehmed Pasha (1651–1652) Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha (1652–1653) Bıyıklı Koca Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1653–1654) Ibşir Mustafa Pasha (1654–1655) Kara Dev Murad Pasha (1655) Ermeni Süleyman Pasha (1655) Gazi Hüseyin Pasha (1656) Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (1656) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1656) Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha (1656) Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (1656–1661) Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (1661–1676) Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1676–1683) Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha (1683–1685) Sarı Süleyman Pasha (1685–1687) Abaza Siyavuş Pasha II (1687–1688) Ayaşlı Ismail Pasha (1688) Tekirdağlı Bekri Mustafa Pasha (1688–1689) Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (1689–1691) Bahadırzade Arabacı Ali Pasha (1691–1692) Merzifonlu Çalık Hacı Ali Pasha (1692–1693) Bozoklu (Bıyıklı) Mustafa Pasha (1694) Sürmeli Ali Pasha (1694–1695) Elmas Mehmed Pasha (1695–1697) Köprülü Amcazade Hacı Hüseyin Pasha (1697–1702)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Old Regime (1700–1789)

Daltaban Mustafa Pasha (1702–1703) Rami Mehmed Pasha (1703) Sührablı Kavanoz Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1703) Damat Hasan Pasha (1703–1704) Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha (1704) Baltacı Mehmet Pasha (1704–1706) Çorlulu Ali Pasha (1706–1710) Köprülü Numan Pasha (1710) Baltacı Mehmet Pasha (1710–1711) Gürcü Ağa Yusuf Pasha (1711–1712) Silahdar Süleyman Pasha (1712–1713) Kel Hoca Ibrahim Pasha (1713) Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha (1713–1716) Hacı Halil Pasha (1716–1717) Tevkii Nişancı Mehmed Pasha (1717–1718) Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1718–1730) Silahdar Damat Mehmet Pasha (1730–1731) Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha (1731) Topal Osman Pasha (1731–1732) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1732–1735) Gürcü Ismail Pasha (1735–1736) Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1736–1737) Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha (1737) Yeğen Mehmed Pasha (1737–1739) Ivaz Mehmed Pasha (1739–1740) Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1740–1742) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1742–1743) Seyyid Hasan Pasha (1743–1746) Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1746–1747) Seyyid Abdullah Pasha (1747–1750) Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha (1750–1752) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1752–1755) Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1755) Naili Abdullah Pasha (1755) Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha (1755) Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha (1755–1756) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1756–1757) Koca Ragıp Pasha (1757–1763) Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha (1763) Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1763–1765) Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1765–1768) Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha (1768) Yağlıkçızade Nişancı Hacı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1768–1769) Moldovancı Ali Pasha (1769) Ivazzade Halil Pasha (1769–1770) Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (1770–1771) Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1771–1774) Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1774–1775) Moralı Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1775–1777) Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha (1777–1778) Kalafat Mehmed Pasha (1778–1779) Silahdar Karavezir Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1779–1781) Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1781–1782) Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1782) Halil Hamid Pasha (1782–1785) Hazinedar Şahin Ali Pasha (1785–1786) Koca Yusuf Pasha (1786–1789) Kethüda Meyyit Hasan Pasha (1789)

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Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Decline and Modernization (1789–1922)

Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (1789–1790) Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha (1790–1791) Koca Yusuf Pasha (1791–1792) Melek Mehmed Pasha (1792–1794) Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha (1794–1798) Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1798–1805) Hafiz Ismail Pasha (1805–1806) Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha (1806–1807) Çelebi Mustafa Pasha (1807–1808) Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (1808) Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha (1808–1809) Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1809–1811) Laz Aziz Ahmed Pasha (1811–1812) Hurshid Pasha (1812–1815) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1815–1818) Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1818–1820) Seyyid Ali Pasha (1820–1821) Benderli Ali Pasha (1821) Hacı Salih Pasha (1821–1822) Deli Abdullah Pasha (1822–1823) Silahdar Ali Pasha (1823) Mehmed Said Galip Pasha (1823–1824) Mehmed Selim Pasha (1824–1828) Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1828–1829) Reşid Mehmed Pasha (1829–1833) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1833–1839) Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha (1839–1840) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1840–1841) Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1841–1842) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1842–1846) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1846–1848) Ibrahim Sarim Pasha (1848) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1848–1852) Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1852) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1852) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1852) Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha (1852–1853) Mustafa Naili Pasha (1853–1854) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1854) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1854–1855) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1855–1856) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1856–1857) Mustafa Naili Pasha (1857) Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1857–1858) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1858–1859) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1859) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1859–1860) Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1860–1861) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1861) Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1861–1866) Yusuf Kamil Pasha (1863) Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1863–1866) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1866–1867) Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1866–1871) Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1871–1872) Midhat Pasha (1872) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1872–1873) Ahmed Esad Pasha (1873) Şirvanlızade Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1873–1874) Hüseyin Avni Pasha (1874–1875) Ahmed Esad Pasha (1875) Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1875–1876) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1876–1876) Midhat Pasha (1876–1877) Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1877–1878) Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (1878) Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1878) Mehmed Sadık Pasha (1878) Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1878) Saffet Pasha (1878) Hayreddin Pasha (1878–1879) Ahmed Arifi Pasha (1879) Mehmed Said Pasha (1879–1880) Kadri Pasha (1880) Mehmed Said Pasha (1880–1882) Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha (1882) Mehmed Said Pasha (1882) Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1882) Mehmed Said Pasha (1882–1885) Kâmil Pasha (1885–1891) Ahmed Cevad Pasha (1891–1895) Mehmed Said Pasha (1895) Kâmil Pasha (1895) Halil Rifat Pasha (1895–1901) Mehmed Said Pasha (1901–1903) Mehmed Ferid Pasha (1903–1908) Mehmed Said Pasha (1908) Kâmil Pasha (1908–1909) Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1909) Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909–1910) Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (1910–1911) Mehmed Said Pasha (1911–1912) Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (1912) Kâmil Pasha (1912–1913) Mahmud Shevket Pasha (1913) Said Halim Pasha (1913–1917) Mehmed Talat Pasha (1917–1918) Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1918) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1918–1919) Damat Ferid Pasha (1919) Ali Rıza Pasha (1919–1920) Salih Hulusi Pasha (1920) Damat Ferid Pasha (1920) Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1920–1922)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23534883 LCCN: n84037237 ISNI: 0000 0000 2645 87