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In linguistics , MEANING is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

CONTENTS

* 1 The sources of ambiguity

* 1.1 Pragmatics
Pragmatics
* 1.2 Semantic meaning * 1.3 Conceptual meaning

* 2 Semiotics
Semiotics
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

THE SOURCES OF AMBIGUITY

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Ambiguity means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information. Particularly the sender may be physically absent, and the contexts explicitly divergent, such as will be the case when the receptor is a reader and the sender was a writer.

PRAGMATICS

Main article: Pragmatics
Pragmatics

Pragmatics
Pragmatics
is the study of how context affects meaning. The two primary forms of context important to pragmatics are linguistic context and situation context.

Linguistic context is how meaning is understood without relying on intent and assumptions. In applied pragmatics, for example, meaning is formed through sensory experiences, even though sensory stimulus cannot be easily articulated in language or signs. Pragmatics, then, reveals that meaning is both something affected by and affecting the world. Meaning is something contextual with respect to language and the world, and is also something active toward other meanings and the world. Linguistic context becomes important when looking at particular linguistic problems such as that of pronouns.

Situation context refers to every non-linguistic factor that affects the meaning of a phrase. An example of situation context can be seen in the phrase "it's cold in here", which can either be a simple statement of fact or a request to turn up the heat, depending on, among other things, whether or not it is believed to be in the listener's power to affect the temperature.

SEMANTIC MEANING

Main article: Semantics

Semantics is the study of how meaning is conveyed through signs and language . Understanding how facial expressions , body language , and tone affect meaning, and how words, phrases, sentences, and punctuation relate to meaning are examples. Various subgroups of semantics are studied within the fields of linguistics, logic and computing . For example, linguistic semantics includes the history of how words have been used in the past; logical semantics includes how people mean and refer in terms of likely intent and assumptions.

During the 19th century, John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
defined semantic meaning with the words "denotation" and "connotation". A denotation is the literal or primary meaning of a word. Connotations are ideas or feelings that a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning.

The original use of "meaning" as understood early in the 20th century occurred through Lady Welby , after her daughter translated the term "semantics" from French.

CONCEPTUAL MEANING

Main article: Concept
Concept

Languages allow information to be conveyed even when the specific words used are not known by the reader or listener. People connect words with meaning and use words to refer to concepts. A person's intentions affect what is meant. Meaning (in English) as intent harkens back to the Anglo-Saxons and is associated today still, with the German verb meinen as to think or intend.

SEMIOTICS

Main article: Semiotics
Semiotics

Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
in founding semiology, his original subset of the semiotics, started describing language in terms of Signs, dividing those signs in turn into signifieds and signifiers. The signifier is the perceptive side of a sign, thus the sound form in case of oral language. The signified is the signification (semantic ) side, the mental construction or image associated with the sound, by either a speaker and hearer. A sign, then, is essentially a relationship between signified and signifier.

Signs are essentially conventional , as any foreign language student is well aware: there is no reason that bat couldn't mean "body of water" or even "that bust of Napoleon over there". Since the choice of signifiers is ultimately arbitrary, the meaning cannot somehow be in the signifier. Saussure instead defers meaning to the sign itself: meaning is ultimately the same thing as the sign, and meaning means that relationship is between signified and signifier. All meaning is both within us and communal, thus cultural . Signs "mean" by reference to our internal lexicon and grammar, and despite there being a matter of convention, so the communal part, signs also, because of the individual's uniqueness, can mean something only to the individual (what red means to one person may not be what red means to another, either in absolute value, or by including what's suggested by the context). However, while meanings carried by one given set of signifiers may vary to some extent from individual to individual, only those meanings that stay within a boundary are seen by other speakers of the language to belong to the language: if one were to refer to smells as red, most other speakers would assume the person is talking nonsense (although statements like this are common among people who experience synesthesia , or in poetry).

SEE ALSO

Fields

* General Semantics , semiotics , pragmatics

Perspectives

* Logical positivism * Ordinary language philosophy
Ordinary language philosophy
* Sense and reference

Theories

* Causal theory of names * Definite descriptions * Theory of descriptions * Universal grammar

Considerations

* Ideasthesia
Ideasthesia
* Idea
Idea
* Image
Image
* Information
Information
* Meaning (non-linguistic) * Metaphor
Metaphor
* Sense * Symbol
Symbol
* Symbol
Symbol
grounding * Sphoṭa

Important theorists

* J. L. Austin * Roland Barthes
Roland Barthes
* Rudolf Carnap * Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
* Eugenio Coseriu * Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
* Viktor Frankl
Viktor Frankl
* Gottlob Frege * Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
* Paul Grice * Roman Jakobson
Roman Jakobson
* Saul Kripke * Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
* Charles Sanders Peirce * Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
* Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
* John Searle * P. F. Strawson * Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
* Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein

REFERENCES

* ^ "meaning". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. Retrieved December 18, 2016. * ^ Nick Sanchez. "Communication Process". New Jersey Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012. * ^ Fred Wilson (Jan 3, 2002). "John Stuart Mill". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford. Retrieved October 8, 2010.

FURTHER READING

* Akmajian, Adrian, Richard Demers, Ann Farmer, and Robert Harnish. Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication, 4th edition. 1995. Cambridge: MIT Press
MIT Press
. * Allan, Keith. Linguistic Meaning, Volume One. 1986. New York: Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul . * Austin, J. L. How to Do Things With Words . 1962. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press
. * Bacon, Sir Francis, Novum Organum, 1620. * Berger, Peter and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality : A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. 1967. First Anchor Books Edition. 240 pages. * Blackmore, John T., "Section 2, Communication", Foundation theory, 2000. Sentinel Open Press. * Blackmore, John T., "Prolegomena", Ernst Mach's Philosophy - Pro and Con, 2009. Sentinel Open Press. * Blackmore, John T. Semantic Dialogues or Ethics versus Rhetoric, 2010, Sentinel Open Press * Chase, Stuart, The Tyranny of Words, New York, 1938. Harcourt, Brace and Company * Davidson, Donald. Inquiries into Truth
Truth
and Meaning, 2nd edition. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * Dummett, Michael. Frege: Philosophy of Language, 2nd Edition. 1981. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * Frege, Gottlob. The Frege Reader. Edited by Michael Beaney. 1997. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing * Gauker, Christopher. Words without Meaning. 2003. MIT Press * Goffman, Erving. Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. 1959. Anchor Books. * Grice, Paul. Studies in the Way of Words. 1989. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * Hayakawa, S.I. The Use and Misuse of Language, 11th edition, 1962 . Harper and Brothers . * James, William. William James on Habit, Will, Truth, and the Meaning of Life. Edited by James Sloan Allen. 2014. Savannah: Frederic C. Beil, Publisher. * Ogden, C.K. and I.A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning, New York, 1923. Harcourt Brace MARGIN:0 4EM">LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Analytic philosophy
Analytic philosophy

PHILOSOPHERS

* J. L. Austin * A. J. Ayer
A. J. Ayer
* Elizabeth Anscombe
Elizabeth Anscombe
* Nick Bostrom
Nick Bostrom
* Robert Brandom * C. D. Broad * Patricia Churchland * David Chalmers * Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
* Donald Davidson * Daniel Dennett
Daniel Dennett
* Michael Dummett * Paul Feyerabend
Paul Feyerabend
* Antony Flew * Bas van Fraassen * Gottlob Frege * Jerry Fodor
Jerry Fodor
* Philippa Foot * Peter Geach * Paul Grice * Ian Hacking
Ian Hacking
* R. M. Hare * Carl Gustav Hempel * Peter van Inwagen * Christine Korsgaard
Christine Korsgaard
* Saul Kripke * Thomas Kuhn * David Lewis * Alasdair MacIntyre
Alasdair MacIntyre
* J. L. Mackie * Norman Malcolm * John McDowell * G. E. Moore * Ernest Nagel * Thomas Nagel
Thomas Nagel
* Robert Nozick
Robert Nozick
* Derek Parfit * Alvin Plantinga * Karl Popper
Karl Popper
* Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam
* W. V. O. Quine * John Rawls * Hans Reichenbach * Richard Rorty
Richard Rorty
* Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
* Gilbert Ryle * Moritz Schlick * John Searle * Wilfrid Sellars * Peter Singer * Richard Swinburne * Charles Taylor * Michael Walzer * Bernard Williams
Bernard Williams
* Timothy Williamson * Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein

THEORIES

* Actualism * Analytical feminism * Analytical Marxism
Analytical Marxism
* Anti-realism * Berlin Circle * Descriptivist theory of names * Emotivism
Emotivism
* Functional contextualism * Linguistic turn * Logical positivism * Modal realism * Model-dependent realism * Neopragmatism * Neurophilosophy * Ordinary language philosophy
Ordinary language philosophy
* Postanalytic philosophy * Pragmatic theory of truth * Verificationism * Vienna Circle
Vienna Circle

CONCEPTS

* Analysis
Analysis
* Analytic–synthetic distinction
Analytic–synthetic distinction
* Causal / Deductive / epistemic closure * Concept
Concept
* Counterfactual * Denotation / reference * Definite description * Factive * Family resemblance * Intuition * Meaning ( Proposition ) * Modality * Natural kind / projectability * Necessary–sufficient conditions * Paradox of analysis * Possible world * Reduction * Reflective equilibrium * Rigid–flaccid designators * Sense data * Supervenience * Thought experiment * Truth function * Truthmaker * Truth-bearer * Type–token distinction

RELATED ARTICLES

* Aretaic turn * Australian realism * Communitarianism
Communitarianism
* Ordinary language philosophy
Ordinary language philosophy
* Philosophical logic * Philosophy of language
Philosophy of language
* Philosophy of science
Philosophy of science
* Postanalytic philosophy

* Index * Category

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Philosophy of language
Philosophy of language

PHILOSOPHERS

* Plato
Plato
(Cratylus ) * Gorgias
Gorgias
* Confucius
Confucius
* Xunzi * Aristotle
Aristotle
* Stoics * Pyrrhonists * Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Ibn Rushd * Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
* Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
* Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
* Johann Herder * Ludwig Noiré * Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
* Fritz Mauthner * Paul Ricœur * Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
* Gottlob Frege * Franz Boas
Franz Boas
* Paul Tillich * Edward Sapir
Edward Sapir
* Leonard Bloomfield * Zhuangzi * Henri Bergson
Henri Bergson
* Lev Vygotsky

* Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein

* Philosophical Investigations * Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

* Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
* Rudolf Carnap

* Jacques Derrida

* Of Grammatology * Limited Inc

* Benjamin Lee Whorf
Benjamin Lee Whorf
* Gustav Bergmann * J. L. Austin * Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
* Hans-Georg Gadamer
Hans-Georg Gadamer
* Saul Kripke * A. J. Ayer
A. J. Ayer
* G. E. M. Anscombe * Jaakko Hintikka * Michael Dummett * Donald Davidson * Roger Gibson * Paul Grice * Gilbert Ryle * P. F. Strawson * Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine
* Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam
* David Lewis * John Searle * Joxe Azurmendi * Scott Soames * Stephen Yablo * John Hawthorne * Stephen Neale
Stephen Neale
* Paul Watzlawick
Paul Watzlawick

THEORIES

* Causal theory of reference * Contrast theory of meaning * Contrastivism * Conventionalism * Cratylism * Deconstruction * Descriptivist theory of names * Direct reference theory * Dramatism * Expressivism * Linguistic determinism * Logical atomism
Logical atomism
* Logical positivism * Mediated reference theory * Nominalism * Non-cognitivism * Phallogocentrism * Quietism * Relevance theory * Semantic externalism * Semantic holism * Structuralism
Structuralism
* Supposition theory * Symbiosism * Theological noncognitivism * Theory of descriptions * Verification theory

CONCEPTS

* Ambiguity * Linguistic relativity
Linguistic relativity
* Meaning * Language
Language
* Truth-bearer * Proposition * Use–mention distinction * Concept
Concept
* Categories * Set * Class * Intension * Logical form * Metalanguage * Mental representation * Principle of compositionality * Property * Sign * Sense and reference * Speech act * Symbol
Symbol
* Entity * Sentence * Statement * MORE...

RELATED ARTICLES

* Analytic philosophy
Analytic philosophy
* Philosophy of information * Philosophical logic * Linguistics
Linguistics
* Pragmatics
Pragmatics
* Rhetoric
Rhetoric
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Semiotics

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Definition
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Description
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Name
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Probability
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Reason
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Reference
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Truth
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