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In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.[1][2]

Contents

1 The sources of ambiguity

1.1 Pragmatics 1.2 Semantic meaning 1.3 Conceptual meaning

2 Semiotics 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

The sources of ambiguity[edit]

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Ambiguity
Ambiguity
means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity
Ambiguity
is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information. Particularly the sender may be physically absent, and the contexts explicitly divergent, such as will be the case when the receptor is a reader and the sender was a writer. Pragmatics[edit] Main article: Pragmatics Pragmatics
Pragmatics
is the study of how context affects meaning. The two primary forms of context important to pragmatics are linguistic context and situation context. Linguistic context is how meaning is understood without relying on intent and assumptions. In applied pragmatics, for example, meaning is formed through sensory experiences, even though sensory stimulus cannot be easily articulated in language or signs. Pragmatics, then, reveals that meaning is both something affected by and affecting the world. Meaning is something contextual with respect to language and the world, and is also something active toward other meanings and the world. Linguistic context becomes important when looking at particular linguistic problems such as that of pronouns. Situation context refers to every non-linguistic factor that affects the meaning of a phrase. An example of situation context can be seen in the phrase "it's cold in here", which can either be a simple statement of fact or a request to turn up the heat, depending on, among other things, whether or not it is believed to be in the listener's power to affect the temperature. Semantic meaning[edit] Main article: Semantics The relationship between words and their referents is called semantic.[3] Semantics is the study of how meaning is conveyed through signs and language. Understanding how facial expressions, body language, and tone affect meaning, and how words, phrases, sentences, and punctuation relate to meaning are examples. Various subgroups of semantics are studied within the fields of linguistics, logic and computing. For example, linguistic semantics includes the history of how words have been used in the past; logical semantics includes how people mean and refer in terms of likely intent and assumptions. During the 19th century, John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
defined semantic meaning with the words "denotation" and "connotation".[4] A denotation is the literal or primary meaning of a word. Connotations are ideas or feelings that a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning. The original use of "meaning" as understood early in the 20th century occurred through Lady Welby, after her daughter translated the term "semantics" from French. Conceptual meaning[edit] Main article: Concept Languages allow information to be conveyed even when the specific words used are not known by the reader or listener. People connect words with meaning and use words to refer to concepts. A person's intentions affect what is meant. Meaning (in English) as intent harkens back to the Anglo-Saxons and is associated today still, with the German verb meinen as to think or intend. Semiotics[edit] Main article: Semiotics Ferdinand de Saussure, in founding semiology, his original subset of the semiotics, started describing language in terms of Signs, dividing those signs in turn into signifieds and signifiers. The signifier is the perceptive side of a sign, thus the sound form in case of oral language. The signified is the signification (semantic) side, the mental construction or image associated with the sound, by either a speaker and hearer. A sign, then, is essentially a relationship between signified and signifier. Signs are essentially conventional, as any foreign language student is well aware: there is no reason that bat couldn't mean "body of water" or even "that bust of Napoleon over there". Since the choice of signifiers is ultimately arbitrary, the meaning cannot somehow be in the signifier. Saussure instead defers meaning to the sign itself: meaning is ultimately the same thing as the sign, and meaning means that relationship is between signified and signifier. All meaning is both within us and communal, thus cultural. Signs "mean" by reference to our internal lexicon and grammar, and despite there being a matter of convention, so the communal part, signs also, because of the individual's uniqueness, can mean something only to the individual (what red means to one person may not be what red means to another, either in absolute value, or by including what's suggested by the context). However, while meanings carried by one given set of signifiers may vary to some extent from individual to individual, only those meanings that stay within a boundary are seen by other speakers of the language to belong to the language: if one were to refer to smells as red, most other speakers would assume the person is talking nonsense (although statements like this are common among people who experience synesthesia, or in poetry). See also[edit]

Fields

General Semantics, semiotics, pragmatics

Perspectives

Logical positivism Ordinary language philosophy Sense and reference

Theories

Causal theory of names Definite descriptions Theory of descriptions Universal grammar

Considerations

Ideasthesia Idea Image Information Meaning (non-linguistic) Metaphor Sense Symbol Symbol
Symbol
grounding Sphoṭa

Important theorists

J. L. Austin Roland Barthes Rudolf Carnap Noam Chomsky Eugenio Coseriu Umberto Eco Viktor Frankl Gottlob Frege Edmund Husserl Paul Grice Roman Jakobson Saul Kripke Claude Lévi-Strauss Charles Sanders Peirce Bertrand Russell Ferdinand de Saussure John Searle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Ludwig Wittgenstein

References[edit]

^ "meaning". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ Nick Sanchez. "Communication Process". New Jersey Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012.  ^ https://tr.scribd.com/document/137895627/%D0%92-%D0%9D-%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2-%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0 ^ Fred Wilson (Jan 3, 2002). "John Stuart Mill". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford. Retrieved October 8, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Akmajian, Adrian, Richard Demers, Ann Farmer, and Robert Harnish. Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication, 4th edition. 1995. Cambridge: MIT Press. Allan, Keith. Linguistic Meaning, Volume One. 1986. New York: Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul. Austin, J. L. How to Do Things With Words. 1962. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Bacon, Sir Francis, Novum Organum, 1620. Berger, Peter and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality : A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. 1967. First Anchor Books Edition. 240 pages. Blackmore, John T., "Section 2, Communication", Foundation theory, 2000. Sentinel Open Press. Blackmore, John T., "Prolegomena", Ernst Mach's Philosophy - Pro and Con, 2009. Sentinel Open Press. Blackmore, John T. Semantic Dialogues or Ethics versus Rhetoric, 2010, Sentinel Open Press Chase, Stuart, The Tyranny of Words, New York, 1938. Harcourt, Brace and Company Davidson, Donald. Inquiries into Truth
Truth
and Meaning, 2nd edition. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dummett, Michael. Frege: Philosophy of Language, 2nd Edition. 1981. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Frege, Gottlob. The Frege Reader. Edited by Michael Beaney. 1997. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Gauker, Christopher. Words without Meaning. 2003. MIT Press Goffman, Erving. Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. 1959. Anchor Books. Grice, Paul. Studies in the Way of Words. 1989. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hayakawa, S.I. The Use and Misuse of Language, 11th edition, 1962 [1942]. Harper and Brothers. James, William. William James on Habit, Will, Truth, and the Meaning of Life. Edited by James Sloan Allen. 2014. Savannah: Frederic C. Beil, Publisher. Ogden, C.K. and I.A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning, New York, 1923. Harcourt Brace
Harcourt Brace
& World. Schiller, F.C.S., Logic
Logic
for Use, London, 1929. G. Bell. Searle, John and Daniel Vanderveken. Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. 1985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, John. Speech Acts. 1969. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, John. Expression and Meaning. 1979. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stonier, Tom: Information
Information
and Meaning. An Evolutionary Perspective. 1997. XIII, 255 p. 23,5 cm.

External links[edit]

"Conceptual role semantics" by Ned Block A summary of Wittgenstein's view of meaning Meaning at CCMS Meaning from a translator's point of view Meaning.ch - research group Semiotics
Semiotics
and Saussure at CCMS USECS as the general catalog of meanings

Links to related articles

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Analytic philosophy

Philosophers

J. L. Austin A. J. Ayer G. E. M. Anscombe Nick Bostrom Robert Brandom C. D. Broad Patricia Churchland David Chalmers Noam Chomsky James F. Conant Alice Crary Donald Davidson Daniel Dennett Cora Diamond Michael Dummett Paul Feyerabend Antony Flew Bas van Fraassen Gottlob Frege Jerry Fodor Philippa Foot Peter Geach Paul Grice Ian Hacking R. M. Hare Carl Gustav Hempel Peter van Inwagen Christine Korsgaard Saul Kripke Thomas Kuhn David Lewis Alasdair MacIntyre J. L. Mackie Norman Malcolm John McDowell G. E. Moore Ernest Nagel Thomas Nagel Robert Nozick Derek Parfit Alvin Plantinga Karl Popper Hilary Putnam W. V. O. Quine John Rawls Hans Reichenbach Richard Rorty Bertrand Russell Gilbert Ryle Moritz Schlick John Searle Wilfrid Sellars Peter Singer Richard Swinburne Charles Taylor Michael Walzer Bernard Williams Timothy Williamson Ludwig Wittgenstein

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Actualism Analytical feminism Analytical Marxism Anti-realism Berlin Circle Descriptivist theory of names Emotivism Functional contextualism Linguistic turn Logical positivism Modal realism Model-dependent realism Neopragmatism Neurophilosophy Ordinary language philosophy Postanalytic philosophy Pragmatic theory of truth Verificationism Vienna Circle

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Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction Causal / Deductive / epistemic closure Concept Counterfactual Denotation / reference Definite description Factive Family resemblance Intuition Meaning (Proposition) Modality Natural kind / projectability Necessary–sufficient conditions Paradox
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Bertrand Russell Rudolf Carnap Jacques Derrida

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Ambiguity Linguistic relativity Meaning Language Truth-bearer Proposition Use–mention distinction Concept Categories Set Class Intension Logical form Metalanguage Mental representation Principle of compositionality Property Sign Sense and reference Speech act Symbol Entity Sentence Statement more...

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