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Mazovia
Mazovia
(Polish: Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland. The borders of the Mazovian Voivodeship, which was created in 1999, do not reflect exactly its original shape (they do not include the historically Mazovian Łomża
Łomża
and Łowicz, meanwhile include the Lesser Polish Radom
Radom
and Siedlce), but are roughly similar. Historical Mazovia
Mazovia
existed from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
until the partitions of Poland
Poland
and consisted of three voivodeships with the capitals in Warszawa, Płock
Płock
and Rawa Mazowiecka. In a narrower sense, the Mazovian Voivodeship
Mazovian Voivodeship
was only the first of them (which however encompassed most of the region, only without the western lands). Between 1816 and 1844, another Mazovian Voivodeship
Mazovian Voivodeship
(from 1837, Governorate) existed, encompassing the south of the region (along with Łęczyca Land
Łęczyca Land
and south-eastern Kujawy). In the Middle Ages, the main city of the region was Płock,[1] but in the Early Modern Times
Early Modern Times
it lost importance in favour of Warsaw. From 1138, Mazovia
Mazovia
had a separate branch of the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
and was incorporated to the Polish Crown as late as in the 15th and 16th centuries. As much as over 20% of Mazovian population was the yeomanry (drobna szlachta). The inhabitants of Mazovia
Mazovia
are the Mazurzy
Mazurzy
(in the singular: Mazur) – hence the region of Masuria, settled by them.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Mazovian dialect 4 Economy 5 Tourism 6 Mazovian cuisine 7 Main cities and towns 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References

Geography[edit]

Kampinos National Park

Mazovia
Mazovia
has a landscape without hills (in contrast to Lesser Poland) and without lakes (in contrast to Greater Poland). It is spread over the Mazovian Lowland, on both sides of the Vistula
Vistula
river and its confluence with Narew
Narew
and Bug. Forests (mainly coniferous) cover one-fifth of the region, with the large Kampinos Forest, Puszcza Biała and Puszcza Zielona. In the north Mazovia
Mazovia
borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland
Poland
and in the west on Greater Poland
Poland
(subregions of Łęczyca Land, Kujawy and Dobrzyń Land). The area of Mazovia
Mazovia
is 33,500 km2. It has population of 5 million (3 million of them inhabit the metropolis of Warsaw). History[edit] When the Slavs came to this region from the surrounding area of Polesie, they mingled with the descendants of Vistula
Vistula
Veneti[2][3] and with other people who had settled here such as the Wielbark people.[4] This created a Lechitic tribe: Mazovians. The historical region of Mazovia
Mazovia
(Mazowsze) in the beginning encompassed only the territories on the right bank of Vistula
Vistula
near Płock
Płock
and had strong connections with Greater Poland
Poland
(through Włocławek
Włocławek
and Kruszwica). In the period of the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast State, Płock
Płock
was one of their seats, and on the Cathedral
Cathedral
Hill (Wzgórze Tumskie) they raised palatium. In the period 1037–1047 it was the capital of the independent, Mazovian state of Masław. Between 1079 and 1138 this city was de facto the capital of Poland. Since 1075 it has been the seat of the diocese encompassing northern Mazovia; the south formed the archdeaconate of Czersk belonging to Poznań, and the Duchy of Łowicz
Łowicz
was part of the Gniezno archdiocese (this division remained as long as until the Partitions of Poland). During the 9th century Mazovia
Mazovia
was perhaps inhabited by the tribe of Mazovians, and it was incorporated into the Polish state in the second half of 10th century under the Piast ruler Mieszko I. In 1138 the duchy of Mazovia
Mazovia
was established, and during the 12th and 13th centuries it joined temporarily various adjacent lands and endured invasions of Prussians, Yotvingians, and Ruthenians. To protect its northern section Conrad I of Masovia
Conrad I of Masovia
called in the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1226 and granted them the Chełmno Land. After the reunification of the Polish state by Władysław I in the early 14th century, Mazovia
Mazovia
became its fief in 1351. In the second half of 15th century western Mazovia
Mazovia
and in 1526/1529 the main part (with its capital in Warsaw) was incorporated into the Polish state. In the 15th century eastern part of the region (Łomża) was settled, mainly by the yeomanry (drobna szlachta). Mazovia
Mazovia
was considered underdeveloped in comparison with Greater Poland
Poland
and Lesser Poland, with the lowest urban population. Further information: Duchy of Mazovia In the Early Modern Times
Early Modern Times
Mazovia
Mazovia
was known for exporting grain, timber, and fur. It was also distinct because there was no reformation here. Mazovia
Mazovia
was divided into three voivodeships, each of them divided into lands (Polish: ziemie, Latin: terrae), each of them divided into counties (Polish: powiaty, Latin: districtus). The Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
(1569) established Mazovia
Mazovia
as the central region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Warsaw rising to prominence as the seat of the state legislature (sejm). In 1596 King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
moved the Polish capital from Kraków
Kraków
to Warsaw. During the 17th and 18th centuries Swedish, Transylvanian, Saxon, and Russian invasions wreaked havoc on the region. In 1793 western Mazovia, and two years later the rest of the region became part of Prussia (only the south-eastern portion was annexed by Austria). In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the region was incorporated into the Congress Kingdom of Poland, which was dependent on Russia. In the 19th century Mazovia
Mazovia
was the site of Polish rebellions against Russian rule. In that era pre-partition Mazovia
Mazovia
was divided among Warsaw, Płock
Płock
and Augustów
Augustów
(the last one replaced later by Łomża). Since 1918 Mazovia
Mazovia
has been a part of the resurrected Poland, being roughly equivalent to the Warsaw
Warsaw
Voivodeship. Under the German occupation of Warsaw
Warsaw
during World War II, the city’s population decreased sharply as a result of executions, the extermination of the city’s Jews, the deaths of some 200,000 inhabitants during the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising of 1944, and the deportation of the city’s left-bank population following the uprising. Shortly after the uprising, Adolf Hitler ordered German troops to destroy the city. The rebuilding of the Polish capital was the main task of the postwar period.[5] Those times Warsaw
Warsaw
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
was still roughly similar to historical Mazovia
Mazovia
and used to be informally called so, but in 1975 it was divided into several little voivodeships. However, in 1999 Masovian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
was created as one of 16 administrative regions of Poland.

Folk costumes from Łowicz
Łowicz
subregion

Folk costumes from Kurpie
Kurpie
subregion

Mazovian dialect[edit] Further information: Masovian dialect The Mazovian language probably existed as a separate dialect until the 20th century.[6][7][8][9][10] The ethnonym Mazur has given the name for a phonetic phenomenon known as mazurzenie (although it is common in the Lesser Polish dialect
Lesser Polish dialect
as well). Economy[edit] Mazovian Voivodeship
Mazovian Voivodeship
is ranked decidedly first in Poland
Poland
according to the Gross Domestic Product.[11] This is thanks to Warsaw, which is the financial capital of East-Central Europe.[12][13] The majority of state enterprises are headquartered in this metropolis. It is a hub for both rail and vehicular traffic, with access throughout Poland
Poland
and across Europe. Warsaw
Warsaw
Chopin Airport is the nation’s busiest. There are many branches of industry and sercives well developed in this city. The other eonomical center is Płock, where large petrochemical plants PKN Orlen
PKN Orlen
operate. The rest of Mazovia
Mazovia
belongs to the poorest parts of Poland. In the agriculture the most typical Mazovian crops are potatoes and rye, but the most popular (as in whole Poland) is wheat. Others are barley, sugar beets, fruits (with their biggest Polish basin in the south of the region), and vegetables. Pigs are commonly bred, often also cows and chickens. Tourism[edit] Kampinos National Park
Kampinos National Park
is one of Poland’s largest national parks and is popular with tourists making day trips from Warsaw
Warsaw
to hike among the park’s primeval forests, sand dunes, and marshland. The main cultural centre of the region, and, alongside Kraków, in all of Poland, is Warsaw, which is home to dozens of theatres, the National Philharmonic, the National Opera House, the National Library, the National Museum, Centrum Nauki Kopernik, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego, Temple of Divine Providence, and the Sanctuary of Blessed Jerzy Popiełuszko. Warsaw
Warsaw
has many magnificent historic buildings and monuments, including those in the Old Town and the New Town, both of which were almost completely demolished during World War II but were meticulously restored and were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1980. Several important edifices has been built at the adjacent street Krakowskie Przedmieście. There are also royal palaces and gardens of Łazienki
Łazienki
and Wilanów. The most interesting building from post-war period is Pałac Kultury i Nauki. Historical monuments elsewhere include the manor house in Żelazowa Wola
Żelazowa Wola
where composer Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
was born and his museum is located nowadays. Płock, once the seat of the Mazovian princes, and Łowicz, the residence of the archbishops of Gniezno, are noted for their cathedrals. There are also palaces and parks in Nieborów
Nieborów
and Arkadia, the Modlin Fortress, castles in Czersk, Pułtusk, Ciechanów, Opinogóra, Rawa Mazowiecka, Sochaczew
Sochaczew
and Liw, as well as churches in Niepokalanów, Góra Kalwaria, Warka, Skierniewice, Czerwińsk, Wyszogród, Zakroczym, Szreńsk, Przasnysz, Ostrołęka, Łomża, Szczuczyn, Wizna, Brok, Zuzela, Rostkowo, and Boguszyce. Interesting folklore is found in the subregion of Kurpie; another skansen has been established in Sierpc.[14] Mazovian cuisine[edit] There is no specific regional cuisine of Mazovia. Formerly, dairy foods dominated the peasant cuisine. Nobles used poultry, geese, chickens, ducks. Most separate Mazovian culinary region's is Kurpie and Łowicz, where traditional dishes survive to the present day. In Kurpie
Kurpie
traditional dishes are prepared with ingredients collected in the forest: berries, honey and mushrooms. There are several traditional Polish dishes, e.g. flaki, kluski, which are prepared in different way than in other parts of Poland.[15][16] Main cities and towns[edit]

Warsaw
Warsaw
Old Town

Płock
Płock
Castle

Łomża
Łomża
Cathedral

Sokół Palace
Palace
in Pruszków

The following table lists the cities in Mazovia
Mazovia
with a population greater than 20,000 (2015):

City Population (2015)[17] Voivodeship
Voivodeship
in 1750 Voivodeship
Voivodeship
in 2016 Additional information

1. Warsaw 1 724 404 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.

2. Płock 122 815 Płock
Płock
Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Historical capital of Masovia, former capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.

3. Łomża 62 711 Masovian Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

4. Pruszków 59 570 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

5. Legionowo 54 231 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

6. Ostrołęka 52 917 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

7. Skierniewice 48 634 Rawa Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship Former private bishop town of Poland.

8. Otwock 45 044 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

9. Piaseczno 44 869 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland, part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

10. Ciechanów 44 797 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

11. Żyrardów 41 096 Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship

12. Mińsk Mazowiecki 39 880 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

13. Wołomin 37 505 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

14. Sochaczew 37 480 Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

15. Ząbki 31 884 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

16. Mława 30 880 Płock
Płock
Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

17. Grodzisk Mazowiecki 29 907 Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former private town of the Mokronoski family, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.

18. Łowicz 29 420 Rawa Voivodeship Łódź Voivodeship Temporary de facto capital of Poland
Poland
in years 1572-1573, former private bishop town.

19. Marki 29 032 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

20. Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki 28 287 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former private town, part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

21. Wyszków 27 222 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former private bishop town of Poland.

22. Piastów 22 826 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

23. Ostrów Mazowiecka 22 796 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

24. Płońsk 22 494 Płock
Płock
Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

25. Zambrów 22 451 Masovian Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.

26. Grajewo 22 246 Masovian Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Northernmost and easternmost town of Mazovia. It borders the regions of Podlachia
Podlachia
and Masuria.

27. Kobyłka 20 855 Masovian Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw
Warsaw
metropolitan area.

Gallery[edit]

Niepokalanów

Franciscan
Franciscan
Church in Ostrołęka

Góra Kalwaria

Ciechanów
Ciechanów
Castle

Nieborów
Nieborów
Palace

Łowicz
Łowicz
Cathedral

Pułtusk
Pułtusk
City Hall

St. Jacob Church in Skierniewice

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Masovia.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mazovia

Look up Masovia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Świdermajer
Świdermajer
– an architectural style in the area

References[edit]

^ Mazowsze: Obraz Etnograficzny, Volume 1, by Wojciech Gerson and Oskar Kolberg, BiblioBazaar, 2009 - 372 pages ^ Roland Steinacher: Vandalen. Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Band 15/3. Metzler, Stuttgart 2003, S. 942–946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4 ^ Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihre Nachwirkungen bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: Walter Pohl (Hrsg.): Die Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters; Bd. 8). Verlag der ÖAW, Wien 2004, S. 329–353, ISBN 3-7001-3296-4. ^ J. Piontek et al. "Odontological analysis of central european populations from the Roman period and the Early Middle Ages". Humanbiologia Budapestinensis. 30. 2007. pp. 77-86. [1] ^ "Mazowieckie province, Poland
Poland
Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ "Full text of "Historya Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego: Srednie wieki i odrodzenie. Z wstepem o Uniwersytecie ..."". archive.org. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ Felicyan Antoni Kozłowski (1858). Dzieje Mazowsża za panowania książat. Warszawa.  ^ Kopernikijana czyli materyaly do pism i zycia Mikolaja Kopernika. 1873.  ^ Maciejowski, W.A. (1852). Piśmiennictwo polskie, od czasów najdawniejszych aż do roku 1830: z rękopisów i druków zebrawszy, w obrazie literatury polskiej historycznie skreślonym. 2. Nakładem i drukiem S. Orgelbranda. p. 327. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ "Mitteilungen : Literarische Gesellschaft Masovia : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ "Mazowsze jest i będzie najbogatsze w Polsce - Analizy rynku - Forsal.pl - Giełda, Waluty, Finanse – forex, notowania NBP, surowce". forsal.pl. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ Warsaw: Central Europe's Bourse to Beat - BusinessWeek ^ Warsaw
Warsaw
makes bid to become Central Europe’s financial hub – Taipei Times ^ "Mazowieckie province, Poland
Poland
Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 10 April 2015.  ^ Kuchnia Mazowsza i Kurpiów – Kuchnia Polska ^ Potrawy mazowieckie – Kuron.com.pl ^ http://www.polskaw

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