Mayor of London
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The mayor of London is the chief executive of the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the Uni ...
. The role was created in 2000 after the Greater London devolution referendum in 1998, and was the first directly elected mayor in the United Kingdom. The current mayor is
Sadiq Khan Sadiq Aman Khan (; born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016. He previously was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting (UK Parliament constituency), Tooting from 20 ...

Sadiq Khan
, who took office on 9 May 2016. The position was held by
Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London The Mayor of London is the h ...

Ken Livingstone
from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000 until he was defeated in May 2008 by
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2019. He was Secretary of State for Foreign and Com ...
, who then also served two terms before being succeeded by Khan. The mayor is scrutinised by the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London The Mayor of London is the head of the executive of the Greater London Authority. The current m ...
and, supported by their Mayoral Cabinet, directs the entirety of London, including the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It co ...
(for which there is also the ceremonial
lord mayor of the City of London Lord is an appellation for a person or deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion) ...
). Each
London Borough The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a London borough council. The present London boroughs were ...

London Borough
also has a ceremonial mayor or, in Hackney,
Lewisham Lewisham () is an area of south east London, England, south of Charing Cross. It is the principal area of the London Borough of Lewisham, and is also within the Historic counties of England, historic county of Kent. It is identified in the Londo ...
,
Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough created in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. It covers an area previously administered by the Essex Essex () is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in the south-east of England, ...
and
Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London boroughs, London borough located in East London; it covers much of the traditional East End of London, East End. It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan boroughs of the Co ...
, an elected mayor.


Background

The
Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. Thi ...
, the elected government for Greater London, was abolished in 1986 by the
Local Government Act 1985 The Local Government Act 1985 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most cou ...
. Strategic functions were split off to various joint arrangements. Londoners voted in a referendum in 1998 to create a new governance structure for Greater London. The directly elected mayor of London was created by the
Greater London Authority Act 1999 The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (c. 29) is the Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council) ...
in 2000 as part of the reforms.


Elections

The mayor is elected by the
supplementary vote The supplementary vote (SV) is an electoral system used to elect a single winner, in which the voter ranks the candidates in order of preference. In an election, if no candidate receives an absolute majority of first preference votes, then all but ...
method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May. As with most elected posts in the United Kingdom, there is a deposit (in this case of £10,000), which is returnable on the candidate's winning of at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast.


Most recent election

The most recent London mayoral election was held on 6 May 2021, having been delayed from May 2020 due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. The results were announced in the evening of 8 May. Sadiq Khan was re-elected for a second term, beating the Conservative Shaun Bailey in the second round.


List of mayors


Timeline

;Timeline ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:20 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:50 right:130 left:20 AlignBars = late DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/2000 till:01/01/2022 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1 start:01/01/2000 Colors = id:con value:rgb(0.094,0.525,0.8) legend:Conservative id:lab value:rgb(0.937,0.094,0.129) legend:Labour id:ind value:rgb(0.8,0.8,0.8) legend:Independent Legend = columns:1 left:150 top:24 columnwidth:100 TextData = pos:(20,27) textcolor:black fontsize:M text:"Mayors:" BarData = barset:PM bar:Livingstone bar:Johnson bar:Khan PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:PM bar:Livingstone from: 04/05/2000 till: 10/06/2004 color:ind fontsize:10 from: 10/06/2004 till: 04/05/2008 color:lab text:"
Livingstone Livingstone is a surname and given name. The surname is toponymic. It is one of the habitual surnames eventually adopted by members of the Scottish branch of the Irish Dunleavy (Gaelic languages, Gaelic language Duinnshléibhe)/MacNulty royals, ...

Livingstone
" fontsize:10 bar:Johnson from: 04/05/2008 till: 09/05/2016 color:con text:"
Johnson Johnson is a surname of English name, English and Scottish name, Scottish origin.. The name itself is a patronym of the given name ''John (first name), John'', literally meaning "son of John". The name ''John'' derives from Latin ''Johannes'', whi ...

Johnson
" fontsize:10 bar:Khan from: 09/05/2016 till: 08/05/2021 color:lab text:"" fontsize:10


Powers and functions

Most powers are derived from the
Greater London Authority Act 1999 The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (c. 29) is the Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council) ...
, with additional functions coming from the
Greater London Authority Act 2007 The Greater London Authority Act 2007 (c 24) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It gave extra powers to the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London, which had been created by the Greater London Authori ...
, the
Localism Act 2011 The Localism Act 2011 (c. 20) is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most countr ...
and
Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (c. 13) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It transfers the control of police forces from police authorities to elected Police and Crime Commissioners. The Engla ...
. The mayor's main functions are: *Strategic planning, including housing, waste management, the environment and production of the
London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial planning, spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority. The regional planning docume ...
*Refuse or permit planning permission on strategic grounds *Transport policy, delivered by functional body
Transport for London Transport for London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most of the transport network in London, England. TfL has responsibility for various rail networks including the London Underground and Docklands Light Railway, as well as ...
*Fire and emergency planning, delivered by functional body
London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority The London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority (LFEPA) was a functional body of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the devolved Devolution is the statut ...
*Policing and crime policy, delivered by functional body
Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime The Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC) is a functional body of the Greater London Authority responsible for oversight of the Metropolitan Police. It came into being on 16 January 2012 at midnight, replacing the Metropolitan Police Auth ...
(before 2012 by functional body
Metropolitan Police Authority The Metropolitan Police Authority (MPA) was the local police authority responsible for scrutinising and supporting the work of the Metropolitan Police Service, the police force for Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of ...
). The
Metropolitan Police The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police (and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard), is the territorial police forceA territorial police force is a police ...
has a structure different to most others across the country, reporting to the Mayor of London instead of a police and crime commissioner. *Economic development, delivered directly by the Greater London Authority through subsidiary company GLA Land and Property (before 2012 by functional body
London Development Agency The London Development Agency (LDA) was from July 2000 until 2012 the regional development agency In the United Kingdom, regional development agencies (RDAs) were nine non-departmental public bodies established for the purpose of developmen ...
) *Power to create development corporations, such as the
London Legacy Development Corporation The London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC) was established in 2012, replacing the Olympic Park Legacy Company The London 2012 Olympic Legacy is the longer-term benefits and effects of the planning, funding, building and staging of the Lond ...
The remaining local government functions are performed by the
London borough council The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by a London borough council. The present London boroughs were ...
s. There is some overlap; for example, the borough councils are responsible for waste management, but the mayor is required to produce a waste management strategy. In 2010, Johnson launched an initiative in partnership with the Multi-academy Trust AET to transform schools across London. This led to the establishment of London Academies Enterprise Trust ( LAET) which was intended to be a group of ten academies, but it only reached a group of four before the mayor withdrew in 2013. The following is a table comparing power over services of the boroughs to the GLA and mayor.


Initiatives


Ken Livingstone

Initiatives taken by
Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London The Mayor of London is the h ...

Ken Livingstone
as Mayor of London included the
London congestion charge The London congestion charge is a fee charged on most cars and motor vehicles being driven within the Congestion Charge Zone (CCZ) in Central London between 7:00 am and 10:00 pm seven days a week. Inspired by Singapore Singapore (), ...
on private vehicles using city centre London on weekdays, the creation of the London Climate Change Agency, the London Energy Partnership and the founding of the international
Large Cities Climate Leadership Group The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of 97 cities around the world that represents one twelfth of the world's population and one quarter of the global economy. Created and led by cities, C40 is focused on tackling climate change and ...
, now known as C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. The congestion charge led to many new buses being introduced across London. In August 2003, Livingstone oversaw the introduction of the Oyster card electronic ticketing system for
Transport for London Transport for London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most of the transport network in London, England. TfL has responsibility for various rail networks including the London Underground and Docklands Light Railway, as well as ...
services. Livingstone supported the withdrawal of the vintage AEC Routemaster buses from regular service in London. Livingstone introduced the London Partnerships Register which was a voluntary scheme without legal force for same sex couples to register their partnership, and paved the way for the introduction by the United Kingdom Parliament of civil partnerships and later still, Same-sex marriage. Unlike civil partnerships, the London Partnerships Register was open to heterosexual couples who favour a public commitment other than marriage. As Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone was a supporter of the 2012 Summer Olympics, London Olympics in 2012, ultimately winning the bid to host the Games in 2005. Livingstone encouraged sport in London; especially when sport could be combined with helping charities like The London Marathon and 10K charity races. Livingstone, in a mayoral election debate on the BBC's ''Question Time (TV series), Question Time'' in April 2008, stated that the primary reason he supported the Olympic bid was to secure funding for the redevelopment of the East End of London. In July 2007, he brought the 2007 Tour de France, Tour de France cycle race to London.


Boris Johnson

In May 2008,
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2019. He was Secretary of State for Foreign and Com ...
introduced a new transport safety initiative to put 440 high visibility police officers in and around bus stations. A ban on alcohol on underground, bus, Docklands Light Railway, and tram services and stations across the capital was introduced. Also in May 2008, he announced the closure of ''The Londoner'' newspaper, saving approximately £2.9 million. A percentage of this saving was to be spent on planting 10,000 new street trees. In 2010, he extended the coverage of Oyster card electronic ticketing to all National Rail overground train services. Also in 2010, he opened a Santander Cycles, cycle hire scheme (originally sponsored by Barclays, now Santander UK, Santander) with 5,000 bicycles available for hire across London. Although initiated by his predecessor, Ken Livingstone, the scheme rapidly acquired the nickname of "Boris Bikes". Johnson withdrew the recently introduced high-speed high-capacity "bendy buses" from service in 2011 which had been bought by Livingstone, and he instead supported the development of the New Routemaster which entered service the next year. In 2011, Boris Johnson set up the Outer London Fund of £50 million designed to help facilitate improve local high streets. Areas in London were given the chance to submit proposals for two tranches of funding. Successful bids for Phase 1 included Enfield, Muswell Hill and Bexley Town Centre. The recipients of phase 2 funding were still to be announced . In January 2013, he appointed journalist Andrew Gilligan as the first Cycling Commissioner for London. In March 2013, Johnson announced £1 billion of investment in infrastructure to make cycling safer in London, including a East to West segregated 'Crossrail for bikes'. At the 2015 United Kingdom general election, General Election of 7 May 2015, Johnson was elected MP for Uxbridge and Ruislip South, He continued to serve as mayor until the mayoral election in May 2016, when
Sadiq Khan Sadiq Aman Khan (; born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016. He previously was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting (UK Parliament constituency), Tooting from 20 ...

Sadiq Khan
was elected.


Sadiq Khan

Sadiq Khan introduced the 'bus hopper' fare on Transport for London, TfL buses, which allows passengers to board a second bus within one hour for the same fare. Under Khan, paper and coin cash transactions became obsolete and the Oyster card, Oyster system was expanded to include debit and credit cards. This initiative was started under his predecessor, Johnson. Upon election, Khan outlined a vision to make London the "greenest city" by investing in walking and cycling infrastructure while reducing polluting vehicles. In 2019, the ULEZ, "Ultra Low Emission Zone" scheme was launched which taxes highly polluting vehicles in its covered territory. London declared itself the world's first "National Park City" (effective from July 2019), reflecting its unusually high amount of green space for a city of its size.


Extended term

The Government postponed all elections due in May 2020, including for the mayor of London, for one year due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. Khan had therefore served a term in office of five years rather than four, which ended in 2021 London mayoral election, May 2021.


See also

*Foreign relations of the Mayor of London *Greater London Council#Leaders of the GLC, Leaders of the Greater London Council *


Notes


References


External links


Page about the process of nomination
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mayor Of London Mayors of London, Local government in London Directly elected mayors of places in England, London 2000 establishments in England