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MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist , and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence , isotope separation , optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
, and to the development of radar . He is best known for his work at King\'s College London on the structure of DNA
DNA
.

Wilkins' work on DNA
DNA
falls into two distinct phases. The first was in 1948–50, when his initial studies produced the first clear X-ray images of DNA, which he presented at a conference in Naples in 1951 attended by James Watson
James Watson
. During the second phase, 1951–52, Wilkins produced clear "B form" "X" shaped images from squid sperm, images he sent to James Watson
James Watson
and Francis Crick
Francis Crick
, causing Watson to write "Wilkins... has obtained extremely excellent X-ray diffraction photographs" .

In 1953 Wilkins' colleague Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
instructed Raymond Gosling to hand over to Wilkins a high quality image of "B" form DNA ( Photo 51
Photo 51
), which she had made in 1952 but had “put it aside” as she was leaving King's College London. Wilkins imprudently showed it to Watson. This image, along with the knowledge that Linus Pauling had proposed an incorrect structure of DNA, “mobilised” Watson and Crick to restart model building. With additional information from research reports of Wilkins and Franklin, obtained via Max Perutz
Max Perutz
, Watson and Crick correctly described the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953.

Wilkins continued to test, verify, and make significant corrections to the Watson-Crick DNA
DNA
model and to study the structure of RNA. Wilkins, Crick, and Watson were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine , "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material."

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and education

* 2 Career and research

* 2.1 Post war years: 1945–50 * 2.2 DNA
DNA
– Phase One * 2.3 Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
arrives at King\'s College * 2.4 Randall\'s management style causes confusion and tension * 2.5 DNA
DNA
Phase two 1951–52 * 2.6 Post-1953

* 3 Awards and honours * 4 Personal life * 5 References * 6 Books featuring Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
* 7 External links

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

Monument to Maurice Wilkins, Main Street, Pongaroa, New Zealand
New Zealand

Wilkins was born in Pongaroa , north Wairarapa
Wairarapa
, New Zealand
New Zealand
where his father, Edgar Henry Wilkins was a medical doctor. His family had come from Dublin, where his paternal and maternal grandfathers were, respectively, Headmaster of Dublin High School and a Chief of Police. The Wilkinses moved to Birmingham
Birmingham
, England
England
when Maurice was 6. Later, he attended Wylde Green College and then went to King Edward\'s School from 1929 to 1934.

Wilkins went to St John\'s College, Cambridge in 1935. He studied physics, within the Natural Sciences Tripos , and received a B.A. Mark Oliphant who was one of Wilkins' instructors at St. John's had been appointed to the Chair of Physics
Physics
at the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
, and had appointed John Randall to his staff. Wilkins became a Ph.D. student of Randall at Birmingham
Birmingham
University. In 1945, they published three papers in the Proceedings of the Royal Society on phosphorescence and electron traps. Wilkins received his Ph.D. for this work.

CAREER AND RESEARCH

POST WAR YEARS: 1945–50

During World War II
World War II
Wilkins developed improved radar screens at Birmingham, then worked on isotope separation at the Manhattan Project at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
during the years 1944–45.

Meanwhile, Randall had been appointed to the Chair of Physics
Physics
at the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
. In 1945, he appointed Wilkins as Assistant Lecturer in his department at the University of St Andrews. Randall was negotiating with the Medical Research Council (MRC) to set up a laboratory to apply the experimental methods of physics to problems of biology. The combination of these disciplines as biophysics was a novel idea. The MRC told Randall that this had to be done in another university. In 1946 Randall was appointed Wheatstone Professor of Physics, in charge of the entire Physics
Physics
department at King's College, London, with the funding to set up a Biophysics Unit. He brought Wilkins with him as Assistant Director of the unit. They appointed a team of scientists trained in both the physical and biological sciences. The "management philosophy" was to explore the use of many techniques in parallel, to find which looked promising, and then to focus on these. Wilkins, as the scientist with most diverse experience of physics and Assistant Director of the unit, had general oversight of the varied projects besides direct involvement in his personal research projects that included new types of optical microscopy. King's College received funding to build completely new Physics
Physics
and Engineering Departments where vaults beneath the Strand level College forecourt had been destroyed by bombs during the War. The Biophysics Unit, several more experimental physics groups and the theoretical group started to move in, during the early months of 1952. The laboratories were opened formally by Lord Cherwell on 27 June. Wilkins' article for Nature described both departments, consistent with his leadership role and prestige within the college at large.

DNA
DNA
– PHASE ONE

At King's College, Wilkins pursued, among other things, X-ray diffraction work on ram sperm and DNA
DNA
that had been obtained from calf thymus by the Swiss scientist Rudolf Signer . The DNA
DNA
from Signer's lab was much more intact than the DNA
DNA
which had previously been isolated. Wilkins discovered that it was possible to produce thin threads from this concentrated DNA
DNA
solution that contained highly ordered arrays of DNA
DNA
suitable for the production of X-ray diffraction patterns. Using a carefully bundled group of these DNA
DNA
threads and keeping them hydrated, Wilkins and a graduate student Raymond Gosling obtained X-ray photographs of DNA
DNA
that showed that the long, thin DNA molecule in the sample from Signer had a regular, crystal-like structure in these threads. Gosling later said "When... I first saw all those discrete diffraction spots ...emerging on the film in the developing dish was a truly eureka moment....we realised that if DNA was the gene material then we had just shown that genes could crystallize! " This initial X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
work at King's College was done in May or June 1950. It was one of the X-ray diffraction photographs taken in 1950, shown at a meeting in Naples a year later, that sparked James Watson’s interest in DNA
DNA
causing him to write "suddenly I was excited about chemistry.....I began to wonder whether it would be possible for me to join Wilkins in working on DNA". At that time Wilkins also introduced Francis Crick
Francis Crick
to the importance of DNA. Crick advised him to work on proteins telling Wilkins "what you ought to do is find yourself a good protein". Wilkins knew that proper experiments on the threads of purified DNA
DNA
would require better X-ray equipment. Wilkins ordered a new X-ray tube and a new microcamera. He also suggested to Randall that the soon-to-be-appointed Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
should be reassigned from work on protein solutions to join the DNA
DNA
effort.

By the summer of 1950 Randall had arranged for a three-year research fellowship that would fund Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
in his laboratory. Franklin was delayed in finishing her work in Paris. Late in 1950, Randall wrote to Franklin to inform her that rather than work on protein, she should take advantage of Wilkins's preliminary work and that she should do X-ray studies of DNA
DNA
fibers made from Signer's samples of DNA.

ROSALIND FRANKLIN ARRIVES AT KING\'S COLLEGE

Early in 1951 Franklin finally arrived. Wilkins was away on holiday and missed an initial meeting at which Raymond Gosling
Raymond Gosling
stood in for him along with Alex Stokes , who, like Crick, would solve the basic mathematics that make possible a general theory of how helical structures diffract X-rays. No work had been done on DNA
DNA
in the laboratory for several months; the new X-ray tube sat unused, waiting for Franklin. Franklin ended up with the DNA
DNA
from Signer, Gosling became her PhD student, and she had the expectation that DNA
DNA
X-ray diffraction work was her project. Wilkins returned to the laboratory expecting, on the other hand, that Franklin would be his collaborator and that they would work together on the DNA
DNA
project that he had started.

RANDALL\'S MANAGEMENT STYLE CAUSES CONFUSION AND TENSION

The confusion over Franklin's and Wilkins' roles in relation to the DNA
DNA
effort (which later developed into considerable tension between them) is clearly attributable to Randall. In his letter of appointment he told Franklin "as far as the experimental X-ray effort is concerned, there will be at the moment only yourself and Gosling". However, Randall never informed Wilkins of his decision to give Franklin sole responsibility for the DNA
DNA
effort and Wilkins only learned of the letter years after Franklin's death. He later wrote "My opinion is very clear: that Randall was very wrong to have written to Rosalind telling her that Stokes and I wished to stop our work on DNA, without consulting us. After Raymond and I got a clear crystalline X-ray pattern I was very eager to continue that work ... Trying to understand 'what really happened' when a very admirable scientist models himself on Napoleon is not easy ... was very damaging to her and to me".

DNA
DNA
PHASE TWO 1951–52

By November 1951, Wilkins had evidence that DNA
DNA
in cells as well as purified DNA
DNA
had a helical structure. Alex Stokes had solved the basic mathematics of helical diffraction theory and thought that Wilkins's X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
data indicated a helical structure in DNA. Wilkins met with Watson and Crick and told them about his results. This information from Wilkins, along with additional information gained by Watson when he heard Franklin talk about her research during a King's College research meeting, stimulated Watson and Crick to create their first molecular model of DNA, a model with the phosphate backbones at the center. Upon viewing the model of the proposed structure, Franklin told Watson and Crick that it was wrong. Franklin based this on two observations. First, experiments by J.M. Gulland showed that the CO- and NH2 groups of the bases could not be titrated , and so were probably inaccessible. Secondly, crystallographic evidence showed that the structural units of DNA
DNA
were progressively separated by the addition of water, leading to the formation of a gel and then a solution. Franklin believed that the simplest explanation of this was for the hydrophilic part of the molecule to be on the outside. Crick tried to get Wilkins to continue with additional molecular modeling efforts, but Wilkins did not take this approach.

Early in 1952, Wilkins began a series of experiments on sepia sperm which were very encouraging. "I...got much clearer patterns than the previous year.....when I met Bragg by chance I showed him the pattern very clearly offered strong evidence for a helical structure for DNA....the sharp sperm patterns were very inspiring, and had the special interest that sperm were real live objects and not just purified DNA
DNA
extracted by chemists from living material". Wilkins was particularly interested in whether living samples would yield meaningful X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
patterns – his results showed they could.

During 1952, Franklin also refused to participate in molecular modeling efforts and continued to work on step-by-step detailed analysis of her X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
data (Patterson synthesis). By the spring of 1952, Franklin had received permission from Randall to ask to transfer her fellowship so that she could leave King's College and work in John Bernal 's laboratory at Birkbeck College
Birkbeck College
, also in London. Franklin remained at King's College until the middle of March, 1953.

Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
had published a proposed but incorrect structure of DNA, making the same basic error that Watson and Crick had made a year earlier. Some of those working on DNA
DNA
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
feared that Pauling would quickly solve the DNA
DNA
structure once he recognized his error and put the backbones of the nucleotide chains on the outside of a model of DNA. After March 1952 Franklin concentrated on the X-ray data for the A-form of less hydrated DNA
DNA
while Wilkins tried to work on the hydrated B-form. Wilkins was handicapped because Franklin had all of the good DNA. Wilkins got new DNA
DNA
samples, but it was not as good as the original sample he had obtained in 1950 and which Franklin continued to use. Most of his new results were for biological samples like sperm cells, which also suggested a helical structure for DNA. In July 1952 Franklin reported to him and Stokes that her newest results made her doubt the helical nature of the A-form.

In early 1953 Watson visited King's College and Wilkins showed him a high quality image of the B-form X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
pattern, now identified as photograph 51 , that Franklin had produced in March 1952. With the knowledge that Pauling was working on DNA
DNA
and had submitted a model of DNA
DNA
for publication, Watson and Crick mounted one more concentrated effort to deduce the structure of DNA. Through Max Perutz , his thesis supervisor, Crick gained access to a progress report from King's College that included useful information from Franklin about the features of DNA
DNA
she had deduced from her X-ray diffraction data. Watson and Crick published their proposed DNA
DNA
double helical structure in a paper in the journal Nature in April 1953. In this paper Watson and Crick acknowledged that they had been "stimulated by.... the unpublished results and ideas" of Wilkins and Franklin.

The first Watson-Crick paper appeared in Nature on 25 April 1953. The members of the Cambridge and King's College laboratories agreed to report their interlocking work in three papers with continuous pagination in Nature.

Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
, where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guy\'s Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in the News Chronicle of London, on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." The news reached readers of The New York Times
The New York Times
the next day; Victor K. McElheny, in researching his biography of Watson, Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution, found a clipping of a six-paragraph New York Times article written from London and dated 16 May 1953 with the headline "Form of 'Life Unit' in Cell Is Scanned." The article ran in an early edition and was then pulled to make space for news deemed more important. ( The New York Times
The New York Times
subsequently ran a longer article on 12 June 1953). The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity also ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday 30 May 1953. Bragg's original announcement at a Solvay conference on proteins in Belgium
Belgium
on 8 April 1953 went unreported by the press.

POST-1953

Following the initial 1953 series of publications on the double helix structure of DNA, Wilkins continued research as leader of a team that performed a range of meticulous experiments to establish the helical model as valid among different biological species, as well as in living systems, to establish the universality of the double helix structure. He became deputy director of the MRC Biophysics Unit at King's in 1955, and succeeded Randall as director of the unit from 1970 to 1972.

AWARDS AND HONOURS

A plaque commemorating Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
and his discovery, beneath the monument, Pongaroa, New Zealand
New Zealand

Wilkins was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1959 and an EMBO Member in 1964.

In 1960 he was presented with the American Public Health Association 's Albert Lasker Award , and in 1962 he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Also in 1962 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Watson and Crick for the discovery of the structure of DNA.

On Saturday 20 October 1962 the award of Nobel prizes to John Kendrew and Max Perutz
Max Perutz
, and to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins was satirised in a short sketch in the BBC TV programme That Was The Week That Was
That Was The Week That Was
with the Nobel Prizes being referred to as 'The Alfred Nobel Peace Pools.'

In 1969, Wilkins became the founding President of the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science .

In 2000, King's College London
King's College London
opened the Franklin-Wilkins Building in honour of Dr. Franklin's and Professor Wilkins' work at the college.

The wording on the DNA
DNA
sculpture (donated by James Watson) outside Clare College 's Thirkill Court, Cambridge, England
England
is

a) on the base: i) "These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in the sequence of bases." ii) "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
and Maurice Wilkins."

b) on the helices: i) "The structure of DNA
DNA
was discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and James Watson
James Watson
while Watson lived here at Clare." ii) "The molecule of DNA
DNA
has two helical strands that are linked by base pairs Adenine – Thymine or Guanine – Cytosine."

Launched in 2002 as the Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery at the University of Auckland
University of Auckland
, in 2006 it was renamed the Maurice Wilkins Centre.

PERSONAL LIFE

Wilkins was married twice. His first wife, Ruth, was an art student whom he met whilst he was at Berkeley. Their marriage ended in divorce, and Ruth bore her son by Wilkins after their divorce. Wilkins married his second wife Patricia Ann Chidgey in 1959. They had four children, Sarah, George, Emily and William. His widow Patricia and the children from their marriage survive him.

In the years before World War II, he was an active anti-war activist, joining the Cambridge Scientists Anti-War Group . He joined the Communist Party , until the invasion of Poland by the Soviet Army in September 1939. Formerly classified UK security service papers reveal that Wilkins came under suspicion of leaking atomic secrets. The files, released in August 2010, indicate surveillance of Wilkins ended by 1953. "After the war I wondered what I would do, as I was very disgusted with the dropping of two bombs on civilian centres in Japan," he told Britain's Encounter radio program in 1999.

Wilkins published his autobiography, The Third Man of the Double Helix, in 2003.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Science mourns DNA
DNA
pioneer Wilkins". BBC News. 2004-10-06. Retrieved 2016-06-25. * ^ A B C Arnott, S. ; Kibble, T. W. B. ; Shallice, T. (2006). "Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins. 15 December 1916 -- 5 October 2004: Elected FRS 1959". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . London: Royal Society
Royal Society
. 52: 455–478. PMID 18551798 . doi :10.1098/rsbm.2006.0031 . * ^ A B " Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
EMBO profile". people.embo.org. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization . * ^ Robert Olby ; The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA; p366 * ^ James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix p180 * ^ Robert Olby ; The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA; p369 * ^ Maddox p178 * ^ James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix p182 * ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and The Race for DNA". * ^ Arnott, Struther. "Crystallography News: An historical memoir in honour of Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
1916–2004" (PDF). * ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1962. Nobel Prize Site for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1962. * ^ Wilkins, p 68 * ^ Chris. " DNA
DNA
and Social Responsibility". Retrieved 16 October 2014. * ^ Wilkins, Ch 5 * ^ Wilkins, M. H. F. (1952). "Engineering, Biophysics and Physics at King's College, London: New Building". Nature. 170 (4320): 261. Bibcode :1952Natur.170..261W. doi :10.1038/170261a0 . * ^ A B Wilkins, Maurice HF, \'The Molecular Configuration of Nucleic Acids\'. 1962 Nobel lecture, 11 December 1962 * ^ James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix p25 * ^ Wilkins, p 138 * ^ James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix p25-26 * ^ Robert Olby ; "The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA"; p354 * ^ Wilkins, p 128 * ^ Wilkins pp 144–145 * ^ Wilkins, p 145 * ^ Wilkins, p 143-150 * ^ See Chapter 2 of The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology by Horace Freeland Judson published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (1996) ISBN 0-87969-478-5 . * ^ Wilkins, p 179-181 * ^ Wilkins, p 210 * ^ A B Watson, J. D.; Crick, F. H. C. (25 April 1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". Nature. 171 (4356): 737–738. Bibcode :1953Natur.171..737W. PMID 13054692 . doi :10.1038/171737a0 . * ^ Wilkins, M. H.; Stokes, A. R.; Wilson, H. R. (1953). "Molecular structure of deoxypentose nucleic acids". Nature. 171 (4356): 738–740. Bibcode :1953Natur.171..738W. PMID 13054693 . doi :10.1038/171738a0 . * ^ Franklin, R. E.; Gosling, R. G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate". Nature. 171 (4356): 740–741. Bibcode :1953Natur.171..740F. PMID 13054694 . doi :10.1038/171740a0 . * ^ A B Anthony Tucker (2004-10-06). "Maurice Wilkins". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-19. * ^ A B Watson Fuller (2004-10-09). "Professor Maurice Wilkins". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-06-19. * ^ New Scientist
New Scientist
9 August 1975, pp 329 * ^ Maddox, p. 323 * ^ "Our History". Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
Centre. Retrieved September 9, 2015. * ^ Wilkins, Chapter 3. * ^ Wilkins p 59 * ^ Alan Travis "Nobel-winning British scientist accused of spying by MI5, papers reveal", The Guardian, 26 August 2010 * ^ "A Bunch of Genes". Radio National. 4 July 1999. Retrieved 2009-02-20.

BOOKS FEATURING MAURICE WILKINS

Library resources about MAURICE WILKINS -------------------------

* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries

BY MAURICE WILKINS

* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries

* Maurice Wilkins, The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins. Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-860665-6 ) * Robert Olby ; 'Wilkins, Maurice Hugh Frederick (1916–2004), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, Oxford University Press, Jan 2008 * Robert Olby ; "Francis Crick: Hunter of Life's Secrets", Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, ISBN 978-0-87969-798-3 , published in August 2009. * John Finch; 'A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor', Medical Research Council 2008, 381 pp, ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0 ; this book is all about the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge * Robert Olby ; "The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA"; first published in October 1974 by MacMillan, with foreword by Francis Crick; ISBN 0-486-68117-3 ; the definitive DNA
DNA
textbook, revised in 1994, with a 9-page postscript. * Horace Freeland Judson, "The Eighth Day of Creation. Makers of the Revolution in Biology"; CSHL Press 1996 ISBN 0-87969-478-5 . * Watson, James D. The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA; The Norton Critical Edition, which was published in 1980, edited by Gunther S. Stent:ISBN 0-393-01245-X . * Chomet, S. (Ed.), D.N.A. Genesis of a Discovery, 1994, Newman- Hemisphere Press, London; NB a few copies are available from Newman-Hemisphere at 101 Swan Court, London SW3 5RY (phone: 07092 060530). * Maddox, Brenda, Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, 2002. ISBN 0-06-018407-8 . * Sayre, Anne 1975. Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
and DNA. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-32044-8 . * Crick, Francis, 1990. What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (Basic Books reprint edition) ISBN 0-465-09138-5 * Watson, James D., The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Atheneum, 1980, ISBN 0-689-70602-2 (first published in 1968) * Krude, Torsten (Ed.) DNA
DNA
Changing Science and Society: The Darwin Lectures for 2003 CUP 2003, includes a lecture by Sir Aaron Klug on Rosalind Franklin's involvement in the determination of the structure of DNA. * Ridley, Matt; "Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives)" was first published in June 2006 in the US and then in the UK September 2006, by HarperCollins Publishers; 192 pp, ISBN 0-06-082333-X ; this short book is in the publisher's "Eminent Lives" series. * "Light Is A Messenger, the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg" by Graeme Hunter, ISBN 0-19-852921-X ; Oxford University Press, 2004. * "Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II" by Soraya De Chadarevian; CUP 2002, 444 pp; ISBN 0-521-57078-6 ; it includes James Watson's "well kept open secret" from April 2003! * Tait, Sylvia & James "A Quartet of Unlikely Discoveries" (Athena Press 2004) ISBN 1-84401-343-X

* James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix, edited by Alexander Gann and Jan Witkowski (2012) Simon ">(PDF). Nature. 421 (6921): 402–405. Bibcode :2003Natur.421..402O. PMID 12540907 . doi :10.1038/nature01397 . * for the People\'s Archive/BBC 90 story interview with Crick AND the 236 story interview with Brenner. * Presentation speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony in 1962. * Reading University site on 50th anniversary of Discovery of the structure of DNA. Includes a list of Books on the subject. * Biography (from Nobel) * Biography (from the New Zealand
New Zealand
Edge) * Discovery Story in BA Magazine * DNA: The King\'s Story detailing Wilkins\' involvement in elucidating the structure of DNA * DNA
DNA
and Social Responsibility Project: Archiving Maurice Wilkin\'s Personal Papers * List of classic papers in Nature on DNA
DNA
structure * Listen to Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and James Watson
James Watson
talking on the BBC * For reproduction of the original text in June 1953 (PDF) * for Lynne Elkins\' article on Franklin. * New York Times 50th anniversary series of excellent articles. * The first American newspaper coverage of the discovery of the DNA structure: Saturday, 13 June 1953 The New York Times
The New York Times
(PDF) * Listen to an oral history interview with Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
– a life story interview recorded for National Life Stories at the British Library

* v * t * e

DNA
DNA
structure research at King\'s College London 1947–1959

* Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
* Raymond Gosling
Raymond Gosling
* John Randall * Alexander Stokes * Maurice Wilkins * Herbert Wilson * Photo 51
Photo 51

* v * t * e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

* 1901 Emil Behring * 1902 Ronald Ross
Ronald Ross
* 1903 Niels Finsen * 1904 Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
* 1905 Robert Koch
Robert Koch
* 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
* 1907 Alphonse Laveran * 1908 Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
* 1909 Emil Kocher * 1910 Albrecht Kossel
Albrecht Kossel
* 1911 Allvar Gullstrand * 1912 Alexis Carrel
Alexis Carrel
* 1913 Charles Richet
Charles Richet
* 1914 Róbert Bárány * 1915 * 1916 * 1917 * 1918 * 1919 Jules Bordet
Jules Bordet
* 1920 August Krogh
August Krogh
* 1921 * 1922 Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof * 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod * 1924 Willem Einthoven
Willem Einthoven
* 1925

1926–1950

* 1926 Johannes Fibiger * 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg * 1928 Charles Nicolle * 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
* 1930 Karl Landsteiner * 1931 Otto Warburg * 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian * 1933 Thomas Morgan * 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot / William Murphy * 1935 Hans Spemann
Hans Spemann
* 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi
Otto Loewi
* 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi
Albert Szent-Györgyi
* 1938 Corneille Heymans * 1939 Gerhard Domagk
Gerhard Domagk
* 1940 * 1941 * 1942 * 1943 Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy * 1944 Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser * 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain / Howard Florey
Howard Florey
* 1946 Hermann Muller * 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay * 1948 Paul Müller * 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz * 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein / Philip Hench

1951–1975

* 1951 Max Theiler
Max Theiler
* 1952 Selman Waksman
Selman Waksman
* 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann * 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins * 1955 Hugo Theorell
Hugo Theorell
* 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards * 1957 Daniel Bovet * 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
* 1959 Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg
Arthur Kornberg
* 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar * 1961 Georg von Békésy
Georg von Békésy
* 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins * 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
* 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen * 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod
Jacques Monod
* 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins * 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald
George Wald
* 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg * 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria * 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod * 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. * 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter * 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen
Nikolaas Tinbergen
* 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade * 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco / Howard Temin

1976–2000

* 1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek * 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow * 1978 Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith * 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield * 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George Snell * 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel
Torsten Wiesel
* 1982 Sune Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane
John Vane
* 1983 Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
* 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein
César Milstein
* 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein * 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
* 1987 Susumu Tonegawa * 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings
George H. Hitchings
* 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus * 1990 Joseph Murray / E. Donnall Thomas
E. Donnall Thomas
* 1991 Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann
Bert Sakmann
* 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs * 1993 Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp * 1994 Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell
Martin Rodbell
* 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus * 1996 Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel * 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
Stanley B. Prusiner
* 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad
Ferid Murad
* 1999 Günter Blobel
Günter Blobel
* 2000 Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–PRESENT

* 2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
* 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston * 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield
Peter Mansfield
* 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck * 2005 Barry Marshall / Robin Warren
Robin Warren
* 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello
Craig Mello
* 2007 Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies * 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi * 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak
Jack W. Szostak
* 2010 Robert G. Edwards
Robert G. Edwards
* 2011 Bruce Beutler / Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) * 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka
Shinya Yamanaka
* 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman / Thomas C. Südhof * 2014 John O\'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser * 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura / Tu Youyou * 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi
Yoshinori Ohsumi

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 28132149 * LCCN : no2003118099 * ISNI : 0000 0000 5543 6881 * GND : 128762608 * SUDOC : 081002319 * NDL : 01028323 * IATH

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