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Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.[1] The term is most often used by those Marxists who believe that such revisions are unwarranted and represent a "watering down" or abandonment of Marxism—one such common example is the negation of class struggle.[2] As such, revisionism often carries pejorative connotations and the term has been used by many different factions. It is typically applied to others and rarely as a self-description. By extension, people who view themselves as fighting against revisionism have often self-identified as anti-revisionists.

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 1920s and 1930s 1.3 1940s and 1950s 1.4 1960s

2 See also 3 References

History[edit] The term "revisionism" has been used in a number of contexts to refer to different revisions (or claimed revisions) of Marxist theory. 19th century[edit]

This article is missing information about the origins and impact of, and reaction to, revisionism. Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (December 2016)

In the late 19th century, revisionism was used to describe democratic socialist writers such as Eduard Bernstein
Eduard Bernstein
and Jean Jaurès, who sought to revise Karl Marx's ideas about the transition to socialism and claimed that a revolution through force was not necessary to achieve a socialist society.[3] The views of Bernstein and Jaurès gave rise to reformist theory, which asserts that socialism can be achieved through gradual peaceful reforms from within a capitalist system.[4] 1920s and 1930s[edit] In the 1920s and 1930s, the International Left Opposition
Left Opposition
led by Leon Trotsky, which had been expelled from the Communist International, accused the leadership of the Comintern and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
of revising the internationalist principles of Marxism
Marxism
and Leninism
Leninism
in favor of the aspirations of an elite bureaucratic caste which had come to power in the Soviet Union.[5] The Trotskyists saw the nascent Stalinist bureaucracy as a roadblock on the proletariat's path to world socialist revolution and to the shifting policies of the Comintern, they counterposed the Marxist theory of permanent revolution. Meanwhile, the Soviet authorities labeled the Trotskyists as "revisionists" and eventually expelled them from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, whereupon the Trotskyists founded their Fourth International. 1940s and 1950s[edit] In the 1940s and 1950s within the international communist movement, revisionism was a term used by Stalinists to describe communists who focused on consumer goods production instead of heavy industry; accepted national differences instead of promoting proletarian internationalism; and encouraged liberal reforms instead of remaining faithful to established doctrine. Revisionism was also one of the charges leveled at Titoists as punishment for their pursuit of a relatively independent communist ideology, amidst a series of post- World War II
World War II
purges beginning in 1949 in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
by the Soviet administration under Stalin. After Stalin's death, a more democratic form of socialism briefly became acceptable in Hungary during Imre Nagy's government (1953–1955) and in Poland
Poland
during Władysław Gomułka's government, containing ideas that the rest of the Soviet bloc and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself variously considered revisionist, although neither Nagy nor Gomułka described themselves as revisionists, since to do so would have been self-deprecating. After the 1956 Secret Speech that denounced Stalin, many communist activists, astounded and disheartened by what they saw as the betrayal of Marxist–Leninist principles by the very people who had founded them, resigned from western communist parties in protest.[citation needed] These quitters were sometimes accused of revisionism by those communists who remained in these parties, although some of these same loyalists also shortly thereafter split from the same communist parties in the 1960s to become the New Left[citation needed] indicating that they too were disillusioned by the actions of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by that point in time. Most of those who left in the 1960s started aligning themselves with Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
as opposed to the Soviet Union.[citation needed] An example was E. P. Thompson's New Reasoner.[citation needed] 1960s[edit] In the early 1960s, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and the Communist Party of China revived the term revisionism (Chinese: 修正主义 xiūzhèng zhǔyì, "doctrine correction") to attack Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
over various ideological and political issues, as part of the Sino-Soviet split. The Chinese routinely described the Soviets as "modern revisionists" through the 1960s. This usage was copied by the various Maoist groups that split off from communist parties around the world. In 1978, the Sino-Albanian split
Sino-Albanian split
occurred, which caused Enver Hoxha, the General Secretary of Albania, to also condemn Maoism
Maoism
as revisionist. This caused a split in the Maoist movement, with some following the Albanian Party of Labour's line, most notably the Communist Party of New Zealand
Communist Party of New Zealand
and the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist). See also[edit]

Eurocommunism Left communism Opportunism Deng Xiaoping Theory Khrushchevism

References[edit]

^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
Revisionism 1. "A policy first put forward in the 1890s by Edward Bernstein (1850–1932) advocating the introduction of socialism through evolution rather than revolution, in opposition to the orthodox view of Marxists; hence a term of abuse used within the communist world for an interpretation of Marxism
Marxism
which is felt to threaten the canonical policy." with the first use in English "1903 Social-Democrat VII. 84 (heading) Revisionism in Germany." ^ [https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/works/1964/phnycom.htm MAO TSE-TUNG July 1964 On Khrushchov’s Phoney Communism
Communism
and Its Historical Lessons for the World: ... the revisionist Khrushchov clique base themselves mainly on the argument that .. class struggle no longer exists. ^ Vgl. Wolfgang Eichhorn: Über Eduard Bernstein. Gegensatz und Berührungspunkte zu Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
und W. I. Lenin, in: Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. I/2002. ^ Philip P. Wiener (ed). Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, in 1973–74. R. K. Kindersley Marxist revisionism: From Bernstein to modern forms, website of the University of Virginia Library. Accessed 28 April 2008 ^ Leon Trotsky. The Third International After Lenin, The Militant, 1929. Accessed 14 March 2010

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Syndicalism

Precursors

Guild socialism Utopian socialism Revolutions of 1848 Orthodox Marxism

Variants

Anarcho-syndicalism Syndical Communism National syndicalism Revolutionary syndicalism Yellow syndicalism

Economics

Co-operative economics Labour economics

Labour rights General strike Workers' self-management Labour unionisation

Mutual aid

Organisations

Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
(IWW) International Workers' Association
International Workers' Association
(IWA-AIT) and affiliates:

Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
(CNT-AIT, Spain) Brazilian Workers Confederation
Brazilian Workers Confederation
(COB) Argentine Regional Workers' Federation
Argentine Regional Workers' Federation
(FORA) Free Workers' Union (FAU, Germany) Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists (CRAS, Russia) Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (NSF-IAA, Norway) Solidarity Federation
Solidarity Federation
(SF-IWA, Britain)

Leaders

Daniel De Leon Victor Griffuelhes Hubert Lagardelle Juan García Oliver Rudolf Rocker Georges Sorel Fernand Pelloutier

Related subjects

Criticism of capitalism Post-capitalism Libertarian socialism Criticism of wage labour Labour power Revisioni

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